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Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10601-10617;

Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes

Department of Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, University of Lodz, Lodz 90-237, Banacha 12/16, Poland
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, State Research Institute, Pulawy 24-100, Czartoryskich 8, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 10 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98%) fractions (SAPFs), isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL were arbitrarily considered as subMICs for C. albicans ATCC 10231 and were further used. SAPFs affected yeast enzymatic activity, lowered tolerance to the oxidative stress, to the osmotic stress and to the action of the cell wall disrupting agent. In their presence, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly inhibited, as well as Candida invasive capacity. The evaluation of SAPFs interactions with anti-mycotics showed synergistic activity, mainly with azoles. Fluconazole MIC was lowered—susceptible C. albicans ATCC 10231 was more susceptible, and resistant C. glabrata (clinical strain) become more susceptible (eightfold). Moreover, the tested samples showed no hemolytic activity and at the concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL did not reduce viability of fibroblasts L929. This study provided the original evidence that SAPFs of Trifolium spp. aerial part exhibit significant antimicrobial activity, by reduce the expression/quantity of important Candida virulence factors and have good potential for the development of novel antifungal products supporting classic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: saponins; Trifolium spp; Candida albicans; virulence factors saponins; Trifolium spp; Candida albicans; virulence factors

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Budzyńska, A.; Sadowska, B.; Więckowska-Szakiel, M.; Micota, B.; Stochmal, A.; Jędrejek, D.; Pecio, Ł.; Różalska, B. Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes. Molecules 2014, 19, 10601-10617.

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