Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2628-2642; doi:10.3390/molecules17032628
Article

Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples

1 Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8580, Japan 2 Center for Energy Resources Development, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia 3 Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Kanagawa 240-8501, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2011; in revised form: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Extraction in Supercritical Fluids)
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Abstract: Microbial community structure plays a significant role in environmental assessment and animal health management. The development of a superior analytical strategy for the characterization of microbial community structure is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we developed an effective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method for the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinones (RQ) in environmental and biological samples. RQ profile analysis is one of the most widely used culture-independent tools for characterizing microbial community structure. A UPLC equipped with a photo diode array (PDA) detector was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ubiquinones (UQ) and menaquinones (MK) without tedious pretreatment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction with the solid-phase cartridge trap proved to be a more effective and rapid method for extracting respiratory quinones, compared to a conventional organic solvent extraction method. This methodology leads to a successful analytical procedure that involves a significant reduction in the complexity and sample preparation time. Application of the optimized methodology to characterize microbial communities based on the RQ profile was demonstrated for a variety of environmental samples (activated sludge, digested sludge, and compost) and biological samples (swine and Japanese quail feces).
Keywords: biological sample; environmental sample; liquid chromatography menaquinone; quinone profile; supercritical fluid extraction; ubiquinone

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanif, M.; Atsuta, Y.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples. Molecules 2012, 17, 2628-2642.

AMA Style

Hanif M, Atsuta Y, Fujie K, Daimon H. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples. Molecules. 2012; 17(3):2628-2642.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanif, Muhammad; Atsuta, Yoichi; Fujie, Koichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki. 2012. "Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography of Respiratory Quinones for Microbial Community Analysis in Environmental and Biological Samples." Molecules 17, no. 3: 2628-2642.

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