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Open AccessArticle
Immobilization of Graphene Oxide on the Permeate Side of a Membrane Distillation Membrane to Enhance Flux
Membranes 2018, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030063 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a facile fabrication of enhanced direct contact membrane distillation membrane via immobilization of the hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) on the permeate side (GOIM-P) of a commercial polypropylene supported polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane is presented. The permeate side hydrophilicity of the membrane
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In this paper, a facile fabrication of enhanced direct contact membrane distillation membrane via immobilization of the hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) on the permeate side (GOIM-P) of a commercial polypropylene supported polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane is presented. The permeate side hydrophilicity of the membrane was modified by immobilizing the GO to facilitate fast condensation and the withdrawal of the permeate water vapors. The water vapor flux was found to be as high as 64.5 kg/m2·h at 80 °C, which is 15% higher than the unmodified membrane at a feed salt concentration of 10,000 ppm. The mass transfer coefficient was observed 6.2 × 10−7 kg/m2·s·Pa at 60 °C and 200 mL/min flow rate in the GOIM-P. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cinnamoyl-Oxaborole Amides: Synthesis and Their in Vitro Biological Activity
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082038 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Due to the increased interest in their application in the treatment of infectious diseases, boron-containing compounds have received a significant coverage in the literature. Herein, a small set of novel cinnamoly-oxaborole amides were synthesized and screened against nagana Trypanosoma brucei brucei for antitrypanosomal
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Due to the increased interest in their application in the treatment of infectious diseases, boron-containing compounds have received a significant coverage in the literature. Herein, a small set of novel cinnamoly-oxaborole amides were synthesized and screened against nagana Trypanosoma brucei brucei for antitrypanosomal activity. Compound 5g emerged as a new hit with an in vitro IC50 value of 0.086 μM against T. b. brucei without obvious inhibitory activity against HeLa cell lines. The same series was also screened against other human pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), for which moderate to weak activity (10 to >125 μM) was observed. Similarly, these compounds exhibited moderate activity against the human protozoal pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis with no observed effect on common microbiome bacterial species. The cross-species inhibitory activity presents the possibility of these compounds serving as broad-spectrum antibiotics for these prevalent three human pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessReview
When Should the Emphasis on Schistosomiasis Control Move to Elimination?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed3030085 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The stated goal of the World Health Organization’s program on schistosomiasis is paraphrased as follows: to control morbidity and eliminate transmission where feasible. Switching from a goal of controlling morbidity to interrupting transmission may well be currently feasible in some countries in the
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The stated goal of the World Health Organization’s program on schistosomiasis is paraphrased as follows: to control morbidity and eliminate transmission where feasible. Switching from a goal of controlling morbidity to interrupting transmission may well be currently feasible in some countries in the Caribbean, some areas in South America, northern Africa, and selected endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa where there have been improvements in sanitation and access to clean water. However, in most of sub-Saharan Africa, where programmatic interventions still consist solely of annual mass drug administration, such a switch in strategies remains premature. There is a continued need for operational research on how best to reduce transmission to a point where interruption of transmission may be achievable. The level of infection at which it is feasible to transition from control to elimination must also be defined. In parallel, there is also a need to develop and evaluate approaches for achieving and validating elimination. There are currently neither evidence-based methods nor tools for breaking transmission or verifying that it has been accomplished. The basis for these statements stems from numerous studies that will be reviewed and summarized in this article; many, but not all of which were undertaken as part of SCORE, the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multi-Time Scale Rolling Economic Dispatch for Wind/Storage Power System Based on Forecast Error Feature Extraction
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082124 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper looks at the ability to cope with the uncertainty of wind power and reduce the impact of wind power forecast error (WPFE) on the operation and dispatch of power system. Therefore, several factors which are related to WPFE will be studied.
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This paper looks at the ability to cope with the uncertainty of wind power and reduce the impact of wind power forecast error (WPFE) on the operation and dispatch of power system. Therefore, several factors which are related to WPFE will be studied. By statistical analysis of the historical data, an indicator of real-time error based on these factors is obtained to estimate WPFE. Based on the real-time estimation of WPFE, a multi-time scale rolling dispatch model for wind/storage power system is established. In the real-time error compensation section of this model, the previous dispatch plan of thermal power unit is revised according to the estimation of WPFE. As the regulating capacity of thermal power unit within a short time period is limited, the estimation of WPFE is further compensated by using battery energy storage system. This can not only decrease the risk caused by the wind power uncertainty and lessen wind spillage, but also reduce the total cost. Thereby providing a new method to describe and model wind power uncertainty, and providing economic, safe and energy-saving dispatch plan for power system. The analysis in case study verifies the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Inverse Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Algorithm of Maneuvering Target Based on Integral Cubic Phase Function-Fractional Fourier Transform
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080148 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
When imaging maneuvering targets with inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAL), dispersion and Doppler frequency time-variation exist in the range and cross-range echo signal, respectively. To solve this problem, an ISAL imaging algorithm based on integral cubic phase function-fractional Fourier transform (ICPF-FRFT) is proposed
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When imaging maneuvering targets with inverse synthetic aperture ladar (ISAL), dispersion and Doppler frequency time-variation exist in the range and cross-range echo signal, respectively. To solve this problem, an ISAL imaging algorithm based on integral cubic phase function-fractional Fourier transform (ICPF-FRFT) is proposed in this paper. The accurate ISAL echo signal model is established for a space maneuvering target that quickly approximates the uniform acceleration motion. On this basis, the chirp rate of the echo signal is quickly estimated by using the ICPF algorithm, which uses the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) method for fast calculations. At the best rotation angle, the range compression is realized by FRFT and the range dispersion is eliminated. After motion compensation, separation imaging of strong and weak scattering points is realized by using ICPF-FRFT and CLEAN technique and the azimuth defocusing problem is solved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a simulation experiment of an aircraft scattering point model and real data. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Highly Sensitive and Selective Colorimetric Detection of Methylmercury Based on DNA Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082679 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A new colorimetric detection of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) was developed, which was based on the surface deposition of Hg enhancing the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs were functionalized with a specific DNA strand (HT7) recognizing
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A new colorimetric detection of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) was developed, which was based on the surface deposition of Hg enhancing the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs were functionalized with a specific DNA strand (HT7) recognizing CH3Hg+, which was used to capture and separate CH3Hg+ by centrifugation. It was found that the CH3Hg+ reduction resulted in the deposition of Hg onto the surface of AuNPs. As a result, the catalytic activity of the AuNPs toward the chromogenic reaction of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 was remarkably enhanced. Under optimal conditions, a limit of detection of 5.0 nM was obtained for CH3Hg+ with a linear range of 10–200 nM. We demonstrated that the colorimetric method was fairly simple with a low cost and can be conveniently applied to CH3Hg+ detection in environmental samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Best Practice Patterns for Corporate Social Responsibility in Top IT Companies
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030076 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In order to show their compliance with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) goals, companies report their “sustainable initiatives” into their CSR reports. However, from small companies to multinational, it is hard to see the real benefits of sustainable strategies’ implementation, since there are actually
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In order to show their compliance with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) goals, companies report their “sustainable initiatives” into their CSR reports. However, from small companies to multinational, it is hard to see the real benefits of sustainable strategies’ implementation, since there are actually no general patterns defined which can ensure high impacts on sustainability. Moreover, there are few metrics and process to assess the efficiency of a sustainability strategy, but the different studies made in that field can show different results, this induces a part of uncertainty to evaluate the performance of a sustainable strategy. Therefore, in this paper, we contribute a pattern approach to implementing sustainability in a company. To do that, we performed an analysis of the 25 CSR reports coming from the 25 biggest companies in the IT sector in order to extract sustainability patterns that are provided in an online catalog to (1) give first tracks to companies which would engage in sustainability initiatives and do not really know where to start; and (2) to give an indicator to companies who already have taken up sustainability initiatives and would like to establish an evaluation of it. Full article

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