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An Investigation of (Non-) Inclusive Growth in Nigeria’s Sub-Nationals: Evidence from Elasticity Approach
Economies 2017, 5(4), 43; doi:10.3390/economies5040043 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper aims to estimate and rank the performance of sub-nationals in terms of their quality of growth using an index of inequality elasticity of poverty. The study puts forward a scenario matrix to hypothesize the four qualities of growth according to its
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This paper aims to estimate and rank the performance of sub-nationals in terms of their quality of growth using an index of inequality elasticity of poverty. The study puts forward a scenario matrix to hypothesize the four qualities of growth according to its interactions with inequality and poverty. This model is useful for developing countries that lack GDP data at the sub-national level, provided growth (at the national level) has been positive for the period under review. The study found that for Nigeria’s sub-nationals, the null hypothesis of non-inclusive growth was rejected for the different poverty measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cost Factors on National Manufacturing Based on Global Perspectives
Economies 2017, 5(4), 45; doi:10.3390/economies5040045 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Currently, the real economy is the important basis for the development of a country, especially after the global financial crisis in 2008. Given that the manufacturing industry is the main part of the national real economy, many developed and developing countries have paid
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Currently, the real economy is the important basis for the development of a country, especially after the global financial crisis in 2008. Given that the manufacturing industry is the main part of the national real economy, many developed and developing countries have paid considerable attention to its significance. This study focused on cost factors given that they influence national manufacturing development. Initially, this study proposed two elements, namely, manufacturing development scale and manufacturing development level, to evaluate national manufacturing development from two aspects: quantity and quality. Subsequently, we extracted a series of cost factors on the bass of the theoretical framework and literature, including labor costs, financing costs, tax and rental costs, energy and raw materials, foreign trade exports and business environments. On the basis of the data of 13 main manufacturing countries around the world from 2000 to 2015, we tested the influence degree of each cost element index on the scale and level of national manufacturing industry development through a two-way fixed effects model and incorporated it with the development of China’s manufacturing industry as a case study. Finally, we deduced the future development trend of the manufacturing industry by specifically analyzing the cost factors affecting the development of this industry and provided policy suggestions. The main innovation and contribution of this study including: to comprehensively evaluate the national manufacturing development from two aspects, namely, “quantity” and “quality”; to identify the impact of national cost of the six elements; to demonstrate and determine the extent of its impact on the development trend of manufacturing sector and carry out pre-judgment through empirical research on each indicator; to provide policy recommendations targeted for each of the indicators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formula I(1) and I(2): Race Tracks for Likelihood Maximization Algorithms of I(1) and I(2) Cointegrated VAR Models
Econometrics 2017, 5(4), 49; doi:10.3390/econometrics5040049 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper provides some test cases, called circuits, for the evaluation of Gaussian likelihood maximization algorithms of the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. Both I(1) and I(2) models are considered. The performance of algorithms is compared first in terms of effectiveness, defined as
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This paper provides some test cases, called circuits, for the evaluation of Gaussian likelihood maximization algorithms of the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. Both I(1) and I(2) models are considered. The performance of algorithms is compared first in terms of effectiveness, defined as the ability to find the overall maximum. The next step is to compare their efficiency and reliability across experiments. The aim of the paper is to commence a collective learning project by the profession on the actual properties of algorithms for cointegrated vector autoregressive model estimation, in order to improve their quality and, as a consequence, also the reliability of empirical research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Mathematical Model of Microbial Fuel Cell Processes: Bioelectrochemical and Microbiologic Aspects
Processes 2017, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/pr5040073 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) represent a still relatively new technology for liquid organic waste treatment and simultaneous recovery of energy and resources. Although the technology is quite appealing due its potential benefits, its practical application is still hampered by several drawbacks, such as
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Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) represent a still relatively new technology for liquid organic waste treatment and simultaneous recovery of energy and resources. Although the technology is quite appealing due its potential benefits, its practical application is still hampered by several drawbacks, such as systems instability (especially when attempting to scale-up reactors from laboratory prototypes), internally competing microbial reactions, and limited power generation. This paper is an attempt to address some of the issues related to MFC application in wastewater treatment with a simulation model. Reactor configuration, operational schemes, electrochemical and microbiological characterization, optimization methods and modelling strategies were reviewed and have been included in a mathematical simulation model written with a multidisciplinary, multi-perspective approach, considering the possibility of feeding real substrates to an MFC system while dealing with a complex microbiological population. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest for all MFC researchers dealing with domestic or industrial wastewater treatment. Full article
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Open AccessAbstract
Bio-Inspired Microfluidics for Wearable Sensors
Proceedings 2017, 1(8), 824; doi:10.3390/proceedings1080824 (registering DOI) -
Open AccessArticle
Assembled Cantilever Fiber Touch Trigger Probe for Three-Dimensional Measurement of Microstructures
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2652; doi:10.3390/s17112652 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, an assembled cantilever fiber touch trigger probe was developed for three-dimensional measurements of clear microstructures. The probe consists of a shaft assembled vertically to an optical fiber cantilever and a probing sphere located at the free end of the shaft.
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In this paper, an assembled cantilever fiber touch trigger probe was developed for three-dimensional measurements of clear microstructures. The probe consists of a shaft assembled vertically to an optical fiber cantilever and a probing sphere located at the free end of the shaft. The laser is emitted from the free end of the fiber cantilever and converges on the photosensitive surface of the camera through the lens. The position shift of the light spot centroid was used to detect the performance of the optical fiber cantilever, which changed dramatically when the probing sphere touched the objects being measured. Experimental results indicated that the sensing system has sensitivities of 3.32 pixels/μm, 1.35 pixels/μm, and 7.38 pixels/μm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively, and resolutions of 10 nm, 30 nm, and 5 nm were achieved in the x, y, and z, respectively. An experiment on micro slit measurement was performed to verify the high aspect ratio measurement capability of the assembled cantilever fiber (ACF) probe and to calibrate the effective two-point diameter of the probing sphere. The two-point probe sphere diameter was found to be 174.634 μm with a standard uncertainly of 0.045 μm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adding an Artificial Tail—Anchor to a Peptide-Based HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor for Improvement of Its Potency and Resistance Profile
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1996; doi:10.3390/molecules22111996 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein transmembrane subunit gp41, such as T20 (enfuvirtide), can bind to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41 and block six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation, thus inhibiting HIV-1
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Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein transmembrane subunit gp41, such as T20 (enfuvirtide), can bind to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41 and block six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation, thus inhibiting HIV-1 fusion with the target cell. However, clinical application of T20 is limited because of its low potency and genetic barrier to resistance. HP23, the shortest CHR peptide, exhibits better anti-HIV-1 activity than T20, but the HIV-1 strains with E49K mutations in gp41 will become resistant to it. Here, we modified HP23 by extending its C-terminal sequence using six amino acid residues (E6) and adding IDL (Ile-Asp-Leu) to the C-terminus of E6, which is expected to bind to the shallow pocket in the gp41 NHR N-terminal region. The newly designed peptide, designated HP23-E6-IDL, was about 2- to 16-fold more potent than HP23 against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains and more than 12-fold more effective against HIV-1 mutants resistant to HP23. These findings suggest that addition of an anchor–tail to the C-terminus of a CHR peptide will allow binding with the pocket in the gp41 NHR that may increase the peptide’s antiviral efficacy and its genetic barrier to resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rural Residents’ Perception of Construction Project Delays in Pakistan
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2108; doi:10.3390/su9112108 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The construction industry is one of the key sectors that facilitate sustainable economic and social development in the region. Currently, community development mechanisms are adopted by many developed and developing nations, aimed at enhancing economic growth and quality of life along with social
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The construction industry is one of the key sectors that facilitate sustainable economic and social development in the region. Currently, community development mechanisms are adopted by many developed and developing nations, aimed at enhancing economic growth and quality of life along with social welfare of the local community. This study reviews the rural residents’ perception of public construction project delays and aims to explore economic and social challenges confronted by residents, especially in rural areas in Pakistan. A questionnaire with 26 factors identified from the literature was sent to rural educated residents. Through a questionnaire survey, the opinions of rural residents were sought and tested. Based on 366 (73%) valid responses, this study examined the socio-economic influencing factors. The findings of the study revealed that problems faced while traveling, increase the price of consumer goods, high transportation costs, lack of educational opportunities, more expenditures on education, and barriers to primary healthcare access were the top most important factors. Research results confirmed that the delays in construction projects negatively affect the socio-economic conditions of the rural community, which directly influence the rural dwells’ sustainable life. The research findings suggest that the practitioners in public sector organization make sure to execute the project on time and within the quality. Otherwise, it has negative socio-economic implications for the rural community. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mild Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for Some Fractional Differential Equations with Delay
Axioms 2017, 6(4), 30; doi:10.3390/axioms6040030 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, we present new existence theorems of mild solutions to Cauchy problem for some fractional differential equations with delay. Our main tools to obtain our results are the theory of analytic semigroups and compact semigroups, the Kuratowski measure of non-compactness, and
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In this paper, we present new existence theorems of mild solutions to Cauchy problem for some fractional differential equations with delay. Our main tools to obtain our results are the theory of analytic semigroups and compact semigroups, the Kuratowski measure of non-compactness, and fixed point theorems, with the help of some estimations. Examples are also given to illustrate the applicability of our results. Full article

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