Latest Articles

Open AccessArticle
miR-103 Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis by Targeting KLF4 in Gastric Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 910; doi:10.3390/ijms18050910 -
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cancer development and progression; overexpression of miR-103 has been identified in various tumors. However, its biological function and regulatory mechanism involved in modulation of human gastric cancer (GC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to confirm
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cancer development and progression; overexpression of miR-103 has been identified in various tumors. However, its biological function and regulatory mechanism involved in modulation of human gastric cancer (GC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to confirm clinical significance of miR-103 and investigate its biological role and underlying mechanism in GC. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed miR-103 was highly expressed in GC tissues and cell lines. miR-103 expression was correlated closely with tumor size, Lauren’s classification, and lymph node metastasis. Importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high expression of miR-103 was significantly associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival of GC patients. Downregulation of miR-103 by transfecting with miR-103 inhibitor significantly suppressed cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, inhibited migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miRNA target databases and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Krüppel-like Factor-4 (KLF4) was a direct target of miR-103 in GC, and there was a significant inverse correlation between miR-103 and KLF4 expression in GC tissues. Moreover, KLF4 downregulation could rescue miR-103’s oncogenic effect on GC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Therefore, these results suggested that miR-103 overexpression could contribute to tumor progression by suppressing KLF4, and it might serve as a promising candidate for the prognosis of GC patients. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(5), 404; doi:10.3390/rs9050404 -
Abstract
Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS) compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI) is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI,
[...] Read more.
Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS) compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI) is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML) based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Backbone-Substituted β-Ketoimines and Ketoiminate Clusters: Transoid Li2O2 Squares and D2-Symmetric Li4O4 Cubanes. Synthesis, Crystallography and DFT Calculations
Inorganics 2017, 5(2), 30; doi:10.3390/inorganics5020030 -
Abstract
The preparation and crystal structures of four β-ketoimines with bulky aryl nitrogen substituents (2,6-diisopropylphenyl and 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and varying degrees of backbone methyl substitution are reported. Backbone substitution “pinches” the chelate ring. Deprotonation with n-butyllithium leads to dimeric Li2O2 clusters,
[...] Read more.
The preparation and crystal structures of four β-ketoimines with bulky aryl nitrogen substituents (2,6-diisopropylphenyl and 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and varying degrees of backbone methyl substitution are reported. Backbone substitution “pinches” the chelate ring. Deprotonation with n-butyllithium leads to dimeric Li2O2 clusters, as primary laddered units, with an open transoid geometry as shown by crystal structures of three examples. The coordination sphere of each lithium is completed by one tetrahydrofuran ligand. NMR spectra undertaken in either C6D6 or 1:1 C6D6/d8-THF show free THF in solution and the chemical shifts of ligand methyl groups experience significant ring-shielding which can only occur from aryl rings on adjacent ligands. Both features point to conversion to higher-order aggregates when the THF concentration is reduced. Recrystallization of the materials from hydrocarbon solutions results in secondary laddering as tetrameric Li4O4 clusters with a cuboidal core, three examples of which have been crystallographically characterised. These clusters are relatively insoluble and melt up to 250 °C; a consideration of the solid-state structures indicates that the clusters with 2,6-diisopropylphenyl substituents form very uniform ball-like molecular structures that will only be weakly solvated. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Fusarium: A Practical Approach
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jof3020019 -
Abstract
In vitro susceptibility testing of Fusarium is becoming increasingly important because of frequency and diversity of infections and because resistance profiles are species-specific. Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) are those of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on
[...] Read more.
In vitro susceptibility testing of Fusarium is becoming increasingly important because of frequency and diversity of infections and because resistance profiles are species-specific. Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) are those of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility (EUCAST), but breakpoints (BPs) have not yet been established. One of the problems is that phylogenetic distances between Fusarium species are much smaller than between species of, e.g., Candida. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for some Fusarium species have been determined in order to differentiate wild-type from non-wild-type isolates. In clinical routine, commercially available assays such as Etest, Sensititre or others provide essential agreement with reference methods. Our objective is to summarize antifungal susceptibility testing of Fusarium genus in the clinical laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Addition to Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 909; doi:10.3390/ijms18050909 -
Abstract
Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) occurs in >90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and is associated with a poorer prognosis. A systematic review of electronic databases identified studies exploring the addition of EGFR-targeted treatment to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced
[...] Read more.
Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) occurs in >90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and is associated with a poorer prognosis. A systematic review of electronic databases identified studies exploring the addition of EGFR-targeted treatment to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced (LA)/metastatic PDAC. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of EGFR-targeted therapy were explored using meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-regression was utilised to explore factors associated with improved prognosis (all studies) and benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy (RCTs). Twenty-eight studies (7 RCTs and 21 cohort studies) comprising 3718 patients were included. The addition of EGFR-targeted treatment to chemotherapy did not improve progression-free (pooled hazard ratio (HR): 0.90, p = 0.15) or overall survival (HR: 0.94, p = 0.18). EGFR-targeted therapy was associated with increased treatment-related deaths (pooled odds ratio (OR): 5.18, p = 0.007), and grade (G)3/4 rash (OR: 4.82, p = 0.03). There was a borderline significant increase in G3/4 diarrhoea (OR: 1.75, p = 0.06), but no effect on treatment discontinuation without progression (OR: 0.87, p = 0.25). Neither G3/4 rash nor diarrhoea were associated with increased survival benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy. The effect of EGFR-targeted therapy on overall survival (OS) appeared greater in studies with a greater proportion of LA rather than metastatic patients (R = −0.69, p < 0.001). Further studies in unselected patients with advanced PDAC are not warranted. The benefit from EGFR inhibitors may be limited to patient subgroups not yet clearly defined. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Validation of the Concurrent Atomistic-Continuum Method on Screw Dislocation/Stacking Fault Interactions
Crystals 2017, 7(5), 120; doi:10.3390/cryst7050120 -
Abstract
Dislocation/stacking fault interactions play an important role in the plastic deformation of metallic nanocrystals and polycrystals. These interactions have been explored in atomistic models, which are limited in scale length by high computational cost. In contrast, multiscale material modeling approaches have the potential
[...] Read more.
Dislocation/stacking fault interactions play an important role in the plastic deformation of metallic nanocrystals and polycrystals. These interactions have been explored in atomistic models, which are limited in scale length by high computational cost. In contrast, multiscale material modeling approaches have the potential to simulate the same systems at a fraction of the computational cost. In this paper, we validate the concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) method on the interactions between a lattice screw dislocation and a stacking fault (SF) in three face-centered cubic metallic materials—Ni, Al, and Ag. Two types of SFs are considered: intrinsic SF (ISF) and extrinsic SF (ESF). For the three materials at different strain levels, two screw dislocation/ISF interaction modes (annihilation of the ISF and transmission of the dislocation across the ISF) and three screw dislocation/ESF interaction modes (transformation of the ESF into a three-layer twin, transformation of the ESF into an ISF, and transmission of the dislocation across the ESF) are identified. Our results show that CAC is capable of accurately predicting the dislocation/SF interaction modes with greatly reduced DOFs compared to fully-resolved atomistic simulations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Role of the MAPK Signaling, Topoisomerase and Dietary Bioactives in Controlling Cancer Incidence
Diseases 2017, 5(2), 13; doi:10.3390/diseases5020013 -
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are
[...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are known to be involved in a wide range of human diseases, including cancer. The excessive production of such ROS together with disruption of homeostasis detoxifying mechanisms can mediate a series of cellular oxidative stresses. The oxidative stress of redundant free radicals production can lead to oxidative denaturation of cellular macromolecules including proteins, lipids and DNA. Moreover, oxidative damage is one of the major causes of DNA mutations, replication errors and genomic abnormalities which result in either inhibition or induction of transcription, and end with the disturbance of signal transduction pathways. Among affected signaling pathways are redox-sensitive kinases. The stimulation of these kinases induces several transcription factors through the phosphorylation of their module proteins. The activation of such pathways induces proliferation and cellular transformation. A diet rich in antioxidant compounds has potential health benefits, and there is a growing interest in the role of natural antioxidants in nutrition for prevention and cure of cancer diseases. A controversy has risen regarding the relation between antioxidants and the significant decrease in the risk of cancer incidence. In this review, we will focus on redox-sensitive kinases signaling pathways, highlighting the effects of dietary antioxidant on the prevention, incidence, prognosis or even treatment of human cancers. In addition, we will place emphasis on the chemical classes of pterocarpans as natural anti-oxidants/cancers as well as their underlying mechanisms of action, including their effects on MAPKs and topoisomerase activities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Significant Tic Reduction in An Otherwise Treatment-Resistant Patient with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Following Treatment with Nabiximols
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(5), 47; doi:10.3390/brainsci7050047 -
Abstract
Early anecdotal reports and preliminary studies suggested that cannabinoid-based medicines such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are effective in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). We report a single case study of a patient with otherwise treatment-resistant TS successfully treated with nabiximols.
[...] Read more.
Early anecdotal reports and preliminary studies suggested that cannabinoid-based medicines such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are effective in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). We report a single case study of a patient with otherwise treatment-resistant TS successfully treated with nabiximols. Our patient was a 22-year-old male suffering from severe and complex TS. Treatment with nabiximols was commenced at a dose of 1 puff/day (= 100 μL containing 2.7 mg THC and 2.5 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) and slowly increased up to a dosage of 3 × 3 puffs/day (= 24.3 mg THC and 22.5 mg CBD). Several clinical measures for tics, premonitory urges, and global impairment were acquired before and after two weeks of treatment. Treatment with nabiximols resulted in major improvements of both tics and premonitory urges, but also global impairment and health-related quality of life according to all used measurements without causing relevant adverse effects. Our results provide further evidence that treatment with nabiximols may be effective in the treatment of patients with TS. Given the positive response exhibited by the patient highlighted in this report, further investigation of the effects of nabiximols is proposed on a larger group of patients in a clinical trial setting. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Sorption in Erbium Borohydride Composite Mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH
Inorganics 2017, 5(2), 31; doi:10.3390/inorganics5020031 -
Abstract
Rare earth (RE) metal borohydrides have recently been receiving attention as possible hydrogen storage materials and solid-state Li-ion conductors. In this paper, the decomposition and reabsorption of Er(BH4)3 in composite mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH were investigated. The composite
[...] Read more.
Rare earth (RE) metal borohydrides have recently been receiving attention as possible hydrogen storage materials and solid-state Li-ion conductors. In this paper, the decomposition and reabsorption of Er(BH4)3 in composite mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH were investigated. The composite of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH4)3 + 3LiH has a theoretical hydrogen storage capacity of 9 wt %, nevertheless, only 6 wt % hydrogen are accessible due to the formation of thermally stable LiH. Hydrogen sorption measurements in a Sieverts-type apparatus revealed that during three desorption-absorption cycles of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH4)3 + 3LiH, the composite desorbed 4.2, 3.7 and 3.5 wt % H for the first, second and third cycle, respectively, and thus showed good rehydrogenation behavior. In situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) after ball milling of Er(BH4)3 + 6LiH resulted in the formation of LiBH4, revealing that metathesis reactions occurred during milling in these systems. Impedance spectroscopy of absorbed Er(BH4)3 + 6LiH showed an exceptional high hysteresis of 40–60 K for the transition between the high and low temperature phases of LiBH4, indicating that the high temperature phase of LiBH4 is stabilized in the composite. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

News & Announcements

Follow MDPI

loading...

Jobs in Research

Selected Special Issues

Selected Collections

Institutional Membership

Member institutes benefit from discounts and convenient payment options.

Feedback

We are keen to hear what you think about MDPI. To leave us your feedback, suggestions or questions please click here.

See what our authors and guest editors say about us.

About MDPI

MDPI.com is a platform for peer-reviewed, scientific open-access journals operated by MDPI AG, based in Basel, Switzerland. Additional offices are located in Beijing and Wuhan (China) as well as in Barcelona (Spain).

Back to Top