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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of the Ratio of Tocopherol Homologs to the Oxidative Stability of Commercial Vegetable Oils
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 206; doi:10.3390/molecules23010206 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present
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The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present study analyzed the effect of different tocopherol concentrations, homologs and ratios of homologs on markers of lipid oxidation in the most commonly consumed vegetable oils (canola, sunflower, soybean oil) stored in a 12 h light/dark cycle at 22 ± 2 °C for 56 days under retail/household conditions. After 56 days of storage, the α-tocopherol-rich canola and sunflower oil showed the strongest rise in lipid peroxides, yielding 25.1 ± 0.03 meq O2/kg (+25.3-fold) and 24.7 ± 0.05 meq O2/kg (+25.0-fold), respectively. ESR experiments, excluding effects of the oils’ matrices and other minor constituents, confirmed that a food representative tocopherol ratio of (γ + δ)/α = 4.77, as represented in soybean oil, led to a more pronounced delay of lipid oxidation than a lower ratio in canola (1.39) and sunflower oil (0.06). An optimum (γ + δ)/α -tocopherol ratio contributing to the oxidative quality of vegetable oils extending their shelf life has to be investigated. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energy-Saving Analysis of Solar Heating System with PCM Storage Tank
Energies 2018, 11(1), 237; doi:10.3390/en11010237 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A solar heating system (SHS) with a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage tank is proposed with the view that traditional heat water storage tanks present several problems including large space requirements, significant heat loss and unstable system performance. An entire heating season
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A solar heating system (SHS) with a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage tank is proposed with the view that traditional heat water storage tanks present several problems including large space requirements, significant heat loss and unstable system performance. An entire heating season (November–March) is selected as the research period on the basis of numerical models of the SHS-PCM. In addition, taking a public building in Lhasa as the object, the heating conditions, contribution rate of solar energy, and overall energy-saving capability provided by the heating system are analyzed under different PCM storage tanks and different terminal forms. The results show that an SHS with a PCM tank provides a 34% increase in energy saving capability compared to an ordinary water tank heating system. It is suggested that the design selection parameters of the PCM storage tank should specify a daily heat storage capacity that satisfies 70~80% of the entire heating season. A floor radiant system with supply/return water temperatures of 40/35 °C provides the optimal operation and the largest energy saving capability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins and Carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Isolates in a District in Western India during 2004–2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 155; doi:10.3390/ijerph15010155 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella
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Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period 2004–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. The change in proportions of non-susceptible bacteria over calendar time was investigated with spline transformations in a logistic regression model. For the extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the proportions of non-susceptible E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were above 78.4% and 84.9% throughout the study period, respectively. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates exhibited carbapenem non-susceptibility levels as high as 76.9% and 84.1% respectively. The proportions of extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates ranged from 38.3–85.9% in E. coli and from 45.1–93.1% in Klebsiella spp. Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from inpatients compared to isolates from outpatients for both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (p < 0.050). The high proportions of non-susceptible isolates observed show that there is great need to focus on optimal use of antibiotics to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spurious Seasonality Detection: A Non-Parametric Test Proposal
Econometrics 2018, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/econometrics6010003 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper offers a general and comprehensive definition of the day-of-the-week effect. Using symbolic dynamics, we develop a unique test based on ordinal patterns in order to detect it. This test uncovers the fact that the so-called “day-of-the-week” effect is partly an artifact
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This paper offers a general and comprehensive definition of the day-of-the-week effect. Using symbolic dynamics, we develop a unique test based on ordinal patterns in order to detect it. This test uncovers the fact that the so-called “day-of-the-week” effect is partly an artifact of the hidden correlation structure of the data. We present simulations based on artificial time series as well. While time series generated with long memory are prone to exhibit daily seasonality, pure white noise signals exhibit no pattern preference. Since ours is a non-parametric test, it requires no assumptions about the distribution of returns, so that it could be a practical alternative to conventional econometric tests. We also made an exhaustive application of the here-proposed technique to 83 stock indexes around the world. Finally, the paper highlights the relevance of symbolic analysis in economic time series studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioengineering of rFVIIa Biopharmaceutical and Structure Characterization for Biosimilarity Assessment
Bioengineering 2018, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/bioengineering5010007 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Eptacog alfa (NovoSeven®) is a vitamin K-dependent recombinant Factor VIIa produced by genetic engineering from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as a single peptide chain of 406 residues. After activation, it consists of a light chain (LC) of 152 amino and
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Eptacog alfa (NovoSeven®) is a vitamin K-dependent recombinant Factor VIIa produced by genetic engineering from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells as a single peptide chain of 406 residues. After activation, it consists of a light chain (LC) of 152 amino and a heavy chain (HC) of 254 amino acids. Recombinant FVIIa undergoes many post-translational modifications (PTMs). The first ten glutamic acids of the N-terminal moiety are γ-carboxylated, Asn145 and Asn322 are N-glycosylated, and Ser52 and Ser60 are O-glycosylated. A head-to-head biosimilarity study was conducted for the originator and the first biosimilar AryoSeven™ to evaluate comparable bioengineering. Physicochemical properties were analyzed based on mass spectrometry, including intact mass, PTMs and higher-order structure. Both biotherapeutics exhibit a batch-to-batch variability in their N-glycan profiles. N-Glycopeptide analysis with UHPLC-QTOF-MSE confirmed N-glycosylation sites as well as two different O-glycopeptide sites. Ser60 was found to be O-fucosylated and Ser52 had O-glucose or O-glucose-(xylose)1,2 motifs as glycan variants. Ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) and NMR spectroscopy data affirm close similarity of the higher-order structure of both biologicals. Potency of the biodrugs was analyzed by a coagulation assay demonstrating comparable bioactivity. Consequently, careful process optimization led to a stable production process of the biopharmaceuticals. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Imaging in 2017
J. Imaging 2018, 4(1), 26; doi:10.3390/jimaging4010026 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Imaging maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Welds on Ductile Cast Iron (700 MPa) under Different Heat Treatment Conditions
Metals 2018, 8(1), 72; doi:10.3390/met8010072 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The weldability of ductile iron, as widely known, is relatively poor, essentially due to its typical carbon equivalent value. The present study was developed surrounding the heat treatability of welded joints made with a high strength ductile cast iron detaining an ultimate tensile
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The weldability of ductile iron, as widely known, is relatively poor, essentially due to its typical carbon equivalent value. The present study was developed surrounding the heat treatability of welded joints made with a high strength ductile cast iron detaining an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, and aims to determine which heat treatment procedures promote the best results, in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. These types of alloys are suitable for the automotive industry, as they allow engineers to reduce the thickness of parts while maintaining mechanical strength, decreasing the global weight of vehicles and providing a path for more sustainable development. The results allow us to conclude that heat treatment methodology has a large impact on the mechanical properties of welded joints created from the study material. However, the thermal cycles suffered during welding promote the formation of ledeburite areas near the weld joint. This situation could possibly be dealt through the implementation of post-welding heat treatments (PWHT) with specific parameters. In contrast to a ductile cast iron tested in a previous work, the bull-eye ductile cast iron with 700 MPa ultimate tensile strength presented better results during the post-welding heat treatment than during preheating. Full article
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