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Open AccessArticle

Omega-3 Fatty Acids-Enriched Fish Oil Activates AMPK/PGC-1α Signaling and Prevents Obesity-Related Skeletal Muscle Wasting

1
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
2
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
3
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
4
Institute of Food Safety and Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
5
Department of Food Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060380
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Abstract

Obesity is known to cause skeletal muscle wasting. This study investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of fish oil on skeletal muscle wasting in an obese rat model. High-fat (HF) diets were applied to induce the defects of lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without substitution of omega-3 fatty acids-enriched fish oil (FO, 5%) for eight weeks. Diets supplemented with 5% FO showed a significant decrease in the final body weight compared to HF diet-fed rats. The decreased soleus muscle weights in HF diet-fed rats could be improved by FO substitution. The decreased myosin heavy chain (a muscle thick filament protein) and increased FOXO3A and Atrogin-1 (muscle atrophy-related proteins) protein expressions in soleus muscles of HF diet-fed rats could also be reversed by FO substitution. FO substitution could also significantly activate adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and PPARγ protein expression and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression in soleus muscles of HF diet-fed rats. These results suggest that substitution of FO exerts a beneficial improvement in the imbalance of lipid and muscle metabolisms in obesity. AMPK/PGC-1α signaling may play an important role in FO-prevented obesity-induced muscle wasting. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; obesity; skeletal muscle wasting; AMP-activated protein kinase fish oil; obesity; skeletal muscle wasting; AMP-activated protein kinase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, S.-H.; Chiu, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-P.; Chiang, M.-T. Omega-3 Fatty Acids-Enriched Fish Oil Activates AMPK/PGC-1α Signaling and Prevents Obesity-Related Skeletal Muscle Wasting. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 380.

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