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Mar. Drugs, Volume 17, Issue 5 (May 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Over the last decade, genomes and other -omics datasets have been produced for a wide range of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Obesity Effect of Standardized Extract of Microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum Containing Fucoxanthin
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050311
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
Fucoxanthin (FX), a marine carotenoid found in macroalgae and microalgae, exhibits several beneficial effects to health. The anti-obesity activity of FX is well documented, but FX has not been mass-produced or applied extensively or commercially because of limited availability of raw materials and [...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin (FX), a marine carotenoid found in macroalgae and microalgae, exhibits several beneficial effects to health. The anti-obesity activity of FX is well documented, but FX has not been mass-produced or applied extensively or commercially because of limited availability of raw materials and complex extraction techniques. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of standardized FX powder (Phaeodactylum extract (PE)) developed from microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a commercial functional food. The effects of PE on adipogenesis inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and anti-obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice were evaluated. PE and FX dose-dependently decreased intracellular lipid contents in adipocytes without cytotoxicity. In HFD-fed obese mice, PE supplementation for six weeks decreased body weight, organ weight, and adipocyte size. In the serum parameter analysis, the PE-treated groups showed attenuation of lipid metabolism dysfunction and liver damage induced by HFD. In the liver, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) upregulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) downregulation were detected in the PE-treated groups. Additionally, micro computed tomography revealed lower fat accumulation in PE-treated groups compared to that in the HFD group. These results indicate that PE exerts anti-obesity effects by inhibiting adipocytic lipogenesis, inducing fat mass reduction and decreasing intracellular lipid content, adipocyte size, and adipose weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Carotenoids)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Extraction of Carotenoids from Sargassum muticum Using Aqueous Solutions of Tween 20
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050310
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
The replacement of synthetic compounds by natural products witnesses an increasing demand from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and nutraceutical industries. Included in the set of natural raw materials that are poorly explored are the macroalgae. Despite the detailed characterization and identification of most [...] Read more.
The replacement of synthetic compounds by natural products witnesses an increasing demand from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and nutraceutical industries. Included in the set of natural raw materials that are poorly explored are the macroalgae. Despite the detailed characterization and identification of most relevant biomolecules that are present in the main macroalgae species, there remains a lack of efficient and economically viable processes available to meet the needs of the markets. In this work, an efficient and single-step process, based on aqueous solutions of Tween 20, to recover carotenoids from Sargassum muticum, an invasive brown macroalgae species present in the Portuguese coast, is proposed and optimized allowing an extraction yield of 2.78 ± 0.4 mgcarotenoids.gdried mass−1, which is shown to increase the extraction efficiency by 38% when compared with traditional methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discovery and Application of Macroalgae-Derived Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Ingestion of Deep Ocean Minerals Increases High-Intensity Intermittent Running Capacity in Soccer Players after Short-Term Post-Exercise Recovery: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050309
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
This study examined whether deep ocean mineral (DOM) supplementation improved high-intensity intermittent running capacity after short-term recovery from an initial bout of prolonged high-intensity running in thermoneutral environmental conditions. Nine healthy recreational male soccer players (age: 22 ± 1 y; stature: 181 ± [...] Read more.
This study examined whether deep ocean mineral (DOM) supplementation improved high-intensity intermittent running capacity after short-term recovery from an initial bout of prolonged high-intensity running in thermoneutral environmental conditions. Nine healthy recreational male soccer players (age: 22 ± 1 y; stature: 181 ± 5 cm; and body mass 80 ± 11 kg) completed a graded incremental test to ascertain peak oxygen uptake (V·O2PEAK), two familiarisation trials, and two experimental trials following a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover and counterbalanced design. All trials were separated by seven days and at ambient room temperature (i.e., 20 °C). During the 2 h recovery period after the initial ~60 min running at 75% V·O2PEAK, participants were provided with 1.38 ± 0.51 L of either deep ocean mineral water (DOM) or a taste-matched placebo (PLA), both mixed with 6% sucrose. DOM increased high-intensity running capacity by ~25% compared to PLA. There were no differences between DOM and PLA for blood lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, or urine osmolality. The minerals and trace elements within DOM, either individually or synergistically, appear to have augmented high-intensity running capacity in healthy, recreationally active male soccer players after short-term recovery from an initial bout of prolonged, high-intensity running in thermoneutral environmental conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of an Alkaline Alginate Lyase with pH-Stable and Thermo-Tolerance Property
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050308
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) show versatile bioactivities. Although various alginate lyases have been characterized, enzymes with special characteristics are still rare. In this study, a polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7) alginate lyase-encoding gene, aly08, was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY01 [...] Read more.
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) show versatile bioactivities. Although various alginate lyases have been characterized, enzymes with special characteristics are still rare. In this study, a polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7) alginate lyase-encoding gene, aly08, was cloned from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY01 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified alginate lyase Aly08, with a molecular weight of 35 kDa, showed a specific activity of 841 U/mg at its optimal pH (pH 8.35) and temperature (45 °C). Aly08 showed good pH-stability, as it remained more than 80% of its initial activity in a wide pH range (4.0–10.0). Aly08 was also a thermo-tolerant enzyme that recovered 70.8% of its initial activity following heat shock treatment for 5 min. This study also demonstrated that Aly08 is a polyG-preferred enzyme. Furthermore, Aly08 degraded alginates into disaccharides and trisaccharides in an endo-manner. Its thermo-tolerance and pH-stable properties make Aly08 a good candidate for further applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marine Bacteria, A Source for Alginolytic Enzyme to Disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050307
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are typically associated with the chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and represent a major challenge for treatment. This opportunistic bacterial pathogen secretes alginate, a polysaccharide that is one of the main components of its biofilm. Targeting this [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are typically associated with the chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and represent a major challenge for treatment. This opportunistic bacterial pathogen secretes alginate, a polysaccharide that is one of the main components of its biofilm. Targeting this major biofilm component has emerged as a tempting therapeutic strategy for tackling biofilm-associated bacterial infections. The enormous potential in genetic diversity of the marine microbial community make it a valuable resource for mining activities responsible for a broad range of metabolic processes, including the alginolytic activity responsible for degrading alginate. A collection of 36 bacterial isolates were purified from marine water based on their alginolytic activity. These isolates were identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Pseudoalteromonas sp. 1400 showed the highest alginolytic activity and was further confirmed to produce the enzyme alginate lyase. The purified alginate lyase (AlyP1400) produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. 1400 showed a band of 23 KDa on a protein electrophoresis gel and exhibited a bifunctional lyase activity for both poly-mannuronic acid and poly-glucuronic acid degradation. A tryptic digestion of this gel band analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed high similarity to the alginate lyases in polysaccharide lyase family 18. The purified alginate lyase showed a maximum relative activity at 30 °C at a slightly acidic condition. It decreased the sodium alginate viscosity by over 90% and reduced the P. aeruginosa (strain PA14) biofilms by 69% after 24 h of incubation. The combined activity of AlyP1400 with carbenicillin or ciprofloxacin reduced the P. aeruginosa biofilm thickness, biovolume and surface area in a flow cell system. The present data revealed that AlyP1400 combined with conventional antibiotics helped to disrupt the biofilms produced by P. aeruginosa and can be used as a promising combinational therapeutic strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacteria as Sources of Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Synthetic Pinnatoxins A and G Reversibly Block Mouse Skeletal Neuromuscular Transmission In Vivo and In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050306
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Pinnatoxins (PnTXs) A-H constitute an emerging family belonging to the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins. Interest has been focused on these fast-acting and highly-potent toxins because they are widely found in contaminated shellfish. Despite their highly complex molecular structure, PnTXs have been chemically [...] Read more.
Pinnatoxins (PnTXs) A-H constitute an emerging family belonging to the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins. Interest has been focused on these fast-acting and highly-potent toxins because they are widely found in contaminated shellfish. Despite their highly complex molecular structure, PnTXs have been chemically synthetized and demonstrated to act on various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes. In the present work, PnTX-A, PnTX-G and analogue, obtained by chemical synthesis with a high degree of purity (>98%), have been studied in vivo and in vitro on adult mouse and isolated nerve-muscle preparations expressing the mature muscle-type (α1)2β1δε nAChR. The results show that PnTX-A and G acted on the neuromuscular system of anesthetized mice and blocked the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, using a minimally invasive electrophysiological method. The CMAP block produced by both toxins in vivo was reversible within 6–8 h. PnTX-A and G, applied to isolated extensor digitorum longus nerve-muscle preparations, blocked reversibly isometric twitches evoked by nerve stimulation. The action of PnTX-A was reversed by 3,4-diaminopyridine. Both toxins exerted no direct action on muscle fibers, as revealed by direct muscle stimulation. PnTX-A and G blocked synaptic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junctions and PnTX-A amino ketone analogue (containing an open form of the imine ring) had no effect on neuromuscular transmission. These results indicate the importance of the cyclic imine for interacting with the adult mammalian muscle-type nAChR. Modeling and docking studies revealed molecular determinants responsible for the interaction of PnTXs with the muscle-type nAChR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins Affecting Cholinergic System)
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Open AccessArticle
Actinomycin V Inhibits Migration and Invasion via Suppressing Snail/Slug-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Progression in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells In Vitro
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050305
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Actinomycin V, an analog of actinomycin D produced by the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp., possessing a 4-ketoproline instead of a 4-proline in actinomycin D. In this study, the involvement of snail/slug-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the anti-migration and -invasion actions of actinomycin V [...] Read more.
Actinomycin V, an analog of actinomycin D produced by the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp., possessing a 4-ketoproline instead of a 4-proline in actinomycin D. In this study, the involvement of snail/slug-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the anti-migration and -invasion actions of actinomycin V was investigated in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Cell proliferation effect was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Wound-healing and Transwell assay were performed to investigate the anti-migration and -invasion effects of actinomycin V. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, snail, slug, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), and twist proteins and the mRNA levels were detected by rt-PCR. Actinomycin V showed stronger cytotoxic activity than that of actinomycin D. Actinomycin V up-regulated both of the protein and mRNA expression levels of E-cadherin and down-regulated that of N-cadherin and vimentin in the same cells. In this connection, actinomycin V decreased the snail and slug protein expression, and consequently inhibited cells EMT procession. Our results suggest that actinomycin V inhibits EMT-mediated migration and invasion via decreasing snail and slug expression, which exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast cancer and further toxicity investigation in vivo is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Compounds and Cancer) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Microalgae for High-Value Products Towards Human Health and Nutrition
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050304
Received: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Microalgae represent a potential source of renewable nutrition and there is growing interest in algae-based dietary supplements in the form of whole biomass, e.g., Chlorella and Arthrospira, or purified extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. The commercial production of bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Microalgae represent a potential source of renewable nutrition and there is growing interest in algae-based dietary supplements in the form of whole biomass, e.g., Chlorella and Arthrospira, or purified extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. The commercial production of bioactive compounds from microalgae is currently challenged by the biorefinery process. This review focuses on the biochemical composition of microalgae, the complexities of mass cultivation, as well as potential therapeutic applications. The advantages of open and closed growth systems are discussed, including common problems encountered with large-scale growth systems. Several methods are used for the purification and isolation of bioactive compounds, and many products from microalgae have shown potential as antioxidants and treatments for hypertension, among other health conditions. However, there are many unknown algal metabolites and potential impurities that could cause harm, so more research is needed to characterize strains of interest, improve overall operation, and generate safe, functional products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Microalgae)
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Open AccessArticle
Blockade of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor by α-Conotoxin ImI Dendrimer: Insight from Computational Simulations
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050303
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are involved in fast synaptic transmission and mediated physiological activities in the nervous system. α-Conotoxin ImI exhibits subtype-specific blockade towards homomeric α7 and α9 receptors. In this study, we established a method to build [...] Read more.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are involved in fast synaptic transmission and mediated physiological activities in the nervous system. α-Conotoxin ImI exhibits subtype-specific blockade towards homomeric α7 and α9 receptors. In this study, we established a method to build a 2×ImI-dendrimer/h (human) α7 nAChR model, and based on this model, we systematically investigated the molecular interactions between the 2×ImI-dendrimer and hα7 nAChR. Our results suggest that the 2×ImI-dendrimer possessed much stronger potency towards hα7 nAChR than the α-ImI monomer and demonstrated that the linker between α-ImI contributed to the potency of the 2×ImI-dendrimer by forming a stable hydrogen-bond network with hα7 nAChR. Overall, this study provides novel insights into the binding mechanism of α-ImI dendrimer to hα7 nAChR, and the methodology reported here opens an avenue for the design of more selective dendrimers with potential usage as drug/gene carriers, macromolecular drugs, and molecular probes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Computational Study to Reveal the Potential of Non-Polar Constituents from Hizikia fusiformis as Dual Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B and α-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050302
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura is an edible marine alga that has been widely used in Korea, China, and Japan as a rich source of dietary fiber and essential minerals. In our previous study, we observed that the methanol extract of H. fusiformis and [...] Read more.
Hizikia fusiformis (Harvey) Okamura is an edible marine alga that has been widely used in Korea, China, and Japan as a rich source of dietary fiber and essential minerals. In our previous study, we observed that the methanol extract of H. fusiformis and its non-polar fractions showed potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase inhibition. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the active ingredient in the methanol extract of H. fusiformis. We isolated a new glycerol fatty acid (13) and 20 known compounds including 9 fatty acids (13, 712), mixture of 24R and 24S-saringosterol (4), fucosterol (5), mixture of 24R,28R and 24S,28R-epoxy-24-ethylcholesterol (6), cedrusin (14), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[2-hydroxy -4-(3-hydroxypropyl)phenoxy]-1,3-propanediol (15), benzyl alcohol alloside (16), madhusic acid A (17), glycyrrhizin (18), glycyrrhizin-6’-methyl ester (19), apo-9′-fucoxanthinone (20) and tyramine (21) from the non-polar fraction of H. fusiformis. New glycerol fatty acid 13 was identified as 2-(7′- (2″-hydroxy-3″-((5Z,8Z,11Z)-icosatrienoyloxy)propoxy)-7′-oxoheptanoyl)oxymethylpropenoic acid by spectroscopic analysis using NMR, IR, and HR-ESI-MS. We investigated the effect of the 21 isolated compounds and metabolites (22 and 23) of 18 against the inhibition of PTP1B and α-glucosidase enzymes. All fatty acids showed potent PTP1B inhibition at low concentrations. In particular, new compound 13 and fucosterol epoxide (6) showed noncompetitive inhibitory activity against PTP1B. Metabolites of glycyrrhizin, 22 and 23, exhibited competitive inhibition against PTP1B. These findings suggest that H. fusiformis, a widely consumed seafood, may be effective as a dietary supplement for the management of diabetes through the inhibition of PTP1B. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Renieramycin T Induces Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Targeting Mcl-1 Degradation: A New Insight in the Mechanism of Action
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050301
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
Among malignancies, lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death. Despite the advance in lung cancer therapy, the five-year survival rate is extremely restricted due to therapeutic failure and disease relapse. Targeted therapies selectively inhibiting certain molecules in cancer cells have been [...] Read more.
Among malignancies, lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death. Despite the advance in lung cancer therapy, the five-year survival rate is extremely restricted due to therapeutic failure and disease relapse. Targeted therapies selectively inhibiting certain molecules in cancer cells have been accepted as promising ways to control cancer. In lung cancer, evidence has suggested that the myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) protein, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is a target for drug action. Herein, we report the Mcl-1 targeting activity of renieramycin T (RT), a marine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid that was isolated from the Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp. RT was shown to be dominantly toxic to lung cancer cells compared to the normal cells in the lung. The cytotoxicity of this compound toward lung cancer cells was mainly exerted through apoptosis induction. For the mechanism of action, we found that RT mediated activation of p53 protein and caspase-9 and -3 activations. While others Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bak, and Bax) were minimally changed in response to RT, Mcl-1 protein was dramatically diminished. We further performed the cycloheximide experiment and found that the half-life of Mcl-1 was significantly shortened by RT treatment. When MG132, a potent selective proteasome inhibitor, was utilized, it could restore the Mcl-1 level. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that RT significantly increased the formation of Mcl-1-ubiquitin complex compared to the non-treated control. In conclusion, we report the potential apoptosis induction of RT with a mechanism of action involving the targeting of Mcl-1 for ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. As Mcl-1 is critical for cancer cell survival and chemotherapeutic failure, this novel information regarding the Mcl-1-targeted compound would be beneficial for the development of efficient anti-cancer strategies or targeted therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Activity Improvement and Vital Amino Acid Identification on the Marine-Derived Quorum Quenching Enzyme MomL by Protein Engineering
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050300
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
MomL is a marine-derived quorum-quenching (QQ) lactonase which can degrade various N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Intentional modification of MomL may lead to a highly efficient QQ enzyme with broad application potential. In this study, we used a rapid and efficient method combining [...] Read more.
MomL is a marine-derived quorum-quenching (QQ) lactonase which can degrade various N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Intentional modification of MomL may lead to a highly efficient QQ enzyme with broad application potential. In this study, we used a rapid and efficient method combining error-prone polymerase chain reaction (epPCR), high-throughput screening and site-directed mutagenesis to identify highly active MomL mutants. In this way, we obtained two candidate mutants, MomLI144V and MomLV149A. These two mutants exhibited enhanced activities and blocked the production of pathogenic factors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc). Besides, seven amino acids which are vital for MomL enzyme activity were identified. Substitutions of these amino acids (E238G/K205E/L254R) in MomL led to almost complete loss of its QQ activity. We then tested the effect of MomL and its mutants on Pcc-infected Chinese cabbage. The results indicated that MomL and its mutants (MomLL254R, MomLI144V, MomLV149A) significantly decreased the pathogenicity of Pcc. This study provides an efficient method for QQ enzyme modification and gives us new clues for further investigation on the catalytic mechanism of QQ lactonase. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Different Antifungal Activity of Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. against Botrytis cinerea
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050299
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
Water extracts and polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. were tested for their activity against the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Water extracts at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL inhibited B. cinerea growth in vitro. Antifungal activity of polysaccharides [...] Read more.
Water extracts and polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. were tested for their activity against the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Water extracts at 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/mL inhibited B. cinerea growth in vitro. Antifungal activity of polysaccharides obtained by N-cetylpyridinium bromide precipitation in water extracts was evaluated in vitro and in vitro at 0.5, 2.0, and 3.5 mg/mL. These concentrations were tested against fungal colony growth, spore germination, colony forming units (CFUs), CFU growth, and on strawberry fruits against B. cinerea infection with pre- and post-harvest application. In in vitro experiments, polysaccharides from Anabaena sp. and from Ecklonia sp. inhibited B. cinerea colony growth, CFUs, and CFU growth, while those extracted from Jania sp. reduced only the pathogen spore germination. In in vitro experiments, all concentrations of polysaccharides from Anabaena sp., Ecklonia sp., and Jania sp. reduced both the strawberry fruits infected area and the pathogen sporulation in the pre-harvest treatment, suggesting that they might be good candidates as preventive products in crop protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Profiling of Small Molecular Metabolites in Nostoc flagelliforme during Periodic Desiccation
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050298
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
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Abstract
The mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach has become a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of small-molecule metabolites in biological samples. Nostoc flagelliforme, an edible cyanobacterium with herbal value, serves as an unexploited bioresource for small molecules. In natural environments, N. flagelliforme undergoes [...] Read more.
The mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach has become a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of small-molecule metabolites in biological samples. Nostoc flagelliforme, an edible cyanobacterium with herbal value, serves as an unexploited bioresource for small molecules. In natural environments, N. flagelliforme undergoes repeated cycles of rehydration and dehydration, which are interrupted by either long- or short-term dormancy. In this study, we performed an untargeted metabolite profiling of N. flagelliforme samples at three physiological states: Dormant (S1), physiologically fully recovered after rehydration (S2), and physiologically partially inhibited following dehydration (S3). Significant metabolome differences were identified based on the OPLS-DA (orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis) model. In total, 183 differential metabolites (95 up-regulated; 88 down-regulated) were found during the rehydration process (S2 vs. S1), and 130 (seven up-regulated; 123 down-regulated) during the dehydration process (S3 vs. S2). Thus, it seemed that the metabolites’ biosynthesis mainly took place in the rehydration process while the degradation or possible conversion occurred in the dehydration process. In addition, lipid profile differences were particularly prominent, implying profound membrane phase changes during the rehydration–dehydration cycle. In general, this study expands our understanding of the metabolite dynamics in N. flagelliforme and provides biotechnological clues for achieving the efficient production of those metabolites with medical potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cyclophilin from Pyropia Yezoensis on the Proliferation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Ras Signaling Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050297
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 18 May 2019
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Abstract
Cyclophilin (Cyp) is peptidyl–prolyl isomerase (PPIase), and it has many biological functions, including immune response regulation, antioxidants, etc. Cyp from red algae is known for its antioxidant and antifungal activity. However, the other biological effects of Cyp from Pyropia yezoensis are unclear. In [...] Read more.
Cyclophilin (Cyp) is peptidyl–prolyl isomerase (PPIase), and it has many biological functions, including immune response regulation, antioxidants, etc. Cyp from red algae is known for its antioxidant and antifungal activity. However, the other biological effects of Cyp from Pyropia yezoensis are unclear. In this study, we synthesized Cyp from P. yezoensis (pyCyp) and examined its biological activity on IEC-6 cells. First, the MTS assay showed that pyCyp increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. pyCyp activated the EGFR signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival. It induced intracellular signaling pathways, including the Ras signaling pathway. In addition, we observed cell cycle-related proteins. pyCyp increased the expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, and Cdk2, and decreased the expression of p27 and p21 proteins. These results indicate that pyCyp stimulates cell proliferation via the EGFR signaling pathway and promotes cell cycle progression in intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, we suggest pyCyp as a potential material to promote the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyketides from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050296
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Five new polyketides, namely, 5R-hydroxyrecifeiolide (1), 5S-hydroxyrecifeiolide (2), ent-cladospolide F (3), cladospolide G (4), and cladospolide H (5), along with two known compounds (6 and 7), [...] Read more.
Five new polyketides, namely, 5R-hydroxyrecifeiolide (1), 5S-hydroxyrecifeiolide (2), ent-cladospolide F (3), cladospolide G (4), and cladospolide H (5), along with two known compounds (6 and 7), were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides MA-299 that was obtained from the leaves of the mangrove plant Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. The structures of these compounds were established by extensive analysis of 1D/2D NMR data, mass spectrometric data, ECDs and optical rotations, and modified Mosher’s method. The structures of 3 and 6 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and this is the first time for reporting the crystal structures of these two compounds. All of the isolated compounds were examined for antimicrobial activities against human and aquatic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi as well as enzymatic inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase. Compounds 14, 6, and 7 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some of the tested strains with MIC values ranging from 1.0 to 64 μg/mL, while 3 exhibited enzymatic inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase with the IC50 value of 40.26 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Marine Heterocyclic Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Tyrosinase Inhibitor from the Red Alga Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae)
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050295
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
A marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae), is a rich source of bromophenols with a wide array of biological activities. This study investigates the anti-tyrosinase activity of the alga. Moderate activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of S. latiuscula, [...] Read more.
A marine red alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada (Rhodomelaceae), is a rich source of bromophenols with a wide array of biological activities. This study investigates the anti-tyrosinase activity of the alga. Moderate activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of S. latiuscula, and subsequent column chromatography identified three bromophenols: 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl alcohol (1), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether (2), and bis-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether) (3). Bromophenols 1 and 3 exhibited potent competitive tyrosinase inhibitory activity against l-tyrosine substrates, with IC50 values of 10.78 ± 0.19 and 2.92 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. Against substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), compounds 1 and 3 demonstrated moderate activity, while 2 showed no observable effect. The experimental data were verified by a molecular docking study that found catalytic hydrogen and halogen interactions were responsible for the activity. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects in melanin and intracellular tyrosinase levels in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 1 were the most effective tyrosinase inhibitors. In addition, increasing the bromine group number increased the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three New Isoflavonoid Glycosides from the Mangrove-Derived Actinomycete Micromonospora aurantiaca 110B
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050294
Received: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
The mangrove ecosystem is a rich resource for the discovery of actinomycetes with potential applications in pharmaceutical science. Besides the genus Streptomyces, Micromonospora is also a source of new bioactive agents. We screened Micromonospora from the rhizosphere soil of mangrove plants in [...] Read more.
The mangrove ecosystem is a rich resource for the discovery of actinomycetes with potential applications in pharmaceutical science. Besides the genus Streptomyces, Micromonospora is also a source of new bioactive agents. We screened Micromonospora from the rhizosphere soil of mangrove plants in Fujian province, China, and 51 strains were obtained. Among them, the extracts of 12 isolates inhibited the growth of human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Strain 110B exhibited better cytotoxic activity, and its bioactive constituents were investigated. Consequently, three new isoflavonoid glycosides, daidzein-4′-(2-deoxy-α-l-fucopyranoside) (1), daidzein-7-(2-deoxy-α-l-fucopyranoside) (2), and daidzein-4′,7-di-(2-deoxy-α-l-fucopyranoside) (3) were isolated from the fermentation broth of strain 110B. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESIMS). The result of medium-changing experiments implicated that these new compounds were microbial biotransformation products of strain M. aurantiaca 110B. The three compounds displayed moderate cytotoxic activity to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549, hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line HepG2, and the human colon tumor cell line HCT116, whereas none of them showed antifungal or antibacterial activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Marine Actinomycetes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Glycosaminoglycan Extract from Portunus pelagicus Inhibits BACE1, the β Secretase Implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050293
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, are currently restricted to palliative treatments. The glycosaminoglycan heparin, widely used as a clinical anticoagulant, has previously been shown to inhibit the Alzheimer’s disease-relevant β-secretase 1 (BACE1). Despite this, the deployment of [...] Read more.
Therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, are currently restricted to palliative treatments. The glycosaminoglycan heparin, widely used as a clinical anticoagulant, has previously been shown to inhibit the Alzheimer’s disease-relevant β-secretase 1 (BACE1). Despite this, the deployment of pharmaceutical heparin for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is largely precluded by its potent anticoagulant activity. Furthermore, ongoing concerns regarding the use of mammalian-sourced heparins, primarily due to prion diseases and religious beliefs hinder the deployment of alternative heparin-based therapeutics. A marine-derived, heparan sulphate-containing glycosaminoglycan extract, isolated from the crab Portunus pelagicus, was identified to inhibit human BACE1 with comparable bioactivity to that of mammalian heparin (IC50 = 1.85 μg mL−1 (R2 = 0.94) and 2.43 μg mL−1 (R2 = 0.93), respectively), while possessing highly attenuated anticoagulant activities. The results from several structural techniques suggest that the interactions between BACE1 and the extract from P. pelagicus are complex and distinct from those of heparin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycobiology, Glycomics and Lectins)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Bioactive Penicipyrroether A and Pyrrospirone J from the Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. ZZ380
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050292
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 28 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
The marine-sourced fungus Penicillium sp. ZZ380 was previously reported to have the ability to produce a series of new pyrrospirone alkaloids. Further investigation on this strain resulted in the isolation and identification of novel penicipyrroether A and pyrrospirone J. Each of them represents [...] Read more.
The marine-sourced fungus Penicillium sp. ZZ380 was previously reported to have the ability to produce a series of new pyrrospirone alkaloids. Further investigation on this strain resulted in the isolation and identification of novel penicipyrroether A and pyrrospirone J. Each of them represents the first example of its structural type, with a unique 6/5/6/5 polycyclic fusion that is different from the 6/5/6/6 fused ring system for the reported pyrrospirones. Their structures were elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) spectroscopic analyses, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and 13C NMR calculations and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Penicipyrroether A showed potent antiproliferative activity against human glioma U87MG and U251 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 1.64–5.50 μM and antibacterial inhibitory activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1.7 μg/mL against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 3.0 μg/mL against Escherichia coli. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticoagulant Activity of Sulfated Ulvan Isolated from the Green Macroalga Ulva rigida
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050291
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Brown and red algal sulfated polysaccharides have been widely described as anticoagulant agents. However, data on green algae, especially on the Ulva genus, are limited. This study aimed at isolating ulvan from the green macroalga Ulva rigida using an acid- and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Brown and red algal sulfated polysaccharides have been widely described as anticoagulant agents. However, data on green algae, especially on the Ulva genus, are limited. This study aimed at isolating ulvan from the green macroalga Ulva rigida using an acid- and solvent-free procedure, and investigating the effect of sulfate content on the anticoagulant activity of this polysaccharide. (2) Methods: The obtained ulvan fraction was chemically sulfated, leading to a doubling of the polysaccharide sulfate content in a second ulvan fraction. The potential anticoagulant activity of both ulvan fractions was then assessed using different assays, targeting the intrinsic and/or common (activated partial thromboplastin time), extrinsic (prothrombin time), and common (thrombin time) pathways, and the specific antithrombin-dependent pathway (anti-Xa and anti-IIa), of the coagulation cascade. Furthermore, their anticoagulant properties were compared to those of commercial anticoagulants: heparin and Lovenox®. (3) Results: The anticoagulant activity of the chemically-sulfated ulvan fraction was stronger than that of Lovenox® against both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. (4) Conclusion: The chemically-sulfated ulvan fraction could be a very interesting alternative to heparins, with different targets and a high anticoagulant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization of Bioactive Components in Edible Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Zeaxanthin Isolated from Dunaliella salina Microalgae Ameliorates Age Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats through Stimulation of Retinoid Receptors
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050290
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Retinoids are essential during early cardiovascular morphogenesis. However, recent studies showed their important role in cardiac remodeling in rats with hypertension and following myocardial infarction. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of zeaxanthin heneicosylate (ZH); a carotenoid ester isolated from Dunaliella [...] Read more.
Retinoids are essential during early cardiovascular morphogenesis. However, recent studies showed their important role in cardiac remodeling in rats with hypertension and following myocardial infarction. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of zeaxanthin heneicosylate (ZH); a carotenoid ester isolated from Dunaliella salina microalgae, on cardiac dysfunction ensuing d-galactose injection in rats. Rats injected with d-GAL (200 mg/kg; I.P) for 8 weeks were orally treated with ZH (250 μg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Results showed that d-GAL injection caused dramatic electrocardiographic changes as well as marked elevation in serum levels of homocysteine, creatinine kinase isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase. A reduction in the cardiac contents of glucose transporter-4 and superoxide dismutase along with the elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase and interleukin-6 was also noticed. Oral administration of ZH significantly improved the above mentioned cardiac aging manifestations; this was further emphasized through histopathological examinations. The effect of ZH is mediated through the interaction with retinoid receptor alpha (RAR-α) as evidenced through a significant elevation of RAR-α expression in cardiac tissue following the lead of an in silico molecular docking study. In conclusion, zeaxanthin heneicosylate isolated from D. salina ameliorated age-associated cardiac dysfunction in rats through the activation of retinoid receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Two New Spiro-Heterocyclic γ-Lactams from A Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus Strain CUGBMF170049
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050289
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Two new spiro-heterocyclic γ-lactam derivatives, cephalimysins M (1) and N (2), were isolated from the fermentation cultures of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CUGBMF17018. Two known analogues, pseurotin A (3) and FD-838 (4), as [...] Read more.
Two new spiro-heterocyclic γ-lactam derivatives, cephalimysins M (1) and N (2), were isolated from the fermentation cultures of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus CUGBMF17018. Two known analogues, pseurotin A (3) and FD-838 (4), as well as four previously reported helvolic acid derivatives, 16-O-propionyl-16-O-deacetylhelvolic acid (5), 6-O-propionyl-6-O-deacetylhelvolic acid (6), helvolic acid (7), and 1,2-dihydrohelvolic acid (8) were also identified. One-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) NMR, HRMS, and circular dichroism spectral analysis characterized the structures of the isolated compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Microbial Diversity as Source of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Antihypertensive Effect in Vivo of QAGLSPVR and Its Transepithelial Transport Through the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050288
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
The peptide QAGLSPVR, which features high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, was identified in our previous study. In this study, the in vivo antihypertensive effect of QAGLSPVR was evaluated. Results showed that QAGLSPVR exerts a clear antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), [...] Read more.
The peptide QAGLSPVR, which features high angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, was identified in our previous study. In this study, the in vivo antihypertensive effect of QAGLSPVR was evaluated. Results showed that QAGLSPVR exerts a clear antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the rats remarkably decreased by 41.86 and 40.40 mm Hg, respectively, 3 h after peptide administration. The serum ACE activities of SHRs were determined at different times, and QAGLSPVR was found to decrease ACE activities in serum; specifically, minimal ACE activity was found 3 h after administration. QAGLSPVR could be completely absorbed by the Caco-2 cell monolayer, and its transport percentage was 3.5% after 2 h. The transport route results of QAGLSPVR showed that Gly-Sar and wortmannin exert minimal effects on the transport percentage of the peptide (p> 0.05), thus indicating that QAGLSPVR transport through the Caco-2 cell monolayer is not mediated by peptide transporter 1 or transcytosis. By contrast, cytochalasin D significantly increased QAGLSPVR transport (p< 0.05); thus, QAGLSPVR may be transported through the Caco-2 cell monolayer via the paracellular pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flaccidoxide-13-Acetate-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells is through Activation of p38/JNK, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050287
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
Flaccidoxide-13-acetate, an active compound isolated from cultured-type soft coral Sinularia gibberosa, has been shown to have inhibitory effects against invasion and cell migration of RT4 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. In our study, we used an 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation [...] Read more.
Flaccidoxide-13-acetate, an active compound isolated from cultured-type soft coral Sinularia gibberosa, has been shown to have inhibitory effects against invasion and cell migration of RT4 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. In our study, we used an 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation assay, and flow cytometry to determine the mechanisms of the anti-tumor effect of flaccidoxide-13-acetate. The MTT and colony formation assays showed that the cytotoxic effect of flaccidoxide-13-acetate on T24 and RT4 cells was dose-dependent, and the number of colonies formed in the culture was reduced with increasing flaccidoxide-13-acetate concentration. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that flaccidoxide-13-acetate induced late apoptotic events in both cell lines. Additionally, we found that flaccidoxide-13-acetate treatment upregulated the expressions of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9, Bax, and Bad, and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, p-Bad, Bcl-x1, and Mcl-1. The results indicated that apoptotic events were mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction via the caspase-dependent pathway. Flaccidoxide-13-acetate also provoked endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and led to activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF6-CHOP pathway. Moreover, we examined the PI3K/AKT signal pathway, and found that the expressions of phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K) and AKT (p-AKT) were decreased with flaccidoxide-13-acetate concentrations. On the other hand, our results showed that the phosphorylated JNK and p38 were obviously activated. The results support the idea that flaccidoxide-13-acetate-induced apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and activation of both the p38 and JNK pathways, and also relies on inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings imply that flaccidoxide-13-acetate has potential in the development of chemotherapeutic agents for human bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antitumor Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle
TAT-Modified ω-Conotoxin MVIIA for Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050286
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
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Abstract
As the first in a new class of non-opioid drugs, ω-Conotoxin MVIIA was approved for the management of severe chronic pains in patients who are unresponsive to opioid therapy. Unfortunately, clinical application of MVIIA is severely limited due to its poor ability to [...] Read more.
As the first in a new class of non-opioid drugs, ω-Conotoxin MVIIA was approved for the management of severe chronic pains in patients who are unresponsive to opioid therapy. Unfortunately, clinical application of MVIIA is severely limited due to its poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reaching the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we have attempted to increase MVIIA’s ability to cross the BBB via a fusion protein strategy. Our results showed that when the TAT-transducing domain was fused to the MVIIA C-terminal with a linker of varied numbers of glycine, the MVIIA-TAT fusion peptide exhibited remarkable ability to cross the bio-membranes. Most importantly, both intravenous and intranasal administrations of MVIIA-TAT in vivo showed therapeutic efficacy of analgesia. Compared to the analgesic effects of intracerebral administration of the nascent MVIIA, these systemic administrations of MVIIA-TAT require higher doses, but have much prolonged effects. Taken together, our results showed that TAT conjugation of MVIIA not only enables its peripheral administration, but also maintains its analgesic efficiency with a prolonged effective time window. Intranasal administration also rendered the MVIIA-TAT advantages of easy applications with potentially reduced side effects. Our results may present an alternative strategy to improve the CNS accessibility for neural active peptides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Edaravone-Loaded Alginate-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogel Accelerated Chronic Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050285
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Refractory wound healing is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause chronic inflammation and thus impair cutaneous wound healing. Scavenging these ROS in wound dressing may offer effective treatment for chronic wounds. Here, [...] Read more.
Refractory wound healing is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause chronic inflammation and thus impair cutaneous wound healing. Scavenging these ROS in wound dressing may offer effective treatment for chronic wounds. Here, a nanocomposite hydrogel based on alginate and positively charged Eudragit nanoparticles containing edaravone, an efficient free radical scavenger, was developed for maximal ROS sequestration. Eudragit nanoparticles enhanced edaravone solubility and stability breaking the limitations in application. Furthermore, loading these Eudragit nanoparticles into an alginate hydrogel increased the protection and sustained the release of edaravone. The nanocomposite hydrogel is shown to promote wound healing in a dose-dependent way. A low dose of edaravone-loaded nanocomposite hydrogel accelerated wound healing in diabetic mice. On the contrary, a high dose of edaravone might hamper the healing. Those results indicated the dual role of ROS in chronic wounds. In addition, the discovery of this work pointed out that dose could be the key factor limiting the translational application of antioxidants in wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biopolymers and Drug Delivery)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Protective Effect of Pyropia yezoensis Peptide on Dexamethasone-Induced Myotube Atrophy in C2C12 Myotubes
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050284
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, causes skeletal muscle atrophy. This study examined the protective effects of Pyropia yezoensis peptide (PYP15) against DEX-induced myotube atrophy and its association with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling [...] Read more.
Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, causes skeletal muscle atrophy. This study examined the protective effects of Pyropia yezoensis peptide (PYP15) against DEX-induced myotube atrophy and its association with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PYP15 on DEX-induced myotube atrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated for 24 h with 100 μM DEX in the presence or absence of 500 ng/mL PYP15. Cell viability assays revealed no PYP15 toxicity in C2C12 myotubes. PYP15 activated the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and Akt-mTORC1 signaling pathway in DEX-induced myotube atrophy. In addition, PYP15 markedly downregulated the nuclear translocation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and inhibited 20S proteasome activity. Furthermore, PYP15 inhibited the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in DEX-stimulated myotube atrophy. Our findings suggest that PYP15 treatment protected against myotube atrophy by regulating IGF-I and the Akt-mTORC1-FoxO signaling pathway in skeletal muscle. Therefore, PYP15 treatment appears to exert protective effects against skeletal muscle atrophy. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Isolation and Characterization of Two New Metabolites from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp. LS34 by OSMAC Approach
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050283
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
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Abstract
The application of an OSMAC (One Strain-Many Compounds) approach on the sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. LS34, using two different media including solid rice medium and potato dextrose broth (PDB) resulted in the isolation and identification of two new compounds, named asperspin A ( [...] Read more.
The application of an OSMAC (One Strain-Many Compounds) approach on the sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. LS34, using two different media including solid rice medium and potato dextrose broth (PDB) resulted in the isolation and identification of two new compounds, named asperspin A (1) and asperther A (2) along with seven known compounds 39. Compounds 15 were detected in fungal extracts from rice medium, while compounds 69 were isolated from PDB medium. Their structures were unambiguously characterized by HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The growth inhibitory activity of these compounds against four pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) were evaluated. All the compounds were also tested for their cytotoxicity against seven cancer cell lines, including CCRF-CEM, K562, BGC823, AGS, HCT-116, MDA-MB-453, and COR-L23. Among them, compound 9 showed strong activity against CCRF-CEM and K562 cells with IC50 values of 1.22 ± 0.05 µM and 10.58 ± 0.19 µM, respectively. Notably, compound 7 also showed pronounced activity against S. aureus with an MIC value of 3.54 µM. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Oceans as a Source of Immunotherapy
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050282
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
Marine flora is taxonomically diverse, biologically active, and chemically unique. It is an excellent resource, which offers great opportunities for the discovery of new biopharmaceuticals such as immunomodulators and drugs targeting cancerous, inflammatory, microbial, and fungal diseases. The ability of some marine molecules [...] Read more.
Marine flora is taxonomically diverse, biologically active, and chemically unique. It is an excellent resource, which offers great opportunities for the discovery of new biopharmaceuticals such as immunomodulators and drugs targeting cancerous, inflammatory, microbial, and fungal diseases. The ability of some marine molecules to mediate specific inhibitory activities has been demonstrated in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell migration and adhesion. Immunomodulators have been shown to have significant therapeutic effects on immune-mediated diseases, but the search for safe and effective immunotherapies for other diseases such as sinusitis, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and allergies is ongoing. This review focuses on the marine-originated bioactive molecules with immunomodulatory potential, with a particular focus on the molecular mechanisms of specific agents with respect to their targets. It also addresses the commercial utilization of these compounds for possible drug improvement using metabolic engineering and genomics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Immunomodulators)
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