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Molecules, Volume 17, Issue 3 (March 2012), Pages 2271-3598

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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Volatile Composition in Brown Millet, Milled Millet and Millet Bran by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2271-2282; doi:10.3390/molecules17032271
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (205 KB)
Abstract
The volatile compounds from brown millet (BM), milled millet (MM) and millet bran (MB) were extracted using simultaneous distillation/extraction with a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The extracts were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 65 volatile compounds were identified
[...] Read more.
The volatile compounds from brown millet (BM), milled millet (MM) and millet bran (MB) were extracted using simultaneous distillation/extraction with a Likens-Nickerson apparatus. The extracts were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 65 volatile compounds were identified in all of the samples. Among these compounds, 51, 51 and 49 belonged to BM, MM and MB, respectively. Aldehydes and benzene derivatives were the most numerous among all of the compounds. Three compounds (hexanal, hexadecanoic acid and 2-methylnaphthalene) were dominant in the BM and MM materials. Eight compounds (hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, hexadecanoic acid and 2-pentylfuran) were dominant in the MB materials. Apart from the aromatic molecules, which were present in all fractions, compounds present only in BM, MM or MB were also identified. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Rheological Properties and Swelling Behaviour of Sonicated Scleroglucan Samples
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2283-2297; doi:10.3390/molecules17032283
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 16 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (372 KB)
Abstract
Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide that has been proposed for various applications. However there is no investigation on its property variations when the molecular weight of this polymer is reduced. Scleroglucan was sonicated at two different polymer concentrations for different periods of time
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Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide that has been proposed for various applications. However there is no investigation on its property variations when the molecular weight of this polymer is reduced. Scleroglucan was sonicated at two different polymer concentrations for different periods of time and the effect of sonication was investigated with respect to molecular weight variations and rheological properties. Molar mass, estimated by viscometric measurements, was drastically reduced already after a sonication for a few min. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording the mechanical spectra and the flow curves. A comparison with the system prepared with the dialysed polymer was also carried out. The anisotropic elongation, observed with tablets of scleroglucan and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Experimental Methodologies and Evaluations of Computer-Aided Drug Design Methodologies Applied to a Series of 2-Aminothiophene Derivatives with Antifungal Activities
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2298-2315; doi:10.3390/molecules17032298
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 3 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (442 KB)
Abstract
Fifty 2-[(arylidene)amino]-4,5-cycloalkyl[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile derivatives were screened for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. Based on experimentally determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, we conducted computer-aided drug design studies [molecular modelling, chemometric tools (CPCA, PCA, PLS) and
[...] Read more.
Fifty 2-[(arylidene)amino]-4,5-cycloalkyl[b]thiophene-3-carbonitrile derivatives were screened for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. Based on experimentally determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, we conducted computer-aided drug design studies [molecular modelling, chemometric tools (CPCA, PCA, PLS) and QSAR-3D] that enable the prediction of three-dimensional structural characteristics that influence the antifungal activities of these derivatives. These predictions provide direction with regard to the syntheses of new derivatives with improved biological activities, which can be used as therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of fungal infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acylated mono-, bis- and tris- Cinchona-Based Amines Containing Ferrocene or Organic Residues: Synthesis, Structure and in Vitro Antitumor Activity on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2316-2329; doi:10.3390/molecules17032316
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (253 KB)
Abstract
A series of novel functionalized mono-, bis- and tris-(S)-{[(2S,4R,8R)-8-ethyl-quinuclidin-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)}methanamines including ferrocene-containing derivatives was obtained by the reaction of the precursor amine with a variety of acylation agents. Their in vitro antitumor activity
[...] Read more.
A series of novel functionalized mono-, bis- and tris-(S)-{[(2S,4R,8R)-8-ethyl-quinuclidin-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)}methanamines including ferrocene-containing derivatives was obtained by the reaction of the precursor amine with a variety of acylation agents. Their in vitro antitumor activity was investigated against human leukemia (HL-60), human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were determined. Our data indicate that the precursor amine has no antitumor activity in vitro, but the bis-methanamines with ureido-, thioureido and amide-type linkers display attractive in vitro cytotoxicity and cytostatic effects on HL-60, HepG2, MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells. Besides 1H- and 13C-NMR methods the structures of the new model compounds were also studied by DFT calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2330-2334; doi:10.3390/molecules17032330
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (154 KB)
Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and
[...] Read more.
The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Studies of the (Anti) Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2335-2350; doi:10.3390/molecules17032335
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (299 KB)
Abstract
Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl}-2(E)-propenoic acid), is the main
[...] Read more.
Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl}-2(E)-propenoic acid), is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate) and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate) by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Syntheses and Cell-Based Phenotypic Screen of Novel 7-Amino pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile Derivatives as Potential Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2351-2366; doi:10.3390/molecules17032351
Received: 12 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (430 KB)
Abstract
A series of N-3-substituted 7-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-carbonitrile derivatives was readily synthesized and their anti-proliferative activities on five types of tumor cells were evaluated through a cell-based phenotypic screening approach. Compound 3k was found to be potent on human colon cancer SW620 cells with
[...] Read more.
A series of N-3-substituted 7-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-carbonitrile derivatives was readily synthesized and their anti-proliferative activities on five types of tumor cells were evaluated through a cell-based phenotypic screening approach. Compound 3k was found to be potent on human colon cancer SW620 cells with an IC50 value of 12.5 mM. Structural optimization of compound 3k led to compound 4a with improved anti-proliferative potency on SW620 cells with an IC50 value of 6.9 mM. Further cell-cycle analyses suggested that compound 4a induced apoptosis of SW620 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2378-2387; doi:10.3390/molecules17032378
Received: 12 December 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (293 KB)
Abstract
A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty
[...] Read more.
A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer) and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian). The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava. Full article
Open AccessArticle Production of Salvianolic Acid B in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) During the Post-Harvest Drying Process
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2388-2407; doi:10.3390/molecules17032388
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 February 2012 / Published: 27 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (586 KB)
Abstract
Drying is the most common and fundamental procedure in the post-harvest processing which contributes to the quality and valuation of medicinal plants. However, attention to and research work on this aspect is relatively poor. In this paper, we reveal dynamic variations of concentrations
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Drying is the most common and fundamental procedure in the post-harvest processing which contributes to the quality and valuation of medicinal plants. However, attention to and research work on this aspect is relatively poor. In this paper, we reveal dynamic variations of concentrations of five major bioactive components, namely salvianolic acid B (SaB), dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dashen) during the drying process at different oven temperatures. A minor amount of SaB was found in fresh materials while an noticeable increase in SaB was detected in drying at 50~160 °C. The maximal value occured after 40 min of drying at 130 °C and its variation showed a reverse V-shaped curve. Production of SaB exhibited a significant positive correlation with drying temperatures and a significant negative correlation with sample moistures. The amounts of tanshinones were nearly doubled in the early stage of drying and their variations showed similar changing trends with drying temperatures and sample moistures. The results supported our speculation that postharvest fresh plant materials, especially roots, were still physiologically active organs and would exhibit a series of anti-dehydration mechanisms including production of related secondary metabolites at the early stage of dehydration. Hence, the proper design of drying processes could contribute to promoting rather than reducing the quality of Danshen and other similar medicinal plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization, X-ray Crystallography, Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Some Novel Ketone Derivatives of Gallic Hydrazide-Derived Schiff Bases
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2408-2427; doi:10.3390/molecules17032408
Received: 28 January 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 28 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and the pathogenesis of this disease is associated with oxidative stress. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidant activities are considered potential treatments for AD. Some novel ketone derivatives of gallic hydrazide-derived Schiff
[...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people and the pathogenesis of this disease is associated with oxidative stress. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidant activities are considered potential treatments for AD. Some novel ketone derivatives of gallic hydrazide-derived Schiff bases were synthesized and examined for their antioxidant activities and in vitro and in silico acetyl cholinesterase inhibition. The compounds were characterized using spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays revealed that all the compounds have strong antioxidant activities. N-(1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylidene)-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzohydrazide (2) was the most potent inhibitor of human acetyl cholinesterase, giving an inhibition rate of 77% at 100 μM. Molecular docking simulation of the ligand-enzyme complex suggested that the ligand may be positioned in the enzyme’s active-site gorge, interacting with residues in the peripheral anionic subsite (PAS) and acyl binding pocket (ABP). The current work warrants further preclinical studies to assess the potential for these novel compounds for the treatment of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Lycopene/Arabinoxylan Gels: Rheological and Controlled Release Characteristics
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2428-2436; doi:10.3390/molecules17032428
Received: 17 February 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 28 February 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (208 KB)
Abstract
Arabinoxylan gels exhibiting different rheological and lycopene transport properties were obtained by modifying the polysaccharide concentration from 3 to 4% (w/v). The apparent lycopene diffusion coefficient decreased from 2.7 × 10−7 to 2.4 × 10−7 cm2/s as the arabinoxylan
[...] Read more.
Arabinoxylan gels exhibiting different rheological and lycopene transport properties were obtained by modifying the polysaccharide concentration from 3 to 4% (w/v). The apparent lycopene diffusion coefficient decreased from 2.7 × 10−7 to 2.4 × 10−7 cm2/s as the arabinoxylan concentration in the gel changed from 3 to 4% (w/v). A low amount of lycopene is released by diffusion from arabinoxylan gels. These results indicate that arabinoxylan gels could be carriers for lycopene delivery in specific sites after network degradation. The possibility to modulate lycopene release from arabinoxylan gels makes these biomaterials potential candidates for the controlled delivery of biomolecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Flavone Enhances Dengue Virus Type-2 (NGC Strain) Infectivity and Replication in Vero Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2437-2445; doi:10.3390/molecules17032437
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 29 January 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 28 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (243 KB)
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of 2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one (flavone) on DENV-2 infectivity in Vero cells. Virus adsorption and attachment and intracellular virus replication were investigated using a foci forming unit assay (FFUA) and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Addition of flavone (100 μg/mL) significantly increased the
[...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of 2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one (flavone) on DENV-2 infectivity in Vero cells. Virus adsorption and attachment and intracellular virus replication were investigated using a foci forming unit assay (FFUA) and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Addition of flavone (100 μg/mL) significantly increased the number of DENV-2 foci by 35.66% ± 1.52 and 49.66% ± 2.51 when added during and after virus adsorption to the Vero cells, respectively. The average foci size after 4 days of infection increased by 33% ± 2.11 and 89% ± 2.13. The DENV-2 specific RNA copy number in the flavone-treated infected cells increased by 6.41- and 23.1-fold when compared to the mock-treated infected cells. Flavone (100 μg/mL) did not promote or inhibit Vero cell proliferation. The CC50 value of flavone against Vero cells was 446 µg/mL. These results suggest that flavone might enhance dengue virus replication by acting antagonistically towards flavonoids known to inhibit dengue virus replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle SnCl2/TiCl3-Mediated Deoximation of Oximes in an Aqueous Solvent
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2464-2473; doi:10.3390/molecules17032464
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 1 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract A simple procedure for SnCl2/TiCl3-mediated deoximation of ketoximes in an aqueous solvent is reported. Under the conditions developed in this effort, various ketones and aldehydes are produced in good to excellent yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2518-2528; doi:10.3390/molecules17032518
Received: 12 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (217 KB)
Abstract
A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min
[...] Read more.
A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v) and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar) and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C). Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40%) as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tandem Three-Component Reactions of Aldehyde, Alkyl Acrylate, and Dialkylmalonate Catalyzed by Ethyl Diphenylphosphine
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2529-2541; doi:10.3390/molecules17032529
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
PDF Full-text (255 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new highly efficient three-component reaction of alkyl acrylate, aldehyde and dialkyl malonate using ethyl diphenylphosphine as organocatalyst has been described. Various highly functional compounds bearing hydroxyl groups and the ester functions can be easily prepared in moderate to good yields according to
[...] Read more.
A new highly efficient three-component reaction of alkyl acrylate, aldehyde and dialkyl malonate using ethyl diphenylphosphine as organocatalyst has been described. Various highly functional compounds bearing hydroxyl groups and the ester functions can be easily prepared in moderate to good yields according to our one-step procedure. The reactions are believed to proceed via Morita-Baylis-Hillman reactions of alkyl acrylate and aldehydes, followed by the Michael addition reactions of dialkyl malonates. Our reactions indicated that the intermediate species formed in the phosphine-catalyzed MBH reaction are an effective organic base to catalyze the Michael addition reactions of dialkyl malonates to the preformed MBH adducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Spectral and Solid State Characterization of a New Bioactive Hydrazine Bridged Cyclic Diphosphonium Compound
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2567-2578; doi:10.3390/molecules17032567
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
PDF Full-text (302 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The facile preparation of a racemic hydrazine bridged diphosphonium compound possessing a ring system analogous to bicyclo[3.3.2]decane is reported. Although the reaction yield is low, the structure of the compound, which possesses an eight-membered ring, two phosphonium cationic centers, a biimino bridge, molecular
[...] Read more.
The facile preparation of a racemic hydrazine bridged diphosphonium compound possessing a ring system analogous to bicyclo[3.3.2]decane is reported. Although the reaction yield is low, the structure of the compound, which possesses an eight-membered ring, two phosphonium cationic centers, a biimino bridge, molecular chirality and two fused aromatic rings locked into roughly perpendicular planes is unusual. The compound displays substantial biological activity in the brine shrimp test and cleaves plasmid DNA. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Anti-Addition Mechanism in the Intramolecular Hydroalkoxylation of Alkenes Catalyzed by PVP-Stabilized Nanogold
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2579-2586; doi:10.3390/molecules17032579
Received: 13 February 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (277 KB)
Abstract
(1R*,4S*,4aR*,9aS*,10S*)-10-Hydroxy-10-phenyl-1,4a,9a,10-tetrahydro-1,4-methanoanthracen-9(4H)-one (1c) was prepared for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism of intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of alkenes catalyzed by gold nanoclusters stabilized by a hydrophilic polymer, poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (
[...] Read more.
(1R*,4S*,4aR*,9aS*,10S*)-10-Hydroxy-10-phenyl-1,4a,9a,10-tetrahydro-1,4-methanoanthracen-9(4H)-one (1c) was prepared for the elucidation of the reaction mechanism of intramolecular hydroalkoxylation of alkenes catalyzed by gold nanoclusters stabilized by a hydrophilic polymer, poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (Au:PVP). It was found that the reaction proceeded via anti-addition of alcohol to the alkene assisted by p-activation of the gold clusters, which is the same mechanism as the hydroamination by toluenesulfonamides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gold Catalysts)
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Open AccessArticle New Constituents from the Rhizomes of Egyptian Iris germanica L.
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2587-2598; doi:10.3390/molecules17032587
Received: 5 February 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (354 KB)
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Iris germanica L. (Iridaceae) afforded two new compounds; irigenin S (7) and iriside A (12), together with ten known compounds: stigmasterol (1), a-irone (2), γ-irone
[...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Iris germanica L. (Iridaceae) afforded two new compounds; irigenin S (7) and iriside A (12), together with ten known compounds: stigmasterol (1), a-irone (2), γ-irone (3), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (4), irilone (5), irisolidone (6), irigenin (8), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), irilone 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (10) and iridin (11). Their structures were established by UV, IR, 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to mass spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. Both the methanolic extract and the isolated flavonoids were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Convergent Synthesis of the Potent P2Y Receptor Antagonist MG 50-3-1 Based on a Regioselective Ullmann Coupling Reaction
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2599-2615; doi:10.3390/molecules17032599
Received: 25 January 2012 / Revised: 25 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (329 KB)
Abstract
MG 50-3-1 (3, trisodium 1-amino-4-{4-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino]-2-sulfophenylamino}-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene 2-sulfonate) is the most potent and selective antagonist (IC50 4.6 nM) for “P2Y1-like” nucleotide-activated membrane receptors in guinea-pig taenia coli responsible for smooth muscle relaxation. Full characterization of the compound, however, e.g., at
[...] Read more.
MG 50-3-1 (3, trisodium 1-amino-4-{4-[4-chloro-6-(2-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino]-2-sulfophenylamino}-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene 2-sulfonate) is the most potent and selective antagonist (IC50 4.6 nM) for “P2Y1-like” nucleotide-activated membrane receptors in guinea-pig taenia coli responsible for smooth muscle relaxation. Full characterization of the compound, however, e.g., at the human P2Y1 receptor, which is a novel potential target for antithrombotic drugs, as well as other P2 receptor subtypes, has been hampered due to difficulties in synthesizing the compound in sufficient quantity. MG 50-3-1 would be highly useful as a biological tool for detailed investigation of signal transduction in the gut. We have now developed a convenient, fast, mild, and efficient convergent synthesis of 3 based on retrosynthetic analysis. A new, regioselective Ullmann coupling reaction under microwave irradiation was successfully developed to obtain 1-amino-4-(4-amino-2-sulfophenylamino)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro­anthracene 2-sulfonate (8). Four different copper catalysts (Cu, CuCl, CuCl2, and CuSO4) were investigated at different pH values of sodium phosphate buffer, and in water in the absence or presence of base. Results showed that CuSO4 in water in the presence of triethylamine provided the best conditions for the regioselective Ullmann coupling reaction yielding the key intermediate compound 8. A new synthon (sodium 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate, 13) which can easily be obtained on a gram scale was prepared, and 13 was successfully coupled with 8 yielding the target compound 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidation of 2-Hydroxynevirapine, a Phenolic Metabolite of the Anti-HIV Drug Nevirapine: Evidence for an Unusual Pyridine Ring Contraction
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2616-2627; doi:10.3390/molecules17032616
Received: 15 January 2012 / Revised: 18 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (320 KB)
Abstract
Nevirapine (NVP) is an anti-HIV drug associated with severe hepatotoxicity and skin rashes, which raises concerns about its chronic administration. There is increasing evidence that metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles capable of reacting with bionucleophiles is likely to be involved in the initiation
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Nevirapine (NVP) is an anti-HIV drug associated with severe hepatotoxicity and skin rashes, which raises concerns about its chronic administration. There is increasing evidence that metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles capable of reacting with bionucleophiles is likely to be involved in the initiation of these toxic responses. Phase I NVP metabolism involves oxidation of the 4-methyl substituent and the formation of phenolic derivatives that are conceivably capable of undergoing further metabolic oxidation to electrophilic quinoid species prone to react with bionucleophiles. The covalent adducts thus formed might be at the genesis of toxic responses. As part of a program aimed at evaluating the possible contribution of quinoid derivatives of Phase I phenolic NVP metabolites to the toxic responses elicited by the parent drug, we have investigated the oxidation of 2-hydroxy-NVP with dipotassium nitroso-disulfonate (Frémy’s salt), mimicking the one-electron oxidation involved in enzyme-mediated metabolic oxidations. We report herein the isolation and full structural characterization of a 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivative as a major product, stemming from an unusual pyridine ring contraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ECSOC-15)
Open AccessArticle Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2628-2642; doi:10.3390/molecules17032628
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (376 KB)
Abstract
Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
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Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Extraction in Supercritical Fluids)
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Open AccessArticle A Microwave-Assisted Bismuth Nitrate-Catalyzed Unique Route Toward 1,4-Dihydropyridines
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2643-2662; doi:10.3390/molecules17032643
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (352 KB)
Abstract
The classical Hantzsch reaction is one of the simplest and most economical methods for the synthesis of biologically important and pharmacologically useful 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate under microwave irradiation is proven to act as a very efficient catalyst for a one-pot, three-component
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The classical Hantzsch reaction is one of the simplest and most economical methods for the synthesis of biologically important and pharmacologically useful 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate under microwave irradiation is proven to act as a very efficient catalyst for a one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines in excellent yields from diverse amines/ammonium acetate, aldehydes and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds within 1–3 min under solvent-free conditions. The present environmentally benign procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines is suitable for library synthesis and it will find application in the synthesis of potent biologically active molecules. The excellent yield and extreme rapidity of the method is due to a concurrent effect of the catalyst and microwave irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Metoprolol in Beagle Dog Plasma with a Simple Protein Precipitation Treatment and Its Pharmacokinetic Applications
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2663-2674; doi:10.3390/molecules17032663
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (376 KB)
Abstract
: A rapid LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and sensitivity was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetics study of metoprolol (MP) in beagle dogs. The plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An Ultimate XB-C18 column (150
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: A rapid LC-MS/MS method with good accuracy and sensitivity was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetics study of metoprolol (MP) in beagle dogs. The plasma samples were simply precipitated by methanol and then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. An Ultimate XB-C18 column (150 × 2.1 mm ID, 5 μm) was used for separation, with methanol-water containing 0.2% formic acid (65:35, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Monitoring ions of MP and internal standard (hydroxypioglitazone) were m/z 268.1/115.6 and m/z 373.1/150.2, respectively. The linear range was 3.03–416.35 ng/mL with an average correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and the limit of quantification was 3.03 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15%. At low, middle and high concentrations, the recovery, the matrix effect and the accuracy was in the range of 76.06%–95.25%, 93.67%–104.19% and 95.20%–99.96% respectively. The method was applied for the pharmacokinetics study of MP tartrate tablets (50 mg). The AUC0-t, Tmax and Cmax were respectively 919.88 ± 195.67 μg/L·h, 0.96 ± 0.33 h, 349.12 ± 78.04 ng/mL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Phenolic Amides from Celtis africana
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2675-2682; doi:10.3390/molecules17032675
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (174 KB)
Abstract
Nine compounds have been isolated for the first time from Celtis africana, namely trans-N-coumaroyltyramine (1), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (2), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (3), lauric acid (4), oleic acid (
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Nine compounds have been isolated for the first time from Celtis africana, namely trans-N-coumaroyltyramine (1), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (2), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (3), lauric acid (4), oleic acid (5), palmitic acid (6), lupeol (7), β-sitosterol (8) and oleanolic acid (9), respectively. Their structures have been elucidated by different spectroscopic techniques. The isolated compounds were screened for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and acetylcholinestrease enzyme inhibitory activities. Compounds 13 showed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and weak to moderate acetylcholinestrease enzyme inhibition activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Chemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Supercritical and Conventional Sideritis scardica Griseb., Lamiaceae Extracts
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2683-2703; doi:10.3390/molecules17032683
Received: 16 January 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (321 KB)
Abstract
Sideritis scardica Griseb., Lamiaceae (ironwort, mountain tea), an endemic plant of the Balkan Peninsula, has been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of antimicrobial infections, gastrointestinal complaints, inflammation and rheumatic disorders. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation HD and solvent
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Sideritis scardica Griseb., Lamiaceae (ironwort, mountain tea), an endemic plant of the Balkan Peninsula, has been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of antimicrobial infections, gastrointestinal complaints, inflammation and rheumatic disorders. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation HD and solvent extraction SE) and alternative (supercritical carbon dioxide SC CO2) extraction methods regarding the qualitative and quantitative composition of the obtained extracts as analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques and their anitimicrobial activity. Different types of extracts were tested, the essential oil EO obtained by HD, EO-CO2 and AO-CO2 obtained by SC CO2 at different preasures 10 and 30 MPa, at 40 °C, respectively, and the fractions A, B, C and D obtained by successive solvent extraction (SE) A: ethanol, B: diethyl ether, C: ethyl acetate and D: n-butanol). While EO was characterized by the presence of the high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (30.01 and 25.54%, respectively), the rest of the investigated samples were the most abundant in fatty acids and their esters and diterpenes (from 16.72 to 71.07% for fatty acids and their esters, and from 23.30 to 72.76%, for diterpenes). Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the strong to moderate activity of all investigated extracts against the tested microorganisms (MIC from 40 to 2,560 μg/mL). Although differences in the chemical compositions determined by GC and GC-MS analysis were established, the displayed antimicrobial activity was similar for the all investigated extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2704-2713; doi:10.3390/molecules17032704
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (182 KB)
Abstract
In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene,
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In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC50) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Submerged Fermentation of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a Batch Stirred Tank Bioreactor as a Promising Alternative for the Effective Production of Bioactive Metabolites
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2714-2724; doi:10.3390/molecules17032714
Received: 23 December 2011 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (303 KB)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the submerged fermentation procedure in the production of bioactive metabolites of the common edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The biomass of the mushroom strain was produced by submerged fermentation in a batch stirred
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The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the submerged fermentation procedure in the production of bioactive metabolites of the common edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The biomass of the mushroom strain was produced by submerged fermentation in a batch stirred tank bioreactor and extracted by solvents of increasing polarity. The dichloromethane and methanol extract were fractioned by different techniques including Adsorption Chromatography and Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (FCPC). The structures of pure compounds were elucidated with 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS and LC/MS experiments. Nineteen metabolites (e.g., fatty acids, phenolic metabolites, nucleotides and alkaloids) were isolated. Beyond the production of known metabolites, we report herein the production also of trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxynapthalen-1(2H)-one, indolo-3-carboxylic acid, 3-formylpyrrole and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that have pharmaceutical interest and are isolated for the first time from Pleurotus strains.This work indicates the great potential of the established bioprocess for the production of P. ostreatus mycelia with enhanced metabolic profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum Rhizome Protect against Brain Ischemia Injury via Regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS Generation
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2725-2737; doi:10.3390/molecules17032725
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (605 KB)
Abstract
Menispermum dauricum rhizome has been widely used in China to treat various cardiovascular and thrombosis disorders. Some studies have reported that the phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum rhizome (PAM) have protective effects against brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism of this action remains
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Menispermum dauricum rhizome has been widely used in China to treat various cardiovascular and thrombosis disorders. Some studies have reported that the phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum rhizome (PAM) have protective effects against brain ischemia injury, but the mechanism of this action remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms of action of PAM on experimental brain ischemia injury. Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat primary cortical cultures and middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were used to mimic ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. The results suggested that PAM protected rat primary cortical cultures against OGD-reoxygenation induced cytotoxicity. PAM decreased extracellular glutamate content and markedly prevented the effects induced by OGD on protein level of GLT-1 and EAAC1 glutamate transporters. In addition, it reduced intracellular ROS generation. In vivo, PAM significantly reduced cerebral infarct area and ameliorated neurological functional deficits at different time points. Our findings revealed that the possible mechanism of action of PAM protected against brain ischemia injury involves regulation of GLT-1, EAAC1 and ROS generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Enalaprilat on Rat Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation via ROS/P38MAPK/TGF-β1 Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2738-2751; doi:10.3390/molecules17032738
Received: 8 January 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 29 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (629 KB)
Abstract
Enalaprilat (Ena.), an angiotensin II (Ang II) converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), can produce some therapeutic effects on hypertension, ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial remodeling in clinic, but its precise mechanism, especially its signaling pathways remain elusive. In this study, cardiac fibroblasts (CFb) was isolated
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Enalaprilat (Ena.), an angiotensin II (Ang II) converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), can produce some therapeutic effects on hypertension, ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial remodeling in clinic, but its precise mechanism, especially its signaling pathways remain elusive. In this study, cardiac fibroblasts (CFb) was isolated by the trypsin digestion method; a BrdU proliferation assay was adopted to determine cell proliferation; an immunofluorescence assay was used to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS); immunocytochemistry staining and Western blotting assay were used to detect phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein expression, respectively. The results showed that Ang II (10–7 M) stimulated the cardiac fibroblast proliferation which was inhibited by NAC (an antioxidant), SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor) or enalaprilat; Ang II caused an burst of intracellular ROS level within thirty minutes, an increase in p-p38MAPK (3.6-fold of that in the control group), as well as an elevation of TGF-β1 meantime; NAC, an antioxidant, and enalaprilat treatment attenuated cardiac fibroblast proliferation induced by Ang II and decreased ROS and p-p38MAPK protein levels in rat cardiac fibroblast; SB203580 lowered TGF-β1 protein expression in rats’ CFb in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that enalaprilat can inhibit the cardiac fibroblast proliferation induced by Ang II via blocking ROS/P38MAPK/TGF-β1 signaling pathways and the study provides a theoretical proof for the application of ACEIs in treating myocardial fibrosis and discovering the primary mechanism through which ACEIs inhibit CFb proliferation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Property Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of the Novel Composite Polymer Polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2752-2772; doi:10.3390/molecules17032752
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (593 KB)
Abstract
A novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 composite polymer was synthesized by chemical oxidation in-situ polymerization method and sol-gel method for the first time. The structural properties of novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron
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A novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 composite polymer was synthesized by chemical oxidation in-situ polymerization method and sol-gel method for the first time. The structural properties of novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry. The lattice parameter of Bi2SnTiO7 was found to be a = 10.52582(8) Å. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was realized under visible light irradiation with the novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 as catalyst. The results showed that novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 possessed higher catalytic activity compared with Bi2InTaO7 or pure TiO2 or N-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with the novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 or N-doped TiO2 as catalyst followed first-order reaction kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was 0.01504 or 0.00333 min−1. After visible light irradiation for 220 minutes with novel polyaniline/Bi2SnTiO7 as catalyst, complete removal and mineralization of methylene blue was observed. The reduction of the total organic carbon, the formation of inorganic products, SO42− and NO3−, and the evolution of CO2 revealed the continuous mineralization of methylene blue during the photocatalytic process. The possible photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue was obtained under visible light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ECSOC-15)
Open AccessArticle Separation and Identification of Highly Fluorescent Compounds Derived from trans-Resveratrol in the Leaves of Vitis vinifera Infected by Plasmopara viticola
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2773-2783; doi:10.3390/molecules17032773
Received: 24 December 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (566 KB)
Abstract
A method for identification of highly fluorescent compounds in vine leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola was developed using reversed phase liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorometric detection. Fluorescent compounds were extracted from leaves with a methanol-water mixture (70:30). Separation by HPLC
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A method for identification of highly fluorescent compounds in vine leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola was developed using reversed phase liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorometric detection. Fluorescent compounds were extracted from leaves with a methanol-water mixture (70:30). Separation by HPLC was performed using a C18 column and gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mixtures (20–80% of acetonitrile). The main unknown fluorescent compound was identified by line spectral comparison with a standard obtained by UV photoisomerization of trans-resveratrol glucoside, and its structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identification and structural elucidation of the fluorescent compound in the leaves of Vitis vinifera allows early detection of Plasmopara viticola invasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Direct Blending Dye Wastewater and Recycling of Dye Sludge
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2784-2795; doi:10.3390/molecules17032784
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 29 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (615 KB)
Abstract
A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD), was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl
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A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD), was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV) and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto the BSD material approached to 39.36 mg/g. The sorption of EV changed little with pH from 3 to 12 while it increased with increasing levels of electrolyte. A dye wastewater sampled from Jinjiang Chemicals was treated, and the color removal rate was more than the COD removal rate. In addition, the cationic dye-BSD sludge was utilized as a colorant fill-in coating. The light stability and thermal stability of the colorant was measured and exhibited good features. This work provided a simple and eco-friendly method for dye wastewater treatment with recycling of waste. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Pithecellobium Jiringa Ethanol Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2796-2811; doi:10.3390/molecules17032796
Received: 31 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (787 KB)
Abstract
Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were
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Current anti-gastric ulcer agents have side effects, despite the progression and expansion of advances in treatment. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective mechanisms of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulcers in rats. For this purpose, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 (normal control) rats were orally administered with vehicle (carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 2 (ulcer control) rats were also orally administered with vehicle. Group 3 (positive control) rats were orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole, Groups 4 and 5 (experimental groups) received ethanol extract of Pithecellobium jiringa ethanol extract at a concentration of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty minutes later, vehicle was given orally to the normal control group, and absolute ethanol was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control and experimental groups to generate gastric mucosal injury. The rats were sacrificed an hour later. The effect of oral administration of plant extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury was studied grossly and histology. The level of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde—MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gastric wall mucus were measured from gastric mucosal homogenate. The ulcer control group exhibited severe gastric mucosal injury, and this finding was also confirmed by histology of gastric mucosa which showed severe damage to the gastric mucosa with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer. Pre-treatment with plant extract significantly reduced the formation of ethanol-induced gastric lesions, and gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved. The study also indicated a significant increase in SOD activity in gastric mucosal homogenate, whereas a significant decrease in MDA was observed. Acute toxicity tests did not show any signs of toxicity and mortality up to 5 g/kg. The ulcer protective effect of this plant may possibly be due to its preservation of gastric wall mucus along with increased SOD activity and reduction of oxidative stress (MDA). The extract is non-toxic, even at relatively high concentrations. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Efficient Synthesis of β-Enaminones and β-Enaminoesters Catalyzed by Gold (I)/Silver (I) under Solvent-Free Conditions
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2812-2822; doi:10.3390/molecules17032812
Received: 15 January 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (271 KB)
Abstract
An efficient method for the synthesis of β-enaminones and β-enaminoesters using a combination of [(PPh3)AuCl]/AgOTf as catalyst has been developed. The reaction between 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and primary amines was carried out under solvent-free conditions with low catalyst loading in good to
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An efficient method for the synthesis of β-enaminones and β-enaminoesters using a combination of [(PPh3)AuCl]/AgOTf as catalyst has been developed. The reaction between 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and primary amines was carried out under solvent-free conditions with low catalyst loading in good to excellent yields at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle A Convenient Route to 4-Carboxy-4-Anilidopiperidine Esters and Acids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2823-2832; doi:10.3390/molecules17032823
Received: 3 January 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
PDF Full-text (220 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production
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The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised a tert-butyl ester of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines which resulted in a dramatic increase in the overall yield of the target N-propionylated- 4-anilidopiperidine-4-carboxylic acids and their corresponding methyl esters. These compounds are now available for use as precursors and reference standards, of particular value for the production of 11C and 18F-labelled 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidine radiotracers. Full article
Open AccessArticle IMB2026791, a Xanthone, Stimulates Cholesterol Efflux by Increasing the Binding of Apolipoprotein A-I to ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2833-2854; doi:10.3390/molecules17032833
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (694 KB)
Abstract
It is known that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Several laboratories have demonstrated that ABCA1 binding to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) will mediate the assembly of nascent HDL and
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It is known that the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Several laboratories have demonstrated that ABCA1 binding to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) will mediate the assembly of nascent HDL and cellular cholesterol efflux, which suggests a possible receptor-ligand interaction between ABCA1 and apoA-I. In this study, a cell-based-ELISA-like high-throughput screening (HTS) method was developed to identify the synthetic and natural compounds that can regulate binding activity of ABCA1 to apoA-I. The cell-based-ELISA-like high-throughput screen was conducted in a 96-well format using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with ABCA1 pIRE2-EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorecence Protein) expression vector and the known ABCA1 inhibitor glibenclamide as the antagonist control. From 2,600 compounds, a xanthone compound (IMB 2026791) was selected using this HTS assay, and it was proved as an apoA-I binding agonist to ABCA1 by a flow cytometry assay and western blot analysis. The [3H] cholesterol efflux assay of IMB2026791 treated ABCA1-CHO cells and PMA induced THP-1 macrophages (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) further confirmed the compound as an accelerator of cholesterol efflux in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 25.23 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Site-Specific Incorporation of Functional Components into RNA by an Unnatural Base Pair Transcription System
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2855-2876; doi:10.3390/molecules17032855
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 22 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (4033 KB)
Abstract
Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa) functions as a third base pair in replication and transcription, and provides a useful tool for the site-specific, enzymatic incorporation
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Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa) functions as a third base pair in replication and transcription, and provides a useful tool for the site-specific, enzymatic incorporation of functional components into nucleic acids. We have synthesized several modified-Pa substrates, such as alkylamino-, biotin-, TAMRA-, FAM-, and digoxigenin-linked PaTPs, and examined their transcription by T7 RNA polymerase using Ds-containing DNA templates with various sequences. The Pa substrates modified with relatively small functional groups, such as alkylamino and biotin, were efficiently incorporated into RNA transcripts at the internal positions, except for those less than 10 bases from the 3′-terminus. We found that the efficient incorporation into a position close to the 3′-terminus of a transcript depended on the natural base contexts neighboring the unnatural base, and that pyrimidine-Ds-pyrimidine sequences in templates were generally favorable, relative to purine-Ds-purine sequences. The unnatural base pair transcription system provides a method for the site-specific functionalization of large RNA molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA-Templated Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Update of Spectroscopic Data for 4-Hydroxydictyolactone and Dictyol E Isolated from a Halimeda stuposaDictyota sp. Assemblage
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2929-2938; doi:10.3390/molecules17032929
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 8 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The methanol extract of an assemblage of Halimeda stuposa and a Dictyota sp., yielded three natural products characteristic of Dictyota sp., and one of Halimeda sp. These included the xenicane diterpene 4-hydroxydictyolactone (1), and the diterpenes dictyol E (2),
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The methanol extract of an assemblage of Halimeda stuposa and a Dictyota sp., yielded three natural products characteristic of Dictyota sp., and one of Halimeda sp. These included the xenicane diterpene 4-hydroxydictyolactone (1), and the diterpenes dictyol E (2), 8a,11-dihydroxypachydictyol A (3) and indole-3-carboxaldehyde (4). A minor revision of 1 and new spectroscopic data for 1 and 2 are provided, along with associated anti-cancer activities of compounds 14. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle α-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2939-2954; doi:10.3390/molecules17032939
Received: 3 December 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 8 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (809 KB)
Abstract
Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. α-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway,
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Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. α-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by α-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of α-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of α-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. α-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, α-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants for Anti-MRSA Activity with Reference to the Treatment Record of Infectious Diseases
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2955-2967; doi:10.3390/molecules17032955
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 29 February 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (211 KB)
Abstract
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of 30 Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated with reference to the treatment record of infectious diseases in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature. The plant materials were extracted with 80% ethanol and the extracts were primarily screened against
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The in vitro antimicrobial activities of 30 Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated with reference to the treatment record of infectious diseases in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature. The plant materials were extracted with 80% ethanol and the extracts were primarily screened against conventional clinical pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans by the agar diffusion method. Their inhibition zone diameters (IZDs, mm, 50 mg/mL) ranged from 2,048 by the standard broth microdilution method. The seven extracts from M. yunnanensis, S. sinensis, G. morella, E. daneillii, M. squamulata, S. arborescens and B. hancei were determined as the most active extracts, with MICs of 8–64 μg/mL. The results were in good agreement with their traditional applications in skin and other infections. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Isolation of Glycinin (11S) from Lipid-Reduced Soybean Flour: Effect of Processing Conditions on Yields and Purity
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2968-2979; doi:10.3390/molecules17032968
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (258 KB)
Abstract
Defatted soybean flour was treated with hexane and ethanol to reduce lipid content and heated to inactivate lipoxygenase (LOX, linoleate:oxygen reductase; EC 1.13.11.12) to obtain lipid-reduced soybean flour (LRSF). The effects of processing conditions such as pH, reducing agent and storage time on
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Defatted soybean flour was treated with hexane and ethanol to reduce lipid content and heated to inactivate lipoxygenase (LOX, linoleate:oxygen reductase; EC 1.13.11.12) to obtain lipid-reduced soybean flour (LRSF). The effects of processing conditions such as pH, reducing agent and storage time on yields and purity of glycinin (11S) were evaluated in the fractionation of soybean glycinin isolated from LRSF. Adjusting the pH of protein extract from 6.2 to 6.6, the yield of glycinin decreased by 16.71%, while the purity of the protein increased by 4.60%. Sulfhydryl and disulfide content of proteins increased by degrees with increasing pH. Compared with dithiothreitol (DTT) or β-mercaptoethanol (ME) as reducing agent, the yield of glycinin was the highest when sodium bisulfite (SBS) was added to the protein extract at pH 6.4. The effect of DTT on yields of glycinin was the lowest of the three kinds of reducing agent. The purity of glycinin was similar when the three kinds of reducing agent were used. These results showed that SBS was the best choice for the isolation of 11S-rich fraction. Prolonging storage time in the precipitation stage, 10 h was the best for yields and purity of glycinin in the experiment, while there was no significant difference at P ≥ 0.05 for total sulfhydryl and disulfide content. The decreased free sulfhydryl content of glycinin indicated that the oxidation of free sulfhydryls and the formation of disulfide bonds occurred when the extraction time was prolonged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of an Antibacterial Peptide Fraction from the Pepsin Hydrolysate of Half-Fin Anchovy (Setipinna taty)
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2980-2991; doi:10.3390/molecules17032980
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (486 KB)
Abstract
Enzymatic proteolysis of food proteins is considered a promising method to generate antibacterial peptides. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize peptide fraction from the pepsin hydrolysate of half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) with antibacterial activity against
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Enzymatic proteolysis of food proteins is considered a promising method to generate antibacterial peptides. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize peptide fraction from the pepsin hydrolysate of half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) with antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The most active peptide fraction HAHp2-3-I was isolated by a series of chromatographic methods, including Sephadex G-25 chromatography, reverse high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and Source 5RPC ST. Peptides identification of HAHp2-3-I was carried out using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. HAHp2-3-I contained five cationic peptides (MLTTPPHAKYVLQW, SHAATKAPPKNGNY, PTAGVANALQHA, QLGTHSAQPVPF and VNVDERWRKL) and three anionic peptides (LATVSVGAVELCY, NPEFLASGDHLDNLQ and PEVVYECLHW). Prediction of peptide secondary structure indicated that these anionic peptides should have extended strand and random coil structures, whereas cationic peptides PTAGVANALQHA and VNVDERWRKL could form alpha helixes. In addition, results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that treatment by HAHp2-3-I could cause the morphological changes of E. coli and destruction of the cell integrity via irreversible membrane damage. The results could provide information for investigating the antibacterial model of antibacterial peptides derived from fish protein hydrolysates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Electrospun Non-Woven Mats of Dibutyryl Chitin/Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends on Wound Healing in Hairless Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2992-3007; doi:10.3390/molecules17032992
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 4 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1950 KB)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the proliferative ability of dibutyryl chitin (DBC) on scratch wounds in HaCaT keratinocytes and to evaluate the effect of nanoporous non-woven mat (DBCNFM) on skin wound healing in hairless mice using the advantages of DBCNFM,
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The aim of this study was to examine the proliferative ability of dibutyryl chitin (DBC) on scratch wounds in HaCaT keratinocytes and to evaluate the effect of nanoporous non-woven mat (DBCNFM) on skin wound healing in hairless mice using the advantages of DBCNFM, such as high porosity and high surface area to volume. The cell spreading activity of DBC was verified through a cell spreading assay in scratched human HaCaT keratinocytes. Scratch wound experiments showed that DBC notably accelerates the spreading rate of HaCaT keratinocytes in a dose dependent manner. The molecular aspects of the healing process were also investigated by hematoxylin & eosin staining of the healed skin, displaying the degrees of reepithelialization and immunostaining on extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling of the skin. Topical application of DBCNFM significantly reduced skin wound rank scores and increased the skin remodeling of the wounded hairless mice in a dose dependent way. Furthermore, DBCNFM notably increased the expression of the type 1 collagen and filaggrin. These results demonstrate that DBC efficiently accelerates the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes and DBCNFM notably increases extracellular matrix synthesis on remodeling of the skin, and these materials are a good candidate for further evaluation as an effective wound healing agent. Full article
Open AccessArticle Recovery and Concentration of Antioxidants from Winery Wastes
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3008-3024; doi:10.3390/molecules17033008
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 10 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (436 KB)
Abstract
Grape and wine byproducts have been extensively studied for the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and a variety of biological actions. The selective recovery and concentration of the phenolic compounds from the liquid phase separated from further diluted winery wastes has
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Grape and wine byproducts have been extensively studied for the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and a variety of biological actions. The selective recovery and concentration of the phenolic compounds from the liquid phase separated from further diluted winery wastes has been proposed. Adsorption onto non ionic polymeric resins and further desorption with ethanolic solutions was studied. Several commercial food grade resins were screened with the aim of selecting the most suited for the practical recovery of phenolic compounds with radical scavenging activity. Under the optimized desorption conditions (using Sepabeads SP207 or Diaion HP20 as adsorbents and eluting with 96% ethanol at 50 °C) a powdered yellow-light brown product with 50% phenolic content, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, was obtained. The radical scavenging capacity of one gram of product was equivalent to 2–3 g of Trolox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fifteen Eucalyptus Species Growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia)
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3044-3057; doi:10.3390/molecules17033044
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 18 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (566 KB)
Abstract
The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a
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The essential oils of fifteen Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman and Korbous arboreta (North East Tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. Eighteen major components as identified by GC/FID and GC/MS were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. The main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneol, limonene and isospathulenol. The chemical principal component analysis identified five species groups and subgroups, where each group constituted a chemotype, however that of the values of zone diameter of the inhibition (zdi) identified six groups of Eucalyptus oils, characterized by their antibacterial inhibition ability. The strongest activity was shown by E. platypus oil against Enterococcus faecalis and by E. lamannii oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A correlation between the levels of some major components and the antibacterial activities was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Amino Core Compounds of Galactosyl Phytosyl Ceramide Analogs for Developing iNKT-Cell Inducers
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3058-3081; doi:10.3390/molecules17033058
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
1-Aminophytosphingosine and 6-aminogalactosyl phytosphingosine were prepared in 61% and 40% yield libraries with 44 carboxylic acids showed that a 4-butylbenzoic acid-derived product exe, respectively. Glycosylation using benzoyl-protected lipid resulted in better a-selectivity for ceramide analogs, but the yield was less than that obtained
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1-Aminophytosphingosine and 6-aminogalactosyl phytosphingosine were prepared in 61% and 40% yield libraries with 44 carboxylic acids showed that a 4-butylbenzoic acid-derived product exe, respectively. Glycosylation using benzoyl-protected lipid resulted in better a-selectivity for ceramide analogs, but the yield was less than that obtained with benzyl moieties. Screening the amide rted less cytotoxicity. These analogs were purified for validation of immunological potencies and the a-GalCer analog but not the sphingosine analog stimulated human iNKT cell population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parallel Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Hedychium gardnerianum Sheppard ex Ker-Gawl
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3082-3092; doi:10.3390/molecules17033082
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (203 KB)
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Hedychium gardnerianum leaf essential oils from S. Miguel Island were determined. All the oils inhibited acetylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of approximately 1 mg/mL, showing no statistical differences between collection sites. Three oils presented mixed inhibition,
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Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Hedychium gardnerianum leaf essential oils from S. Miguel Island were determined. All the oils inhibited acetylcholinesterase, with IC50 values of approximately 1 mg/mL, showing no statistical differences between collection sites. Three oils presented mixed inhibition, whilst one was almost truly competitive. This activity can be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes, which constituted more than 60% of the composition of the oils. Regarding the antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH method, all the oils presented activities similar to reference compounds, although with statistical differences between collection sites. Cytotoxicity measured using Artemia salina classified these oils as moderately toxic, with LC50 values ranging from 300 to 500 µg/mL. These results indicate a possible application of these oils in aromatherapy as coadjuvants in the treatment of cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer, since they may contribute to increase acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons and simultaneously fight deleterious oxidations responsible by neurological degeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Profiling of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Dry Extracts from the Selected Sorbus Species
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3093-3113; doi:10.3390/molecules17033093
Received: 15 February 2012 / Revised: 5 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (490 KB)
Abstract
The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n
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The antioxidant efficiency of dry extracts from inflorescences and/or leaves of seven Sorbus species was studied using four in vitro tests of SET (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms. The 70% methanol extracts and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were tested in parallel with the phenolic standards, e.g., caffeic acid, quercetin, BHA, BHT, and TroloxÒ. The SET-type activity of the extracts depended primarily on the extraction solvent. The most valuable extracts were n-butanol and ethyl acetate ones, which activity was high in the DPPH (EC50 = 3.2–5.2 μg/mL), TEAC (2.8–4.0 mmol Trolox®/g), and FRAP (9.8–13.7 mmol Fe2+/g) tests, and strongly correlated with the total phenolic levels (39.6–58.2% of gallic acid equivalents). The HPLC-PDA analysis of the extracts led to the identification of chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, and sexangularetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside as the main components. Apart from flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins have also a significant impact on the SET-type activity. The HAT-reactivity of the extracts in the linoleic acid peroxidation test (IC50 = 36.9–228.3 μg/mL) depended more strongly on the plant tissue than on the extraction solvent, and its correlation with the phenolic content was weak. Both SET and HAT-type activity of the most potent Sorbus extracts was comparable with the activity of the standards, indicating their great potential as effective sources for health products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Spectroscopic, Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamic Techniques to Study the Interaction between Human Holo-Transferrin and Two Antagonist Drugs: Comparison of Binary and Ternary Systems
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3114-3147; doi:10.3390/molecules17033114
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (983 KB)
Abstract
For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential
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For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD) spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Hydrolysis of Ibuprofen Nitrile and Ibuprofen Amide and Deracemisation of Ibuprofen Using Nocardia corallina B-276
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3148-3154; doi:10.3390/molecules17033148
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (204 KB)
Abstract
A novel application of whole cells of Nocardia corallina B-276 for the deracemisation of ibuprofen is reported. This microorganism successfully hydrolysed ibuprofen nitrile to ibuprofen amide, and ibuprofen amide to ibuprofen, using a suspension of cells in a potassium phosphate buffer solution (0.1
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A novel application of whole cells of Nocardia corallina B-276 for the deracemisation of ibuprofen is reported. This microorganism successfully hydrolysed ibuprofen nitrile to ibuprofen amide, and ibuprofen amide to ibuprofen, using a suspension of cells in a potassium phosphate buffer solution (0.1 M, pH = 7.0). These results can be explained by the presence of NHase and amidase enzymes, but the reactions are not enantioselective and low ee values were obtained. However, (R)-ibuprofen was isolated with >99% ee by a deracemisation process catalysed by N. corallina B-276. This is the first report of this kind of catalysis with this microorganism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-a and IL-1β Production in THP-1 Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3155-3164; doi:10.3390/molecules17033155
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 12 March 2012
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (414 KB)
Abstract
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of main bioactive components in Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities, but the molecular mechanisms behind this activity are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate expression of inflammatory cytokines and the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in
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Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of main bioactive components in Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities, but the molecular mechanisms behind this activity are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate expression of inflammatory cytokines and the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in human THP-1 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that the concentrations of TNF-a and IL-1β released from LPS stimulated THP-1 cells increased significantly compared to control (p < 0.01). After treatment with APS, the TNF-a and IL-1β levels were significantly lower than those in the LPS group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TNF-a and IL-1β were also inhibited. Mechanistic studies indicated that APS strongly suppressed NF-κB activation and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which are important signaling pathways involved in the production of TNF-a and IL-1β, demonstrating that APS could suppress the production of TNF-a and IL-1β by LPS stimulated macrophages by inhibiting NF-κB activation and ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Variation in Antioxidant Attributes at Three Ripening Stages of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit from Different Geographical Regions of Pakistan
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3165-3180; doi:10.3390/molecules17033165
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 10 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (213 KB)
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions
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The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4–247.9 mg 100 g−1), Islamabad (89.7–149.7 mg 100 g−1) and Bhakkar (73.1–129.5 mg 100 g−1). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit. Full article
Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis and Herbicidal Evaluation of 4H-3,1-Benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-Quinazolin-4-ones with 2-Phenoxymethyl Substituents
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3181-3201; doi:10.3390/molecules17033181
Received: 18 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (420 KB)
Abstract
Series of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-quinazolin-4-ones with phenoxy-methyl substituents were rationally designed and easily synthesized via one-pot N-acylation/ring closure reactions of anthranilic acids with 2-phenoxyacetyl chlorides to yield the 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones, and subsequently substituted with amino derivatives to
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Series of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-quinazolin-4-ones with phenoxy-methyl substituents were rationally designed and easily synthesized via one-pot N-acylation/ring closure reactions of anthranilic acids with 2-phenoxyacetyl chlorides to yield the 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones, and subsequently substituted with amino derivatives to obtain the 3H-quinazolin-4-ones. The herbicidal evaluation was performed on the model plants barnyard grass (a monocotyledon) and rape (a dicotyledon), and most of the title compounds displayed high levels of phytotoxicity. The active substructure and inhibitory phenotype analysis indicated that these compounds could be attributed to the class of plant hormone inhibitors. A docking study of several representative compounds with the hormone receptor TIR1 revealed an appreciable conformational match in the active site, implicating these compounds are potential lead hits targeting this receptor. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biodegradability and Biocompatibility Study of Poly(Chitosan-g-lactic Acid) Scaffolds
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3243-3258; doi:10.3390/molecules17033243
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (942 KB)
Abstract
A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were
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A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid) (PCLA) scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA) onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS) without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biodegradabilty was determined by mass loss in vitro, and degradation in vivo as a function of feed ratio of LA/CS. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) culture experiments and histological examination were performed to evaluate the PCLA scaffolds’ biocompatibility. The results indicated that PCLA was promising for tissue engineering application. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spectral Properties of Substituted Coumarins in Solution and Polymer Matrices
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3259-3276; doi:10.3390/molecules17033259
Received: 23 January 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 8 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes) were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1) by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH3)2
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The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes) were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1) by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH3)2, mainly, but not exclusively, in positions 7 and (2), by either CHO or 4-PhNHCONHN=CH- in position 3. While the spectra of non-substituted coumarin-3-carbaldehyde has absorptions at approximately 305 and 350 nm, substitution at position 7 leads to remarkable changes in the shape of the absorption spectrum and shifts the absorption to a longer wavelength. Similarly, the replacement of the formyl group with a semicarbazide group substantially influences the shape of the absorption spectrum, and coumarins which have only N(CH3)2 in position 7 experience small changes. These changes are associated with the increasing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character and increasing conjugation length of the chromophoric system, respectively, in the studied molecules. The fluorescence is almost negligible for derivatives which have H in this position. With increasing electron donating ability, and the possibility of a positive mesomeric (+M) effect of the substituent in position 7 of the coumarin moiety, the fluorescence increases, and this increase is most intense when N(CH3)2 substitutes in this position, for both 3-substituted derivatives. Spectral measurements of the studied coumarins in polymer matrices revealed that the absorption and fluorescence maxima lay within the maxima for solvents, and that coumarins yield more intense fluorescence in polymer matrices than when they are in solution. The quantum yield of derivatives which have a dimethylamino group in position 7 in polymer matrices approaches 1, and the fluorescence lifetime is within the range of 0.5–4 ns. The high quantum yield of 7-dimethylamino derivatives qualifies them as laser dyes which have kF higher than knr in the given medium. This is caused by stiffening of the coumarin structure in polar polymer matrices, such as PMMA and PVC, due to higher micro-viscosity than in solution and intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction between chromophore (dopant) and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Lectin-Like Substance from Clitoria fairchildiana R. Howard Seeds
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3277-3290; doi:10.3390/molecules17033277
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (312 KB)
Abstract
Lectins are proteins that have the ability to bind specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, without altering the structure of the glycosyl ligand. They are found in organisms such as viruses, plants and humans, and they have been shown to possess important
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Lectins are proteins that have the ability to bind specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, without altering the structure of the glycosyl ligand. They are found in organisms such as viruses, plants and humans, and they have been shown to possess important biological activities. The objective of this study was to purify and characterize lectins in the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana, as well as to verify their biological activities. The results indicated the presence of a lectin (CFAL) in the glutelin acid protein fraction, which agglutinated native rabbit erythrocytes. CFAL was purified by column chromatography ion-exchange, DEAE-Sephacel, which was obtained from a peak of protein retained in the matrix by applying 0.5 M NaCl using the step-wise method. Electrophoretic analysis of this lectin in SDS-PAGE indicated a two band pattern protein molecular mass of approximately 100 and 116 kDa. CFAL proved to be unspecific to all carbohydrates/glycoconjugates in common use for the sugar inhibition test. This lectin showed no significant cytotoxicity to human red blood cells. It was observed that CFAL has anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema induced by carrageenan model, in which a 64% diminution in edema was observed. Antinociceptive effects were observed for CFAL in the abdominal writhing test (induced by acetic acid), in which increasing doses of the lectin caused reduction in the number of contortions by up to 72%. It was concluded that the purified and characterized lectin from the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, and is not cytotoxic to human erythrocytes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Compounds Isolated from Inula viscosa
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3291-3303; doi:10.3390/molecules17033291
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (568 KB)
Abstract
The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two
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The antiproliferative and antimicrobial effects of thirteen compounds isolated from Inula viscosa (L.) were tested in this study. The antiproliferative activity was tested against three cell lines using the MTT assay. The microdilution method was used to study the antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive bacteria, two Gram negative bacteria and one fungus. The apoptotic activity was determined using a TUNEL colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological changes in treated cancer cells and bacteria. Antiproliferative activity was observed in four flavonoids (nepetin, 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin, hispidulin, and 3-O-methylquercetin). 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin and 3-O-methylquercetin showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 10.11 and 11.23 µg/mL, respectively. Both compounds exert their antiproliferative effect by inducing apoptosis as indicted by the presence of DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies in treated cancer cells. The antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa were also noticed in 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin and 3-O-methyquercetin that inhibited Bacillus cereus at MIC of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Salmonella typhimurium was inhibited by both compounds at MIC of 125 µg/mL. 3,3′-di-O-Methylquercetin induced damage in bacterial cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes. Methylated quercetins isolated from Inula viscosa have improved anticancer and antimicrobial properties compared with other flavonoids and are promising as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3304-3323; doi:10.3390/molecules17033304
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (227 KB)
Abstract
The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic
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The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison) European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic richness and antioxidant activity decreased in the order: red > rose > white wines. In the red wines, the American grape ‘Cynthiana’ had the highest total concentrations of phenols, anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, as well as antioxidant capacity, followed by the French hybrid ‘Chambourcin’, the lowest were detected in two European grape varieties, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, while the total flavon-3-ols levels were reversed among these red grape cultivars. The highest concentration of stilbenes out of all the wines analyzed was found in the ‘Merlot’ variety. There were significant differences among wine phenolic compositions between North American and European grape cultivars. The antioxidant activities were significantly related to the concentrations of total phenols (r2 = 0.996), anthocyanins (r2 = 0.984), flavonols (r2 = 0.850) and gallic acid (r2 = 0.797). The prominent features of wine aroma and nutrition could make the American grape wines attractive to consumers. It is therefore necessary to perform further research on cultural practices and wine making involving these grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Phytoecdysteroids from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3324-3332; doi:10.3390/molecules17033324
Received: 23 February 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new phytoecdysteroids, (25S)-20,22-O-(R-ethylidene)inokosterone (1) and 20,22-O-(R-3-methoxycarbonyl)propylidene-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), together with six known phytoecdysteroids 3–8 were isolated from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. The new structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic
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Two new phytoecdysteroids, (25S)-20,22-O-(R-ethylidene)inokosterone (1) and 20,22-O-(R-3-methoxycarbonyl)propylidene-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), together with six known phytoecdysteroids 3–8 were isolated from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. The new structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and chemical evidences. The absolute configuration at C-25 in the structure of known compound 3 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic means. Full article
Open AccessArticle Salvianolic Acid A Inhibits PDGF-BB Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Proliferation While Does Not Constrain Endothelial Cell Proliferation and Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3333-3347; doi:10.3390/molecules17033333
Received: 31 January 2012 / Revised: 3 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (849 KB)
Abstract
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical events in the initiation and development of restenosis upon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Polyphenols have been suggested to ameliorate post-angioplasty restenosis. Salvianolic A (SalA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols
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Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical events in the initiation and development of restenosis upon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Polyphenols have been suggested to ameliorate post-angioplasty restenosis. Salvianolic A (SalA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols extracted from salvia. In this study, we investigated the effect of salvianolic A (SalA) on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs. We found a preferential interaction of SalA with cellular systems that rely on the PDGF signal, but not on the EGF and bFGF signal. SalA inhibits PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation and migration in the concentration range from 0.01 to 0.1 μM. The inhibition of SalA on VSMC proliferation is associated with cell cycle arrest. We also found that SalA inhibits the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 signaling cascade activated by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. In addition, SalA does not influence the proliferation of endothelial cells, the synthesis of NO and eNOS protein expression. Our results suggest that SalA inhibits migration and proliferation of VSMCs induced by PDGF-BB via the inhibition of the PDGFRβ-ERK1/2 cascade, but that it does not constrain endothelial cell proliferation and nitric oxide biosynthesis. Thus, the present study suggests a novel adjunct pharmacological strategy to prevent angioplasty-related restenosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Azanucleosides through Regioselective Ring-Opening of Epoxides Catalyzed by Sulphated Zirconia under Microwave and Solvent-Free Conditions
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3359-3369; doi:10.3390/molecules17033359
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (272 KB)
Abstract
New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS) as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl) pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, with (S)-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following
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New azanucleosides were obtained using sulphated zirconia (ZS) as catalyst in the nucleophilic oxirane ring opening reaction of 1-allyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl) pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and 1-allyl-5-methyl-3-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, with (S)-prolinol. The new templates were obtained with good yields following a route which exploits the reactivity of epoxides in the presence of sulphated zirconia as catalyst. The key step was carried out using microwave and solvent-free conditions and proceeds with high selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Oxime Esters of 2,6-Diazaanthracene-9,10-dione and 4,5-Diazafluoren-9-one as Photo-induced DNA-Cleaving Agents
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3370-3382; doi:10.3390/molecules17033370
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 10 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (357 KB)
Abstract
Two series of oxime esters containing the 2,6-diazaanthracene-9,10-dione bis-(O-benzoyloxime) and 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one O-9-benzoyloxime moieties have been synthesized and tested as photo-induced DNA cleaving agents. All these compounds were found to cleave DNA upon irradiation with 312 nm UV light. The structure-activity
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Two series of oxime esters containing the 2,6-diazaanthracene-9,10-dione bis-(O-benzoyloxime) and 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one O-9-benzoyloxime moieties have been synthesized and tested as photo-induced DNA cleaving agents. All these compounds were found to cleave DNA upon irradiation with 312 nm UV light. The structure-activity relationship of these molecules for DNA cleavage was established. A plausible reaction mechanism is also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: I. Spectral Data-Activity Relationship and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Inhibitors and Non-inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Isozymes
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3383-3406; doi:10.3390/molecules17033383
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP)
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An interagency collaboration was established to model chemical interactions that may cause adverse health effects when an exposure to a mixture of chemicals occurs. Many of these chemicals—drugs, pesticides, and environmental pollutants—interact at the level of metabolic biotransformations mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In the present work, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches were used to develop machine-learning classifiers of inhibitors and non-inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes. The models were built upon 602 reference pharmaceutical compounds whose interactions have been deduced from clinical data, and 100 additional chemicals that were used to evaluate model performance in an external validation (EV) test. SDAR is an innovative modeling approach that relies on discriminant analysis applied to binned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral descriptors. In the present work, both 1D 13C and 1D 15N-NMR spectra were used together in a novel implementation of the SDAR technique. It was found that increasing the binning size of 1D 13C-NMR and 15N-NMR spectra caused an increase in the tenfold cross-validation (CV) performance in terms of both the rate of correct classification and sensitivity. The results of SDAR modeling were verified using SAR. For SAR modeling, a decision forest approach involving from 6 to 17 Mold2 descriptors in a tree was used. Average rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in a hundred CV tests were 60% and 61% for CYP3A4, and 62% and 70% for CYP2D6, respectively. The rates of correct classification of SDAR and SAR models in the EV test were 73% and 86% for CYP3A4, and 76% and 90% for CYP2D6, respectively. Thus, both SDAR and SAR methods demonstrated a comparable performance in modeling a large set of structurally diverse data. Based on unique NMR structural descriptors, the new SDAR modeling method complements the existing SAR techniques, providing an independent estimator that can increase confidence in a structure-activity assessment. When modeling was applied to hazardous environmental chemicals, it was found that up to 20% of them may be substrates and up to 10% of them may be inhibitors of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isoforms. The developed models provide a rare opportunity for the environmental health branch of the public health service to extrapolate to hazardous chemicals directly from human clinical data. Therefore, the pharmacological and environmental health branches are both expected to benefit from these reported models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: II. Molecular Docking, Spectral Data-Activity Relationship, and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Potent and Weak Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Isozyme
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3407-3460; doi:10.3390/molecules17033407
Received: 20 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1209 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes,
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Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2–3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D 13C-NMR and 1D 15N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak inhibitors of CYP3A4 were used to train the models. Using these models, a synthetic majority rules consensus classifier was implemented, while the confidence of estimation was assigned following the percent agreement strategy. The classifier was applied to a testing set of 120 inhibitors not included in the development of the models. Five compounds of the test set, including known strong inhibitors dalfopristin and tioconazole, were classified as probable potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Other known strong inhibitors, such as lopinavir, oltipraz, quercetin, raloxifene, and troglitazone, were among 18 compounds classified as plausible potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. The consensus estimation of inhibition potency is expected to aid in the nomination of pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, environmental pollutants, and occupational and other chemicals for in-depth evaluation of the CYP3A4 inhibitory activity. It may serve also as an estimate of chemical interactions via CYP3A4 metabolic pharmacokinetic pathways occurring through polypharmacy and nutritional and environmental exposures to chemical mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QSAR and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Analysis of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide: An Improved HPLC Method with the Aid of a Chemometric Protocol
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3461-3474; doi:10.3390/molecules17033461
Received: 23 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (819 KB)
Abstract
Experimental design method was used for HPLC determination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage forms. The traditional approach for optimization of experiments is time-consuming, involves a large number of runs and does not allow establishing the multiple interacting parameters. The main advantages
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Experimental design method was used for HPLC determination of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combined dosage forms. The traditional approach for optimization of experiments is time-consuming, involves a large number of runs and does not allow establishing the multiple interacting parameters. The main advantages of the experimental design method include the simultaneous screening of a larger number of factors affecting response and the estimation of possible interactions. On the basis of preliminary experiments, three factors-independent variables were selected as inputs (methanol content, pH of the mobile phase and temperature) and as dependent variables, five responses (resolution, symmetry of irbesartan peak, symmetry of hydrochlorothiazide peak, retention factor of irbesartan and retention factor of hydrochlorothiazide) were chosen. A full 23 factorial design, where factors were examined at two different levels (“low” and “high”) was used to determine which factors had an effect on the studied response. Afterwards, experimental design was used to optimize these influent parameters in the previously selected experimental domain. The novelty of our method lies in the optimization step accomplished by Derringer¢s desirability function. After optimizing the experimental conditions a separation was conducted on a Supelcosil C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 mm particle size) column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-tetrahydrofuran-acetate buffer 47:10:43 v/v/v, pH 6.5 and a column temperature of 25 °C. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation of these drug-active compounds in their commercial pharmaceutical dosage forms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of N′-Heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides and (±)-2-(1-Adamantyl)-4-acetyl-5-[5-(4-substituted phenyl-3-isoxazolyl)]-1,3,4-oxadiazolines
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3475-3483; doi:10.3390/molecules17033475
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (218 KB)
Abstract
The reaction of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) with heterocyclic aldehydes, namely 5-(4-chlorophenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2a), 5-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2b), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2c), 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde, in ethanol, yielded the corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a, 3b, 3c, 4 and 5, respectively, in good yields. The 4-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline analogues 6a‑c
[...] Read more.
The reaction of adamantane-1-carbohydrazide (1) with heterocyclic aldehydes, namely 5-(4-chlorophenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2a), 5-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2b), 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazole-3-carboxaldehyde (2c), 1H-imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxaldehyde, in ethanol, yielded the corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a, 3b, 3c, 4 and 5, respectively, in good yields. The 4-acetyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoline analogues 6a‑c were prepared in 48–55% yields by heating their corresponding N′-heteroarylidene-1-adamantylcarbohydrazides 3a–c with acetic anhydride for two hours. Compounds 3a–c, 4, 5 and 6a–c were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compounds 4 and 5 displayed potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, while compounds 3a–c showed good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Preliminary Investigations of the siRNA Delivery Potential of Novel, Single-Chain Rigid Cationic Carotenoid Lipids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3484-3500; doi:10.3390/molecules17033484
Received: 29 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (359 KB)
Abstract
The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary
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The success of nucleic acid delivery requires the development of safe and efficient delivery vectors that overcome cellular barriers for effective transport. Herein we describe the synthesis of a series of novel, single-chain rigid cationic carotenoid lipids and a study of their preliminary in vitro siRNA delivery effectiveness and cellular toxicity. The efficiency of siRNA delivery by the single-chain lipid series was compared with that of known cationic lipid vectors, 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphoethanolamine (EPC) as positive controls. All cationic lipids (controls and single-chain lipids) were co-formulated into liposomes with the neutral co-lipid, 1,2-dioleolyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Cationic lipid-siRNA complexes of varying (+/−) molar charge ratios were formulated for delivery into HR5-CL11 cells. Of the five single-chain carotenoid lipids investigated, lipids 1, 2, 3 and 5 displayed significant knockdown efficiency with HR5-CL11 cells. In addition, lipid 1 exhibited the lowest levels of cytotoxicity with cell viability greater than 80% at all (+/−) molar charge ratios studied. This novel, single-chain rigid carotenoid-based cationic lipid represents a new class of transfection vector with excellent cell tolerance, accompanied with encouraging siRNA delivery efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Structural Determination of Novel 5-Arylidene-3-N(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-ones
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3501-3509; doi:10.3390/molecules17033501
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 26 February 2012 / Accepted: 1 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (241 KB)
Abstract
As part of our project devoted to the synthesis of heterocycles including thiazole rings, some new 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-3-N-arylthiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. An interesting feature of these compounds is that their chirality is induced by that of their 3-N-(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one
[...] Read more.
As part of our project devoted to the synthesis of heterocycles including thiazole rings, some new 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-3-N-arylthiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation. An interesting feature of these compounds is that their chirality is induced by that of their 3-N-(2-alkyloxyaryl)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one precursors, which in turn is due to the presence of a C2 axis of chirality. These new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). The structure of compound (Z)-(2g) was further determined by X-ray diffraction. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Enrichment and Purification of Deoxyschizandrin and γ-Schizandrin from the Extract of Schisandra chinensis Fruit by Macroporous Resins
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3510-3523; doi:10.3390/molecules17033510
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 12 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (488 KB)
Abstract
In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of 21 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin, the two major lignans from Schisandra chinensis extracts, were evaluated. According to our results, HPD5000, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model,
[...] Read more.
In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of 21 macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin, the two major lignans from Schisandra chinensis extracts, were evaluated. According to our results, HPD5000, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for deoxyschizandrin and γ-schizandrin than other resins. Columns packed with HPD5000 resin were used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the technical parameters of the separation process. The results showed that the best adsorption time is 4 h, the rate of adsorption is 0.85 mL/min (4 BV/h) and the rate of desorption is 0.43 mL/min (2 BV/h). After elution with 90% ethanol, the purity of deoxy-schizandrin increased 12.62-fold from 0.37% to 4.67%, the purity of γ-schizandrin increased 15.8-fold from 0.65% to 10.27%, and the recovery rate was more than 80%. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Norisoprenoid and Other Compounds from Fuzhuan Brick Tea
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3539-3546; doi:10.3390/molecules17033539
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 8 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid,
[...] Read more.
Fuzhuan brick tea, a kind of dark tea consumed mainly in the border regions of Southwestern and Northwestern China since the 1860s, is produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis by microbial fermentation. From this special fermented tea, a new norisoprenoid, 3R,9R-oxido-5-megastigmene, was isolated, together with α-linolenic acid, strictin, isovitexin, astragalin, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epicatechin gallate, (+)-gallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectroscopic means. The new compound didn’t show any inhibition activity against the tested enteric pathogenic microorganisms at a concentration of 800 μg/mL by the hole plate diffusion method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessArticle Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3547-3559; doi:10.3390/molecules17033547
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 20 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (614 KB)
Abstract
Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS
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Melastoma malabathricum (MM) is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia). The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L) and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L) for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g), flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g), with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones). Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL) for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a New Group of Aliphatic Hydrazide Derivatives and the Correlations between Their Molecular Structure and Biological Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3560-3573; doi:10.3390/molecules17033560
Received: 25 January 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (250 KB)
Abstract
In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the
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In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the reactions observed during synthesis, the resulting compounds retained their linear structure. Their structure and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were analyzed. Correlations were determined between the compounds’ molecular parameters and biological activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi. The investigated compounds were also examined for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The obtained results indicate that compounds with fluorine-containing substituents penetrate the cell structure more effectively and are characterized by higher antifungal potential than analogues with different substituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medicinal Chemistry of Antifungals)
Open AccessArticle Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage by 7-O-Methyl-naringenin
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3574-3585; doi:10.3390/molecules17033574
Received: 4 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (458 KB)
Abstract
7-O-Methylnaringenin, extracted from Rhododendron speciferum, belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-O-methylnaringenin on cytokine production by lipopoly-saccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. The results showed
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7-O-Methylnaringenin, extracted from Rhododendron speciferum, belongs to the flavanone class of polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 7-O-methylnaringenin on cytokine production by lipopoly-saccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with 10, 20 or 40 μg/mL of 7-O-methylnaringenin could downregulate tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we investigated the signal transduction mechanisms to determine how 7-O-methylnaringenin affects RAW 264.7 macrophages. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and IκBα were measured by Western blotting. The data showed that 7-O-methylnaringenin could downregulate LPS-induced levels of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and IκBα. These observations indicated that 7-O-methylnaringenin modulated inflammatory cytokine responses by blocking NF-қB, ERK1/2 and JNK/MAPKs activation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of a Natural Prolyl Oligopeptidase Inhibitor, Rosmarinic Acid, on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3586-3598; doi:10.3390/molecules17033586
Received: 11 February 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1746 KB)
Abstract
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were pretreated with RA one
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Rosmarinic acid (RA), a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were pretreated with RA one hour before challenge with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS was given, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained to measure pro-inflammatory mediator and total cell counts. RA significantly decreased the production of LPS-induced TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1β compare with the LPS group. When pretreated with RA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) the lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio of the lung tissue and the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the BALF were decreased significantly. Furthermore, RA may enhance oxidase dimutase (SOD) activity during the inflammatory response to LPS-induced ALI. And we further demonstrated that RA exerts anti-inflammation effect in vivo models of ALI through suppresses ERK/MAPK signaling in a dose dependent manner. These studies have important implications for RA administration as a potential treatment for ALI. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Beauvericin, a Bioactive Compound Produced by Fungi: A Short Review
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2367-2377; doi:10.3390/molecules17032367
Received: 21 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 17 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (258 KB)
Abstract Beauvericin is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide mycotoxin, which has insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activities. It is a potential agent for pesticides and medicines. This paper reviews the bioactivity, fermentation and biosynthesis of the fungal product beauvericin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessReview Oligonucleotide-Templated Reactions for Sensing Nucleic Acids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2446-2463; doi:10.3390/molecules17032446
Received: 10 February 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (479 KB)
Abstract
Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are useful for applying nucleic acid sensing. Various chemistries for oligonucleotide-templated reaction have been reported so far. Major scientific interests are focused on the development of signal amplification systems and signal generation systems. We introduce the recent advances of oligonucleotide-templated reaction
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Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are useful for applying nucleic acid sensing. Various chemistries for oligonucleotide-templated reaction have been reported so far. Major scientific interests are focused on the development of signal amplification systems and signal generation systems. We introduce the recent advances of oligonucleotide-templated reaction in consideration of the above two points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA-Templated Synthesis)
Open AccessReview Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2474-2490; doi:10.3390/molecules17032474
Received: 22 December 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 1 March 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (867 KB)
Abstract
Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over
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Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sulfur-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Pd(II): Syntheses, Structures and Catalytic Activities
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2491-2517; doi:10.3390/molecules17032491
Received: 1 February 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 1 March 2012
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (2263 KB)
Abstract
N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) can be easily modified by introducing functional groups at the nitrogen atoms, which leads to versatile coordination chemistry as well as diverse catalytic applications of the resulting complexes. This article summarizes our contributions to the field of NHCs bearing different
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N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) can be easily modified by introducing functional groups at the nitrogen atoms, which leads to versatile coordination chemistry as well as diverse catalytic applications of the resulting complexes. This article summarizes our contributions to the field of NHCs bearing different types of sulfur functions, i.e., thioether, sulfoxide, thiophene, and thiolato. The experimental evidence for the truly hemilabile coordination behavior of a Pd(II) thioether-NHC complex has been reported as well. In addition, complexes bearing rigid CSC-pincer ligands have been synthesized and the reasons for pincer versus pseudo-pincer formation investigated. Incorporation of the electron-rich thiolato function resulted in the isolation of structurally diverse complexes. The catalytic activities of selected complexes have been tested in Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck and hydroamination reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbene Complexes)
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Open AccessReview The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2542-2566; doi:10.3390/molecules17032542
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 76 | PDF Full-text (248 KB)
Abstract
Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils
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Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Key to Xenobiotic Carotenoids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2877-2928; doi:10.3390/molecules17032877
Received: 9 January 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (519 KB)
Abstract
A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe) directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C,H,X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon
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A listing of carotenoids with heteroatoms (X = F, Cl, Br, I, Si, N, S, Se, Fe) directly attached to the carotenoid carbon skeleton has been compiled. The 178 listed carotenoids with C,H,X atoms demonstrate that the classical division of carotenoids into hydrocarbon carotenoids (C,H) and xanthophylls (C,H,O) has become obsolete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview 1H and 13C-NMR Data of the Simplest Plumeran Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Aspidosperma Species
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3025-3043; doi:10.3390/molecules17033025
Received: 6 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 7 March 2012 / Published: 9 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (276 KB)
Abstract
Indole alkaloids are the chemotaxonomic markers of the Aspidosperma genera. Those that have the simplest plumeran skeleton are classified as the precursors of biosynthetic routes and the intermediates for several synthetic reactions. This work aims to review the 1H and 13C-NMR
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Indole alkaloids are the chemotaxonomic markers of the Aspidosperma genera. Those that have the simplest plumeran skeleton are classified as the precursors of biosynthetic routes and the intermediates for several synthetic reactions. This work aims to review the 1H and 13C-NMR data, up to 2011, describing the skeleton of 35 different plumeran indole alkaloids, from a group of 46 of them, and highlight the main spectral differences amongst them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
Open AccessReview Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3202-3242; doi:10.3390/molecules17033202
Received: 22 December 2011 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 130 | PDF Full-text (684 KB)
Abstract
Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both
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Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Alkenes via Metathesis
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3348-3358; doi:10.3390/molecules17033348
Received: 28 February 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (463 KB)
Abstract Fully substituted olefin generation via metathesis is presented. Catalyst development, optimization of reaction conditions and substrate screening are included. In addition, asymmetric alkene metathesis, the cross metathesis reaction for this transformation and its application in natural products will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olefin Metathesis and Its Application)
Open AccessReview Terpenoids as Potential Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutics
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3524-3538; doi:10.3390/molecules17033524
Received: 7 December 2011 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 19 March 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (646 KB)
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics available on the market are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine and donepezil. New therapeutic agents that can block the disease-inducing mechanisms are essential. Diverse efforts have been made to discover anti-AD agents from natural sources. In this review article, we describe some representative terpenoids such as ginsenosides, gingkolides, and canabinoids as potential anti-AD agents. These compounds exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo biological activities, but are still waiting clinical trials. Additionally, we also discuss some terpenoids including cornel iridoid glycoside, oleanolic acid, tenuifolin, cryptotanshinone, and ursolic acid, which are under investigation for their in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids)

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