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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 7 (July 2014), Pages 8707-10669

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Open AccessReview A Systematic Review of the Botanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Plant Source of the Ethnomedicine “Dragon’s Blood”
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10650-10669; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710650
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3672 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
“Dragon’s blood” is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of “dragon’s blood”. It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing
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“Dragon’s blood” is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of “dragon’s blood”. It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Echium plantagineum L. Bee Pollen on Basophil Degranulation: Relationship with Metabolic Profile
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10635-10649; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710635
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2208 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3). Two different
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This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3). Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80%) and α-linolenic acid (27%) were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Combinatorial Approach to Biophysically Characterise Chemokine-Glycan Binding Affinities for Drug Development
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10618-10634; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710618
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2728 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemokine binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is recognised to be an important step in inflammation and other pathological disorders like tumor growth and metastasis. Although different ways and strategies to interfere with these interactions are being pursued, no major breakthrough in the development of
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Chemokine binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is recognised to be an important step in inflammation and other pathological disorders like tumor growth and metastasis. Although different ways and strategies to interfere with these interactions are being pursued, no major breakthrough in the development of glycan-targeting drugs has been reported so far. We have engineered CXCL8 towards a dominant-negative form of this chemokine (dnCXCL8) which was shown to be highly active in various inflammatory animal models due to its inability to bind/activate the cognate CXCL8 GPC receptors on neutrophils in combination with its significantly increased GAG-binding affinity [1]. For the development of GAG-targeting chemokine-based biopharmaceuticals, we have established a repertoire of methods which allow the quantification of protein-GAG interactions. Isothermal fluorescence titration (IFT), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and a novel ELISA-like competition assay (ELICO) have been used to determine Kd and IC50 values for CXCL8 and dnCXCL8 interacting with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), the proto-typical members of the GAG family. Although the different methods gave different absolute affinities for the four protein-ligand pairs, the relative increase in GAG-binding affinity of dnCXCL8 compared to the wild type chemokine was found by all methods. In combination, these biophysical methods allow to discriminate between unspecific and specific protein-GAG interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oligosaccharides and Glyco-Conjugates)
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Open AccessArticle Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10601-10617; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710601
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2177 | PDF Full-text (5320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98%) fractions (SAPFs), isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5
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The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98%) fractions (SAPFs), isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL were arbitrarily considered as subMICs for C. albicans ATCC 10231 and were further used. SAPFs affected yeast enzymatic activity, lowered tolerance to the oxidative stress, to the osmotic stress and to the action of the cell wall disrupting agent. In their presence, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly inhibited, as well as Candida invasive capacity. The evaluation of SAPFs interactions with anti-mycotics showed synergistic activity, mainly with azoles. Fluconazole MIC was lowered—susceptible C. albicans ATCC 10231 was more susceptible, and resistant C. glabrata (clinical strain) become more susceptible (eightfold). Moreover, the tested samples showed no hemolytic activity and at the concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL did not reduce viability of fibroblasts L929. This study provided the original evidence that SAPFs of Trifolium spp. aerial part exhibit significant antimicrobial activity, by reduce the expression/quantity of important Candida virulence factors and have good potential for the development of novel antifungal products supporting classic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Simultaneous Location of Resveratrol, Pterostilbene and Viniferins on Grapevine Leaves
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10587-10600; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710587
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4419 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the in-situ response to a stress, grapevine leaves have been subjected to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) experiments. The Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) approach using different matrices has been evaluated. Among all the tested matrices, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found
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To investigate the in-situ response to a stress, grapevine leaves have been subjected to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) experiments. The Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) approach using different matrices has been evaluated. Among all the tested matrices, the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was found to be the most efficient matrix allowing a broader range of detected stilbene phytoalexins. Resveratrol, but also more toxic compounds against fungi such as pterostilbene and viniferins, were identified and mapped. Their spatial distributions on grapevine leaves irradiated by UV show their specific colocation around the veins. Moreover, MALDI MSI reveals that resveratrol (and piceids) and viniferins are not specifically located on the same area when leaves are infected by Plasmopara viticola. Results obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging demonstrate that this technique would be essential to improve the level of knowledge concerning the role of the stilbene phytoalexins involved in a stress event. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear Optical Molecular Switches for Alkali Ion Identification
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10574-10586; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710574
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2189 | PDF Full-text (1307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work demonstrates by means of DFT and ab initio calculations that recognition of alkali cations can be achieved by probing the variations of the second-order nonlinear optical properties along the commutation process in spiropyran/merocyanine systems. Due to the ability of the merocyanine
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This work demonstrates by means of DFT and ab initio calculations that recognition of alkali cations can be achieved by probing the variations of the second-order nonlinear optical properties along the commutation process in spiropyran/merocyanine systems. Due to the ability of the merocyanine isomer to complex metal cations, the switching between the two forms is accompanied by large contrasts in the quadratic hyperpolarizability that strongly depend on the size of the cation in presence. Exploiting the nonlinear optical responses of molecular switches should therefore provide powerful analytical tools for detecting and identifying metal cations in solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Switches)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao) Flowers
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10563-10573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710563
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3044 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified
[...] Read more.
The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), β-sitosterol (3), daucosterol (4) and 9-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 15 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50 = 999.31 mg/L), compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Hologram QSAR Studies of Antiprotozoal Activities of Sesquiterpene Lactones
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10546-10562; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710546
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2795 | PDF Full-text (995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Infectious diseases such as trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are considered neglected tropical diseases due the lack for many years of research and development into new drug treatments besides the high incidence of mortality and the lack of current safe and effective drug therapies. Natural
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Infectious diseases such as trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are considered neglected tropical diseases due the lack for many years of research and development into new drug treatments besides the high incidence of mortality and the lack of current safe and effective drug therapies. Natural products such as sesquiterpene lactones have shown activity against T. brucei and L. donovani, the parasites responsible for these neglected diseases. To evaluate structure activity relationships, HQSAR models were constructed to relate a series of 40 sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) with activity against T. brucei, T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum and also with their cytotoxicity. All constructed models showed good internal (leave-one-out q2 values ranging from 0.637 to 0.775) and external validation coefficients (r2test values ranging from 0.653 to 0.944). From HQSAR contribution maps, several differences between the most and least potent compounds were found. The fragment contribution of PLS-generated models confirmed the results of previous QSAR studies that the presence of α,β-unsatured carbonyl groups is fundamental to biological activity. QSAR models for the activity of these compounds against T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum are reported here for the first time. The constructed HQSAR models are suitable to predict the activity of untested STLs. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Reduction of Adhesion Molecule Production and Alteration of eNOS and Endothelin-1 mRNA Expression in Endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through Its Beneficial β-Amyrin Molecule
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10534-10545; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710534
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2410 | PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an
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The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Mistaken Identity: Clarification of Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja)
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10524-10533; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710524
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4014 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been
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In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been on Rubus occidentalis L., not R. coreanus Miquel. The importance of accurate recognition of all starting material is multiplied for research downstream, including genetics/genomics, plant breeding, phenolic identification, food processing improvements and pharmacokinetic investigations. An overview of distinguishing characteristics separating R. coreanus from R. occidentalis will be presented. Research conducted on correctly identified fruit will also be summarized to aid future studies that might showcase the unique qualities that bokbunja can offer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Thioctic Acid Derivatives as Building Blocks to Incorporate DNA Oligonucleotides onto Gold Nanoparticles
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10495-10523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710495
Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3596 | PDF Full-text (1382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates are being used as diagnostic tools and gene silencing experiments. Thiol-chemistry is mostly used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides and to incorporate DNA or RNA molecules onto gold surfaces. However, the stability of such nucleic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates
[...] Read more.
Oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates are being used as diagnostic tools and gene silencing experiments. Thiol-chemistry is mostly used to functionalize gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides and to incorporate DNA or RNA molecules onto gold surfaces. However, the stability of such nucleic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates in certain conditions may be a limitation due to premature break of the thiol-gold bonds followed by aggregation processes. Here, we describe a straightforward synthesis of oligonucleotides carrying thioctic acid moiety based on the use of several thioctic acid-L-threoninol derivatives containing different spacers, including triglycine, short polyethyleneglycol, or aliphatic spacers. The novel thioctic-oligonucleotides were used for the functionalization of gold nanoparticles and the surface coverage and stability of the resulting thioctic-oligonucleotide gold nanoparticles were assessed. In all cases gold nanoparticles functionalized with thioctic-oligonucleotides had higher loadings and higher stability in the presence of thiols than gold nanoparticles prepared with commercially available thiol-oligonucleotides. Furthermore, the thioctic derivative carrying the triglycine linker is sensitive to cathepsin B present in endosomes. In this way this derivative may be interesting for the cellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides as these results provides the basis for a potential endosomal escape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Variations in Thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivars
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10480-10494; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710480
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3148 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used
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A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity was observed, with TOT4951 from Thailand being the most active, with activity five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound). A different trend was observed for the activity in the FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains using the microdilution method. Acetone extracts of all cultivars exhibited good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae (MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL). The remaining extracts exhibited weak activity against the two microorganisms. For the antifungal activity, all the extracts exhibited low activity. Variations were observed in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cultivars TOT5169 (Thailand) and SH (South Africa) exhibited highest amounts of total phenolic compounds while TOT5028 (Thailand) exhibited the lowest amounts of five times lower than the highest. The information offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10473-10479; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710473
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 6 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2190 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (
[...] Read more.
Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Mini-PEG-Based Spacer Length on Binding and Pharmacokinetic Properties of a 68Ga-Labeled NOTA-Conjugated Antagonistic Analog of Bombesin
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10455-10472; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710455
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3102 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in cancer can be used for peptide-receptor mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy. We have previously shown that an antagonist analog of bombesin RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a
[...] Read more.
The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in cancer can be used for peptide-receptor mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy. We have previously shown that an antagonist analog of bombesin RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethyleneglycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-PEG2-RM26) and labeled with 68Ga can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing tumors. In this study, we evaluated if a variation of mini-PEG spacer length can be used for optimization of targeting properties of the NOTA-conjugated RM26. A series of analogs with different PEG-length (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) was synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of natGa-NOTA-PEGn-RM26 (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) were 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.4 ± 0.4 and 5.8 ± 0.3 nM, respectively. In normal mice all conjugates demonstrated similar biodistribution pattern, however 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 showed lower liver uptake. Biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 was evaluated in nude mice bearing PC-3 (prostate cancer) and BT-474 (breast cancer) xenografts. High uptake in tumors (4.6 ± 0.6%ID/g and 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood of 44 ± 12 and 42 ± 5 for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) were found already at 2 h p.i. of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26. Results of this study suggest that variation in the length of the PEG spacer can be used for optimization of targeting properties of peptide-chelator conjugates. However, the influence of the mini-PEG length on biodistribution is minor when di-, tri-, tetra- and hexaethylene glycol are compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Changes of Flavonoids Contents in the Different Parts of Rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis During the Thermal Drying Process
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10440-10454; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710440
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2039 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The dried rhizome of Belamcanda. chinensis (L.) DC. is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Previous chemical and pharmacological investigations indicated that flavonoids may be responsible for the bioactivity of the herb. In this paper, the effects on the contents of twelve flavonoids in
[...] Read more.
The dried rhizome of Belamcanda. chinensis (L.) DC. is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Previous chemical and pharmacological investigations indicated that flavonoids may be responsible for the bioactivity of the herb. In this paper, the effects on the contents of twelve flavonoids in the three subunit parts of the rhizome of B. chinensis during the thermal drying process under treatment temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 120 °C at 10 °C intervals were investigated. The results showed that the content of most of the individual flavonoids except that of tectorigenin in the fresh eldest parts of the rhizome that originate directly from the seedling was higher than those of the other junior parts. The change trends of flavonoids contents were similar for three subunit parts of the rhizome during the drying process under the same treatment temperature. Most of the individual flavonoid contents in the rhizome increased in the early stages of the drying processes and decreased as the process was prolonged. The durations required to reaching the points of the maximal amounts of flavonoids revealed a significant negative correlation with the temperature. The variation of the content of mangiferin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, irilone and dichotomitin was positively correlated with irisflorentin that is the chemical marker used for the quality control of this herb. Taking into account of the production effectiveness and flavonoid yields, the appropriate drying temperature for this herb was suggested to be 100 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ OrbitrapXL Hybrid Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10427-10439; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710427
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2327 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of
[...] Read more.
Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Smilacis glabrae, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of its bioactive constituents. A total of 56 compounds, including six new compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced on the basis of their retention behaviors, mass spectra, or by comparison with reference substances and literature data. The identified compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoid glycosides. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds from five batches. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (LOQ), precision, repeatability and spike recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Crosslinked Amphiphilic Silver Nanogel as Thin Film Corrosion Protective Layer for Steel
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10410-10426; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710410
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2830 | PDF Full-text (884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with
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Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Biological Properties of Ring-Substituted Naphthalene-1-Carboxanilides
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10386-10409; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710386
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 13 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2509 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a series of twenty-two ring-substituted naphthalene-1-carboxanilides were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carboxanilides was performed against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methoxy-phenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methylphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(4-methylphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide and N-(3-fluorophenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide showed against M.
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In this study, a series of twenty-two ring-substituted naphthalene-1-carboxanilides were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carboxanilides was performed against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methoxy-phenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(3-methylphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide, N-(4-methylphenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide and N-(3-fluorophenyl)naphthalene-1-carboxamide showed against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis two-fold higher activity than rifampicin and three-fold higher activity than ciprofloxacin. The most effective antimycobacterial compounds demonstrated insignificant toxicity against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line. The testing of biological activity of the compounds was completed with the study of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibition in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]naphthalene-1-carboxamide was 59 μmol/L. The structure-activity relationships are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Variation in the Bioactive Compound Content at Three Ripening Stages of Strawberry Fruit
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10370-10385; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710370
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2289 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color.
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During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color. Fruits were harvested in three different periods. Analyzed strawberry cultivars show very good average values of the studied phenolic acids and flavonoids with predominant caffeic acid and epicatechin content in all researched strawberry cultivars. Considering the content of individual anthocyanins, pelargonidin 3-glucoside is predominant in strawberry extract followed by cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. The correlation between individual anthocyanin content and chromaticity parameters was detected in all strawberry cultivars, additionally correlation coefficients and statistical significance were much lower. The results show a positive association between cultivar and harvest time on strawberry pulp color, with each of the color variables, a, b, a/b ratio, C, L and values. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Atypical McMurry Cross-Coupling Reactions Leading to a New Series of Potent Antiproliferative Compounds Bearing the Key [Ferrocenyl-Ene-Phenol] Motif
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10350-10369; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710350
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3547 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of the preparation of a series of ferrocenyl derivatives of diethylstilbestrol (DES), in which one of the 4-hydroxyphenyl moieties was replaced by a ferrocenyl group, the McMurry reaction of chloropropionylferrocene with a number of mono-aryl ketones unexpectedly yielded the hydroxylated
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In the course of the preparation of a series of ferrocenyl derivatives of diethylstilbestrol (DES), in which one of the 4-hydroxyphenyl moieties was replaced by a ferrocenyl group, the McMurry reaction of chloropropionylferrocene with a number of mono-aryl ketones unexpectedly yielded the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES derivatives, 5ac, in poor yields (10%–16%). These compounds showed high activity on the hormone-independent breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 to 0.36 µM. Surprisingly, non-hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES, 4, showed only an IC50 value of 1.14 µM, illustrating the importance of the hydroxyethyl function in this promising new series. For comparison, McMurry reactions of the shorter chain analogue chloroacetylferrocene were carried out to see the difference in behaviour with mono-aryl ketones versus a diaryl ketone. The effect of changing the length of the alkyl chain adjacent to the phenolic substituent of the hydroxylated ferrocenyl DES was studied, a mechanistic rationale to account for the unexpected products is proposed, and the antiproliferative activities of all of these compounds on MDA-MB-231 cells lines were measured and compared. X-ray crystal structures of cross-coupled products and of pinacol-pinacolone rearrangements are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Practical Applications of Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Microextraction Techniques Coupled to Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Environmental Water Samples
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10320-10349; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710320
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3344 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive,
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Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be monitored because, although they are detected in low concentrations, they might be harmful toward ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Quantitation and Validation of Triterpenoids and Phytosteroids in Phaseolus angularis Seeds
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10309-10319; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710309
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2426 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A reproducible analytical method using reverse-phase high liquid performance chromatography combined with UV detecting was developed for the quantitative determination of four compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of Phaseolus angularis seeds (PASE): oleanolic acid (1), oleanolic acid acetate (2
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A reproducible analytical method using reverse-phase high liquid performance chromatography combined with UV detecting was developed for the quantitative determination of four compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of Phaseolus angularis seeds (PASE): oleanolic acid (1), oleanolic acid acetate (2), stigmasterol (3) and β-sitosterol (4). This method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.999), accuracy (98.5%–100.8%), precision (<0.92%), LOD (<0.0035 mg/mL), and LOQ (<0.0115 mg/mL). The effects of the PASE and isolated compounds 14 on TLR4 activation were tested in THP1-Blue cells. Among the tested substances, compound 2 showed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.89 ± 0.17 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Biotransformation and in Vitro Metabolic Profile of Bioactive Extracts from a Traditional Miao-Nationality Herbal Medicine, Polygonum capitatum
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10291-10308; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710291
Received: 23 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2607 | PDF Full-text (1219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth
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Polygonum capitatum Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don, a traditional Miao-nationality herbal medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of various urologic disorders. Recent pharmacological studies demonstrated that a pure compound, FR429, isolated from the ethanol extracts of P. capitatum could selectively inhibit the growth of four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, P. capitatum probably exhibits potential antitumor activity. However, there is very little information on the metabolism of substances present in P. capitatum extracts. In this study, gallic acid, quercetrin, ethanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of ethnolic extract (EtOAc fraction) of P. capitatum were cultured anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria. A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of fight mass spectrometry (LC/MSn-IT-TOF) technique was employed to identify and characterize the resulting metabolites. A total of 22 metabolites (M1–M22), including tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were detected and characterized. The overall results demonstrated that the intestinal bacteria played an important role in the metabolism of P. capitatum, and the main metabolic pathways were hydrolysis, reduction and oxidation reactions. Our results provided a basis for the estimation of the metabolic transformation of P. capitatum in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Natural Product Citral Can Cause Significant Damage to the Hyphal Cell Walls of Magnaporthe grisea
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10279-10290; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710279
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2777 | PDF Full-text (1094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to find a natural alternative to the synthetic fungicides currently used against the devastating rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, this study explored the antifungal potential of citral and its mechanism of action. It was found that citral not only inhibited
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In order to find a natural alternative to the synthetic fungicides currently used against the devastating rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, this study explored the antifungal potential of citral and its mechanism of action. It was found that citral not only inhibited hyphal growth of M. grisea, but also caused a series of marked hyphal morphological and structural alterations. Specifically, citral was tested for antifungal activity against M. grisea in vitro and was found to significantly inhibit colony development and mycelial growth with IC50 and IC90 values of 40.71 and 203.75 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, citral reduced spore germination and germ tube length in a concentration-dependent manner. Following exposure to citral, the hyphal cell surface became wrinkled with folds and cell breakage that were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was damage to hyphal cell walls and membrane structures, loss of villous-like material outside of the cell wall, thinning of the cell wall, and discontinuities formed in the cell membrane following treatment based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This increase in chitinase activity both supports the morphological changes seen in the hyphae, and also suggests a mechanism of action. In conclusion, citral has strong antifungal properties, and treatment with this compound is capable of causing significant damage to the hyphal cell walls of M. grisea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Bioassay-Guided Chemical Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Senna villosa (Miller) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae) in TPA-Induced Ear Edema
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10261-10278; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710261
Received: 23 March 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2308 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed.
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Senna villosa (Miller) is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2), heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2) and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2). This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Jasmonic Acid Effect on the Fatty Acid and Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10242-10260; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710242
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2421 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The stress response after jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was studied in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. The effect of JA on the primary and secondary metabolism was based on changes in profiles of fatty acids (FA) and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA).
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The stress response after jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was studied in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus. The effect of JA on the primary and secondary metabolism was based on changes in profiles of fatty acids (FA) and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA). According to multivariate data analyses (MVDA), three major time events were observed and characterized according to the variations of specific FA and TIA: after 0–30 min of induction FA such as C18:1, C20:0, C22:0 and C24:0 were highly induced by JA; 90–360 min after treatment was characterized by variations of C14:0 and C15:0; and 1440 min after induction JA had the largest effect on both group of metabolites were C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C16:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0, catharanthine, tabersonine-like 1, serpentine, tabersonine and ajmalicine-like had the most significant variations. These results unambiguously demonstrate the profound effect of JA particularly on the accumulation of its own precursor, C18:3 and the accumulation of TIA, which can be considered as late stress response events to JA since they occurred only after 1440 min. These observations show that the early events in the JA response do not involve the de novo biosynthesis of neither its own precursor nor TIA, but is due to an already present biochemical system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle QM/MM Studies of Contemporary and Novel Membrane Raft Fluorescent Probes
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10230-10241; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710230
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1878 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have studied a number of contemporary and novel membrane probes, selected for their structural similarity to membrane raft components, in order to properly anchor themselves within a sphingolipid/cholesterol rich region. A QM/MM approach was adopted in order to understand the structural and
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We have studied a number of contemporary and novel membrane probes, selected for their structural similarity to membrane raft components, in order to properly anchor themselves within a sphingolipid/cholesterol rich region. A QM/MM approach was adopted in order to understand the structural and electrostatic influences of fluorescence emission shifts of the probes in different lipid and solvation environments. The proposed modifications to the membrane probes have shown encouraging data relating not only to emission shifts within the membrane, but also their ability to anchor within a membrane raft domain and the stability to internalization within a membrane system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Erbium-Based Bifuctional Heterogeneous Catalyst: A Cooperative Route Towards C-C Bond Formation
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10218-10229; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710218
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 July 2014 / Published: 15 July 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2176 | PDF Full-text (686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heterogeneous bifuctional catalysts are multifunctional synthetic catalysts enabling efficient organic transformations by exploiting two opposite functionalities without mutual destruction. In this paper we report the first Er(III)-based metallorganic heterogeneous catalyst, synthesized by post-calcination MW-assisted grafting and modification of the natural aminoacid L-cysteine. The
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Heterogeneous bifuctional catalysts are multifunctional synthetic catalysts enabling efficient organic transformations by exploiting two opposite functionalities without mutual destruction. In this paper we report the first Er(III)-based metallorganic heterogeneous catalyst, synthesized by post-calcination MW-assisted grafting and modification of the natural aminoacid L-cysteine. The natural acid–base distance between sites was maintained to assure the cooperation. The applicability of this new bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst to C-C bond formation and the supposed mechanisms of action are discussed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Catechol as a New Marker for Detecting Propolis Adulteration
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10208-10217; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710208
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2426 | PDF Full-text (1351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles
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Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10189-10207; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190710189
Received: 20 April 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2033 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The
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The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars. Full article
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