Marine Natural Products and Obesity

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 March 2019) | Viewed by 70708

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Guest Editor
CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: bioactivity screening; natural products; elucidation of molecular mechanism; obesity and related diseases; cyanobacteria bioactive compounds
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Guest Editor
1. Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
2. CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research of the University of Porto, 4450-208 Porto, Portugal
Interests: cyanobacteria; toxins; cyanotoxins; marine biotechnology; secondary metabolites; cyanobacterial blooms; ecotoxicology; environmental contamination
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been prolific in the production of bioactive compounds for many diseases, e.g., cancer, and promise to be an excellent source for natural-derived molecules and novel nutraceuticals. Bioactive compounds with beneficial activities towards obesity have been described from diverse marine organism including marine algae, bacteria, sponges, fungi, crustaceans or fish.

This Special Issue will highlight the progress in the following topics: Bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia) from marine organisms; the isolation of novel compounds, the bioactivity screening of marine organisms and the elucidation of molecular mode of action of marine bioactive compounds.

Dr. Ralph Urbatzka
Prof. Dr. Vitor Vasconcelos
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • marine bioactive compounds
  • obesity and related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia)
  • bioactivity screening
  • structural elucidation
  • molecular mode of action

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
New Aromatic Bisabolane Derivatives with Lipid-Reducing Activity from the Marine Sponge Myrmekioderma sp.
by Margarida Costa, Laura Coello, Ralph Urbatzka, Marta Pérez and Margret Thorsteinsdottir
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060375 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
The previously reported 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethan-1-one (1), (1’Z)-2-(1’,5’-dimethylhexa-1’,4’-dieny1)-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (2), and 1,8-epoxy-1(6),2,4,7,10-bisaborapentaen-4-ol (5) together with four new structures of aromatic bisabolane-related compounds (3, 4, 6, 7) were isolated from the marine sponge Myrmekioderma sp. Compounds [...] Read more.
The previously reported 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethan-1-one (1), (1’Z)-2-(1’,5’-dimethylhexa-1’,4’-dieny1)-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (2), and 1,8-epoxy-1(6),2,4,7,10-bisaborapentaen-4-ol (5) together with four new structures of aromatic bisabolane-related compounds (3, 4, 6, 7) were isolated from the marine sponge Myrmekioderma sp. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were identified based on spectral data available in the literature. The structures of the four new compounds were experimentally established by 1D and 2D-NMR and (−)-HRESIMS spectral analysis. Cytotoxic and lipid-reducing activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. None of the isolated compounds were active against the tested cancer cell lines; however, lipid-reducing activity was found for compounds 25 and 7 in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay. This class of compounds should be further explored for their suitability as possible agents for the treatment of lipid metabolic disorders and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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15 pages, 2063 KiB  
Article
Application of Bioactive Thermal Proteome Profiling to Decipher the Mechanism of Action of the Lipid Lowering 132-Hydroxy-pheophytin Isolated from a Marine Cyanobacteria
by Ana Carrasco del Amor, Sara Freitas, Ralph Urbatzka, Olatz Fresnedo and Susana Cristobal
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060371 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4597
Abstract
The acceleration of the process of understanding the pharmacological application of new marine bioactive compounds requires identifying the compound protein targets leading the molecular mechanisms in a living cell. The thermal proteome profiling (TPP) methodology does not fulfill the requirements for its application [...] Read more.
The acceleration of the process of understanding the pharmacological application of new marine bioactive compounds requires identifying the compound protein targets leading the molecular mechanisms in a living cell. The thermal proteome profiling (TPP) methodology does not fulfill the requirements for its application to any bioactive compound lacking chemical and functional characterization. Here, we present a modified method that we called bTPP for bioactive thermal proteome profiling that guarantees target specificity from a soluble subproteome. We showed that the precipitation of the microsomal fraction before the thermal shift assay is crucial to accurately calculate the melting points of the protein targets. As a probe of concept, the protein targets of 132-hydroxy-pheophytin, a compound previously isolated from a marine cyanobacteria for its lipid reducing activity, were analyzed on the hepatic cell line HepG2. Our improved method identified 9 protein targets out of 2500 proteins, including 3 targets (isocitrate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, phosphoserine aminotransferase) that could be related to obesity and diabetes, as they are involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. This study demonstrated that the bTPP method can accelerate the field of biodiscovery, revealing protein targets involved in mechanisms of action (MOA) connected with future applications of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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16 pages, 2188 KiB  
Article
Identification of Cyanobacterial Strains with Potential for the Treatment of Obesity-Related Co-Morbidities by Bioactivity, Toxicity Evaluation and Metabolite Profiling
by Margarida Costa, Filipa Rosa, Tiago Ribeiro, Rene Hernandez-Bautista, Marco Bonaldo, Natália Gonçalves Silva, Finnur Eiríksson, Margrét Thorsteinsdóttir, Siegfried Ussar and Ralph Urbatzka
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050280 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4563
Abstract
Obesity is a complex disease resulting in several metabolic co-morbidities and is increasing at epidemic rates. The marine environment is an interesting resource of novel compounds and in particular cyanobacteria are well known for their capacity to produce novel secondary metabolites. In this [...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex disease resulting in several metabolic co-morbidities and is increasing at epidemic rates. The marine environment is an interesting resource of novel compounds and in particular cyanobacteria are well known for their capacity to produce novel secondary metabolites. In this work, we explored the potential of cyanobacteria for the production of compounds with relevant activities towards metabolic diseases using a blend of target-based, phenotypic and zebrafish assays as whole small animal models. A total of 46 cyanobacterial strains were grown and biomass fractionated, yielding in total 263 fractions. Bioactivities related to metabolic function were tested in different in vitro and in vivo models. Studying adipogenic and thermogenic gene expression in brown adipocytes, lipid metabolism and glucose uptake in hepatocytes, as well as lipid metabolism in zebrafish larvae, we identified 66 (25%) active fractions. This together with metabolite profiling and the evaluation of toxicity allowed the identification of 18 (7%) fractions with promising bioactivity towards different aspects of metabolic disease. Among those, we identified several known compounds, such as eryloside T, leptosin F, pheophorbide A, phaeophytin A, chlorophyll A, present as minor peaks. Those compounds were previously not described to have bioactivities in metabolic regulation, and both known or unknown compounds could be responsible for such effects. In summary, we find that cyanobacteria hold a huge repertoire of molecules with specific bioactivities towards metabolic diseases, which needs to be explored in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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13 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Hypolipidemic Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima Supplementation and a Systematic Physical Exercise Program in Overweight and Obese Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Crossover Controlled Trial
by Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe, Abraham Wall-Medrano, José Alberto López-Díaz, Marco Antonio Juárez-Oropeza, Oscar Iván Luqueño-Bocardo, Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres and Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050270 - 7 May 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5571
Abstract
Low-fat diets, lipid-modifying nutraceuticals and a higher level of physical activity are often recommended to reduce dyslipidemia. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day−1) [...] Read more.
Low-fat diets, lipid-modifying nutraceuticals and a higher level of physical activity are often recommended to reduce dyslipidemia. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled trial was designed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation (4.5 g·day−1) with or without performing a physical exercise program (PEP: aerobic exercise (3 days·week−1) + high-intensity interval training (2 days·week−1)) on blood lipids and BMI of 52 sedentary men with excess body weight. During six weeks, all participants were assigned to four intervention treatments (Spirulina maxima with PEP (SE), placebo with PEP (Ex), Spirulina maxima without PEP (Sm), placebo without PEP (C; control)) and plasma lipids were evaluated spectrophotometrically pre- vs. post intervention in stratified subgroups (overweight, obese and dyslipidemic subjects). Pre/post comparisons showed significant reductions in all plasma lipids in the SE group, particularly in those with dyslipidemia (p ≤ 0.043). Comparing the final vs. the initial values, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in all treatment groups compared to C. Changes were observed mostly in SE interventions, particularly in dyslipidemic subjects (p < 0.05). Spirulina maxima supplementation enhances the hypolipidemic effect of a systematic PEP in men with excess body weight and dyslipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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18 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Chlorophyll Derivatives from Marine Cyanobacteria with Lipid-Reducing Activities
by Sara Freitas, Natália Gonçalves Silva, Maria Lígia Sousa, Tiago Ribeiro, Filipa Rosa, Pedro N. Leão, Vitor Vasconcelos, Mariana Alves Reis and Ralph Urbatzka
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040229 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6733
Abstract
Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described [...] Read more.
Marine organisms, particularly cyanobacteria, are important resources for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, a bioassay-guided approach was used to discover metabolites with lipid-reducing activity. Two chlorophyll derivatives were successfully isolated, the previously described 132-hydroxy-pheophytin a (1) and the new compound 132-hydroxy-pheofarnesin a (2). The structure elucidation of the new compound 2 was established based on one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant neutral lipid-reducing activity in the zebrafish Nile red fat metabolism assay after 48 h of exposure with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 8.9 ± 0.4 µM for 1 and 15.5 ± 1.3 µM for 2. Both compounds additionally reduced neutral lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 multicellular spheroids of murine preadipocytes. Molecular profiling of mRNA expression of some target genes was evaluated for the higher potent compound 1, which indicated altered peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression. Lipolysis was not affected. Different food materials (Spirulina, Chlorella, spinach, and cabbage) were evaluated for the presence of 1, and the cyanobacterium Spirulina, with GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status for human consumption, contained high amounts of 1. In summary, known and novel chlorophyll derivatives were discovered from marine cyanobacteria with relevant lipid-reducing activities, which in the future may be developed into nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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12 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Effect of Oral Ingestion of Low-Molecular Collagen Peptides Derived from Skate (Raja Kenojei) Skin on Body Fat in Overweight Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Young Jin Tak, Yun Jin Kim, Jeong Gyu Lee, Yu-Hyun Yi, Young Hye Cho, Geun Hee Kang and Sang Yeoup Lee
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030157 - 7 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4949
Abstract
Recent animal studies found the potential of a collagen peptide derived from skate skin to have anti-obesity effects through the suppression of fat accumulation and regulation of lipid metabolism. However, no studies have yet been performed in humans. Here, this very first human [...] Read more.
Recent animal studies found the potential of a collagen peptide derived from skate skin to have anti-obesity effects through the suppression of fat accumulation and regulation of lipid metabolism. However, no studies have yet been performed in humans. Here, this very first human randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of skate skin collagen peptides (SCP) for the reduction of body fat in overweight adults. Ninety healthy volunteers (17 men) aged 41.2 ± 10.4 years with a mean body mass index of 25.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2 were assigned to the intervention group (IG), which received 2000 mg of SCP per day or to the control group (CG) given the placebo for 12 weeks and 81 (90%) participants completed the study. Changes in body fat were evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as a primary efficacy endpoint. After 12 weeks of the trial, the percentage of body fat and body fat mass (kg) in IG were found to be significantly better than those of subjects in CG (−1.2% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.024 and −1.2 kg vs. 0.3 kg, p = 0.025). Application of SCP was well tolerated and no notable adverse effect was reported from both groups. These results suggest the beneficial potential of SCP in the reduction of body fat in overweight adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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9 pages, 996 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) through AMPK Activation in Adipocytes
by Min-Cheol Kang, Yuling Ding, Hyun-Soo Kim, You-Jin Jeon and Seung-Hong Lee
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010044 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4627
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect and the mechanism of action of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) isolated from Ishige okamurae in 3T3-L1 cells. The antiobesity effects were examined by evaluating intracellular fat accumulation in Oil Red O-stained adipocytes. Based on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect and the mechanism of action of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) isolated from Ishige okamurae in 3T3-L1 cells. The antiobesity effects were examined by evaluating intracellular fat accumulation in Oil Red O-stained adipocytes. Based on the results, DPHC dose-dependently inhibited the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPHC significantly inhibited adipocyte-specific proteins such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ, C/EBP α, and adiponectin, as well as adipogenic enzymes, including perilipin, FAS, FABP4, and leptin in adipocytes. These results indicated that DPHC primarily acts by regulating adipogenic-specific proteins through inhibiting fat accumulation and fatty acid synthesis in adipocytes. DPHC treatment significantly increased both AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in adipocytes. These results indicate that DPHC inhibits the fat accumulation by activating AMPK and ACC in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DPHC can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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18 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
Reduced Number of Adipose Lineage and Endothelial Cells in Epididymal fat in Response to Omega-3 PUFA in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet
by Katerina Adamcova, Olga Horakova, Kristina Bardova, Petra Janovska, Marie Brezinova, Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl and Jan Kopecky
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120515 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5127
Abstract
We found previously that white adipose tissue (WAT) hyperplasia in obese mice was limited by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA). Here we aimed to characterize the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with omega-3 PUFA [...] Read more.
We found previously that white adipose tissue (WAT) hyperplasia in obese mice was limited by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA). Here we aimed to characterize the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with omega-3 PUFA for one week or eight weeks; mice fed a standard chow diet were also used. In epididymal WAT (eWAT), DNA content was quantified, immunohistochemical analysis was used to reveal the size of adipocytes and macrophage content, and lipidomic analysis and a gene expression screen were performed to assess inflammatory status. The stromal-vascular fraction of eWAT, which contained most of the eWAT cells, except for adipocytes, was characterized using flow cytometry. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation limited the high-fat diet-induced increase in eWAT weight, cell number (DNA content), inflammation, and adipocyte growth. eWAT hyperplasia was compromised due to the limited increase in the number of preadipocytes and a decrease in the number of endothelial cells. The number of leukocytes and macrophages was unaffected, but a shift in macrophage polarization towards a less inflammatory phenotype was observed. Our results document that the counteraction of eWAT hyperplasia by omega-3 PUFA in dietary-obese mice reflects an effect on the number of adipose lineage and endothelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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15 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Chitosan Oligosaccharides Improve Glucolipid Metabolism Disorder in Liver by Suppression of Obesity-Related Inflammation and Restoration of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ)
by Yibo Bai, Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu and Lanyan Zheng
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110455 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 4969
Abstract
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) display various biological activities. In this study, we aimed to explore the preventive effects of COS on glucolipid metabolism disorder using palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice as experimental models in vitro and in vivo, [...] Read more.
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) display various biological activities. In this study, we aimed to explore the preventive effects of COS on glucolipid metabolism disorder using palmitic acid (PA)-induced HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice as experimental models in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The results showed that COS pretreatment for 12 h significantly ameliorated lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells exposed to PA for 24 h, accompanied by a reversing of the upregulated mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α) and glucolipid metabolism-related regulators (SCD-1, ACC1, PCK1-α). In addition, COS treatment alleviated glucolipid metabolism disorder in mice fed with HFD for five months, including reduction in body weight and fasting glucose, restoration of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, and suppression of overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and glucolipid metabolism-related regulators. Furthermore, our study found that COS pretreatment significantly reversed the downregulation of PPARγ at transcriptional and translational levels in both PA-induced HepG2 cells and liver tissues of HFD-fed mice. In summary, the study suggests that COS can improve glucolipid metabolism disorder by suppressing inflammation and upregulating PPARγ expression. This indicates a novel application of COS in preventing and treating glucolipid metabolism-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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12 pages, 3690 KiB  
Article
Anti-Obesity Effects of Collagen Peptide Derived from Skate (Raja kenojei) Skin Through Regulation of Lipid Metabolism
by Minji Woo, Yeong Ok Song, Keon-Hee Kang and Jeong Sook Noh
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090306 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 7597
Abstract
This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of collagen peptide derived from skate skin on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. All C57BL6/J male mice were fed a HFD with 60% kcal fat except for mice in the normal group which were fed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of collagen peptide derived from skate skin on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. All C57BL6/J male mice were fed a HFD with 60% kcal fat except for mice in the normal group which were fed a chow diet. The collagen-fed groups received collagen peptide (1050 Da) orally (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight per day) by gavage, whereas the normal and control groups were given water (n = 9 per group). The body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue weight were lower in the collagen-fed groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Plasma and hepatic lipid levels were significantly reduced by downregulating the hepatic protein expression levels for fatty acid synthesis (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)) and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)) and upregulating those for β-oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1)) and synthesis of bile acid (cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (CYP7A1)) (p < 0.05). In the collagen-fed groups, the hepatic protein expression level of phosphorylated 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and plasma adiponectin levels were higher, and the leptin level was lower (p < 0.05). Histological analysis revealed that collagen treatment suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and reduced the lipid droplet size in the adipose tissue. These effects were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The findings indicated that skate collagen peptide has anti-obesity effects through suppression of fat accumulation and regulation of lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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16 pages, 8318 KiB  
Article
Anti-Obesity Effect of Chitosan Oligosaccharide Capsules (COSCs) in Obese Rats by Ameliorating Leptin Resistance and Adipogenesis
by Haitao Pan, Chuhan Fu, Lanlan Huang, Yao Jiang, Xiaoyi Deng, Jiao Guo and Zhengquan Su
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060198 - 5 Jun 2018
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 6707
Abstract
Obesity is a global disease that causes many metabolic disorders. However, effective agents for the prevention or treatment of obesity remain limited. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of chitosan oligosaccharide capsules (COSCs) on rats suffering from obesity induced by a [...] Read more.
Obesity is a global disease that causes many metabolic disorders. However, effective agents for the prevention or treatment of obesity remain limited. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of chitosan oligosaccharide capsules (COSCs) on rats suffering from obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). After the eight-week administration of COSCs on obese rats, the body weight gain, fat/body ratio, and related biochemical indices were measured. The hepatic expressions of the leptin signal pathway (JAK2-STAT3) and gene expressions of adipogenesis-related targets were also determined. Our data showed that COSCs can regulate body weight gain, lipids, serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as upregulate the hepatic leptin receptor-b (LepRb) and the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. Meanwhile, marked increased expressions of liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, adiponectin, adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α, adipose differentiation-related protein, and SREBP-1c were observed. The results suggested that COSCs activate the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway to alleviate leptin resistance and suppress adipogenesis to reduce lipid accumulation. Thus, they can potentially be used for obesity treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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14 pages, 2151 KiB  
Article
Commercial Fucoidans from Fucus vesiculosus Can Be Grouped into Antiadipogenic and Adipogenic Agents
by Ruth Medeiros Oliveira, Rafael Barros Gomes Câmara, Jessyka Fernanda Santiago Monte, Rony Lucas Silva Viana, Karoline Rachel Teodosio Melo, Moacir Fernandes Queiroz, Luciana Guimarães Alves Filgueira, Lila Missae Oyama and Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060193 - 4 Jun 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4446
Abstract
Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed used in the treatment of obesity. This seaweed synthesizes various bioactive molecules, one of them being a sulfated polysaccharide known as fucoidan (FF). This polymer can easily be found commercially, and has antiadipogenic and lipolytic activity. Using [...] Read more.
Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed used in the treatment of obesity. This seaweed synthesizes various bioactive molecules, one of them being a sulfated polysaccharide known as fucoidan (FF). This polymer can easily be found commercially, and has antiadipogenic and lipolytic activity. Using differential precipitation with acetone, we obtained four fucoidan-rich fractions (F0.5/F0.9/F1.1/F2.0) from FF. These fractions contain different proportions of fucose:glucuronic acid:galactose:xylose:sulfate, and also showed different electrophoretic mobility and antioxidant activity. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we found that all samples had lipolytic action, especially F2.0, which tripled the amount of glycerol in the cellular medium. Moreover, we observed that FF, F1.0, and F2.0 have antiadipogenic activity, as they inhibited the oil red staining by cells at 40%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. In addition, they decreased the expression of key proteins of adipogenic differentiation (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ). However, F0.5 and F0.9 stimulated the oil red staining at 80% and increased the expression of these proteins. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions have an adipogenic effect. Overall, the data show that F2.0 has great potential to be used as an agent against obesity as it displays better antioxidant, lipolytic and antiadipogenic activities than the other fucoidan fractions that we tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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Review

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11 pages, 655 KiB  
Review
Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Ishige okamurae
by Hye-Won Yang, K.H.N. Fernando, Jae-Young Oh, Xining Li, You-Jin Jeon and BoMi Ryu
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040202 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5372
Abstract
Obesity is associated with several health complications and can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. Some of its deleterious consequences are related to insulin resistance, which adversely affects blood glucose regulation. At present, there is a growing concern regarding healthy food consumption, [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with several health complications and can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. Some of its deleterious consequences are related to insulin resistance, which adversely affects blood glucose regulation. At present, there is a growing concern regarding healthy food consumption, owing to awareness about obesity. Seaweeds are well-known for their nutritional benefits. The brown alga Ishige okamurae (IO) has been studied as a dietary supplement and exhibits various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. The bioactive compounds isolated from IO extract are known to possess anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties, elicited via the regulation of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. This review focuses on IO extract and its bioactive compounds that exhibit therapeutic effects through several cellular mechanisms in obesity and diabetes. The information discussed in the present review may provide evidence to develop nutraceuticals from IO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity)
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