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Special Issue "Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Vladimir I. Kalinin

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 Prospect 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +7-(423)-231-11-68
Interests: sea cucmber triterpene glycosides; chemotaxonomy; biological activities
Guest Editor
Prof. Valentin A. Stonik

Laboratory of Marine natural product chemistry, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 159 Prospect 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +7-423-2311430
Interests: marine and terrestrial natural products; structure elucidation; biological activities; molecular mechanisms of action
Guest Editor
Dr. Natalia V. Ivanchina

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 Prospect 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: starfish polyhydroxysteroids and their glycoconjugates; biological activities; metabolomics; biosynthesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Glycoconjugates, biomolecules in which carbohydrate moieties are attached by a covalent bond to any aglycone, play very significant role in biological systems. Glycoproteins, peptidoglycans, lipopolyshaccharides and other biopolymer glycoconjugates are responsible for cellular interactions, including cell–cell recognition and the binding of cells to intercellular matrix, as well as they carry out other signal, antigenic and transport functions, participate in the formation of receptors and other important membrane and blood constituents. Low molecular weight glycoconjugates, such as triterpene and steroidal glycosides, glycolipids, phenolic glycosides are also well known as molecules having important internal and exterior functions for their organism-producers such as protection against predators, competition for space, food resources, etc. Diverse glycoconjugates provide very wide spectrum of biological activities including defensive, cytotoxic, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties. Semi-synthetic conjugates of biologically active low molecular weight substances and carbohydrates possess better transport properties because of increased solubility. Water environment requires high solubility for signal or anti-predatory exometabolites of marine organism. All these peculiarities explain very wide diversity of glycoconjugates of marine origin. The main goal of this Special Issue “Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives” is to provide a convenient platform for discussion of all possible scientific aspects concerning low molecular weight and biopolymer glycoconjugates of marine origin, their isolation and chemical structures, taxonomical distribution, methods of analysis, biological activities, biosynthesis and evolution, biological roles and chemical syntheses including the obtaining of semi-synthetic derivatives of biological active natural products.

Dr. Vladimir I. Kalinin
Prof. Dr. Valentin A. Stonik
Dr. Natalia V. Ivanchina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine glycoconjugates
  • triterpene glycosides
  • steroidal glycosides
  • glycolipids
  • lipopolysaccharides
  • biological activities
  • biosynthesis
  • biological role
  • marine invertebrates
  • echinoderms
  • sponges
  • starfish
  • sea cucumbers
  • marine fungi
  • bacteria
  • algae

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Functional Characterization of OXYL, A SghC1qDC LacNAc-specific Lectin from The Crinoid Feather Star Anneissia Japonica
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020136
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
We identified a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) belonging to the complement 1q(C1q) family in the feather star Anneissia japonica (a crinoid pertaining to the phylum Echinodermata). The combination of Edman degradation and bioinformatics sequence analysis characterized the primary structure of this novel lectin, named [...] Read more.
We identified a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) belonging to the complement 1q(C1q) family in the feather star Anneissia japonica (a crinoid pertaining to the phylum Echinodermata). The combination of Edman degradation and bioinformatics sequence analysis characterized the primary structure of this novel lectin, named OXYL, as a secreted 158 amino acid-long globular head (sgh)C1q domain containing (C1qDC) protein. Comparative genomics analyses revealed that OXYL pertains to a family of intronless genes found with several paralogous copies in different crinoid species. Immunohistochemistry assays identified the tissues surrounding coelomic cavities and the arms as the main sites of production of OXYL. Glycan array confirmed that this lectin could quantitatively bind to type-2 N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc: Galβ1-4GlcNAc), but not to type-1 LacNAc (Galβ1-3GlcNAc). Although OXYL displayed agglutinating activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it had no effect on bacterial growth. On the other hand, it showed a significant anti-biofilm activity. We provide evidence that OXYL can adhere to the surface of human cancer cell lines BT-474, MCF-7, and T47D, with no cytotoxic effect. In BT-474 cells, OXYL led to a moderate activation of the p38 kinase in the MAPK signaling pathway, without affecting the activity of caspase-3. Bacterial agglutination, anti-biofilm activity, cell adhesion, and p38 activation were all suppressed by co-presence of LacNAc. This is the first report on a type-2 LacNAc-specific lectin characterized by a C1q structural fold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
The Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Activates a Mitophagic Pathway in Human Lung Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120502
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Marine dinoflagellates are a valuable source of bioactive molecules. Many species produce cytotoxic compounds and some of these compounds have also been investigated for their anticancer potential. Here, we report the first investigation of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum as source of water-soluble [...] Read more.
Marine dinoflagellates are a valuable source of bioactive molecules. Many species produce cytotoxic compounds and some of these compounds have also been investigated for their anticancer potential. Here, we report the first investigation of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum as source of water-soluble compounds with antiproliferative activity against human lung cancer cells. A multi-step enrichment of the phenol–water extract yielded a bioactive fraction with specific antiproliferative effect (IC50 = 0.4 µg·mL−1) against the human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell line). Preliminary characterization of this material suggested the presence of glycoprotein with molecular weight above 20 kDa. Interestingly, this fraction did not exhibit any cytotoxicity against human normal lung fibroblasts (WI38). Differential gene expression analysis in A549 cancer cells suggested that the active fraction induces specific cell death, triggered by mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). In agreement with the cell viability results, gene expression data also showed that no mitophagic event was activated in normal cells WI38. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid Composition and Thermotropic Behavior of Glycolipids and Other Membrane Lipids of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Inhabiting Different Climatic Zones
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120494
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
Increasing global temperatures are expected to increase the risk of extinction of various species due to acceleration in the pace of shifting climate zones. Nevertheless, there is no information on the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids that enable the adaptation of the algae [...] Read more.
Increasing global temperatures are expected to increase the risk of extinction of various species due to acceleration in the pace of shifting climate zones. Nevertheless, there is no information on the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids that enable the adaptation of the algae to different climatic zones. The present work aimed to compare fatty acid composition and thermal transitions of membrane lipids from green macroalgae Ulva lactuca harvested in the Sea of Japan and the Adriatic Sea in summer. U. lactuca inhabiting the Adriatic Sea had bleached parts of thalli which were completely devoid of chloroplast glycolipids. The adaptation to a warmer climatic zone was also accompanied by a significant decrease in the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of membrane lipids, especially in bleached thalli. Hence, bleaching of algae is probably associated with the significant decrease of the UFA/SFA ratio in glycolipids. The decreasing ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in extra-plastidial lipids and only in the major glycolipid, non-lamellar monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The opposite thermotropic behavior of non-lamellar and lamellar glycolipids can contribute to maintenance of the highly dynamic structure of thylakoid membranes of algae in response to the increasing temperatures of climatic zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anticancer and Proapoptotic Activities of Steroidal Glycosides from the Starfish Anthenea aspera
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110420
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
New marine glycoconjugates—the steroidal glycosides designated as anthenosides V–X (13)—and the seven previously known anthenosides E (4), G (5), J (6), K (7), S1 (8), S4 (9), [...] Read more.
New marine glycoconjugates—the steroidal glycosides designated as anthenosides V–X (13)—and the seven previously known anthenosides E (4), G (5), J (6), K (7), S1 (8), S4 (9), and S6 (10) were isolated from the extract of the tropical starfish Anthenea aspera. The structures of 13 were elucidated by extensive NMR and ESIMS techniques. Glycoside 1 contains a rare 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3α,7β,16α-hydroxysteroidal nucleus. Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated as inseparable mixtures of epimers. All investigated compounds (110) at nontoxic concentrations inhibited colony formation of human melanoma RPMI-7951, breast cancer T-47D, and colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells to a variable degree. The mixture of 6 and 7 possessed significant anticancer activity and induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells. The molecular mechanism of the proapoptotic action of this mixture was shown to be associated with the regulation of anti- and proapoptotic protein expression followed by the activation of initiator and effector caspases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Sterol and Sphingoid Glycoconjugates from Microalgae
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120514
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Microalgae are well known as primary producers in the hydrosphere. As sources of natural products, microalgae are attracting major attention due to the potential of their practical applications as valuable food constituents, raw material for biofuels, drug candidates, and components of drug delivery [...] Read more.
Microalgae are well known as primary producers in the hydrosphere. As sources of natural products, microalgae are attracting major attention due to the potential of their practical applications as valuable food constituents, raw material for biofuels, drug candidates, and components of drug delivery systems. This paper presents a short review of a low-molecular-weight steroid and sphingolipid glycoconjugates, with an analysis of the literature on their structures, functions, and bioactivities. The discussed data on sterols and the corresponding glycoconjugates not only demonstrate their structural diversity and properties, but also allow for a better understanding of steroid biogenesis in some echinoderms, mollusks, and other invertebrates which receive these substances from food and possibly from their microalgal symbionts. In another part of this review, the structures and biological functions of sphingolipid glycoconjugates are discussed. Their role in limiting microalgal blooms as a result of viral infections is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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