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Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2335-2350; doi:10.3390/molecules17032335
Article

Comparative Studies of the (Anti) Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test

1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4 and 1,*
1 Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho,14801-902, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil 2 Universidade de Franca, 14404-600, Franca, São Paulo, Brazil 3 Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil 4 Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36035-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 24 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl}-2(E)-propenoic acid), is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate) and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate) by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits.
Keywords: Baccharis dracunculifolia; artepillin C; Ames test; antimutagenicity; mutagenicity Baccharis dracunculifolia; artepillin C; Ames test; antimutagenicity; mutagenicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Resende, F.A.; Munari, C.C.; de Azevedo Bentes Monteiro Neto, M.; Tavares, D.C.; Bastos, J.K.; da Silva Filho, A.A.; Varanda, E.A. Comparative Studies of the (Anti) Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test. Molecules 2012, 17, 2335-2350.

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