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Open AccessArticle
Histone Modulation Blocks Treg-Induced Foxp3 Binding to the IL-2 Promoter of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cats
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060287 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
CD8+ T cells are critical for controlling HIV infection. During the chronic phase of lentiviral infection, CD8+ T cells lose their proliferative capacity and exhibit impaired antiviral function. This loss of CD8+ T cell function is due, in part, to
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CD8+ T cells are critical for controlling HIV infection. During the chronic phase of lentiviral infection, CD8+ T cells lose their proliferative capacity and exhibit impaired antiviral function. This loss of CD8+ T cell function is due, in part, to CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cell-mediated suppression. Our research group has demonstrated that lentivirus-activated CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induce the repressive transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) in autologous CD8+ T cells following co-culture. We have recently reported that Treg-induced Foxp3 binds the interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN- γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoters in virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These data suggest an important role of Foxp3-mediated CD8+ T cell dysfunction in lentiviral infection. To elucidate the mechanism of this suppression, we previously reported that decreased methylation facilitates Foxp3 binding in mitogen-activated CD8+ T cells from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. We demonstrated the reduced binding of Foxp3 to the IL-2 promoter by increasing methylation of CD8+ T cells. In the studies presented here, we ask if another form of epigenetic modulation might alleviate Foxp3-mediated suppression in CD8+ T cells. We hypothesized that decreasing histone acetylation in virus-specific CD8+ T cells would decrease Treg-induced Foxp3 binding to the IL-2 promoter. Indeed, using anacardic acid (AA), a known histone acetyl transferase (HAT) inhibitor, we demonstrate a reduction in Foxp3 binding to the IL-2 promoter in virus-specific CD8+ T cells co-cultured with autologous Treg cells. These data identify a novel mechanism of Foxp3-mediated CD8+ T cell dysfunction during lentiviral infection. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Scaffolding Rubrics to Improve Student Writing: Preliminary Results of Using Rubrics in a Sociology Program to Enhance Learning and Mechanical Writing Skills
Societies 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020034 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through
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In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through the use of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy, scaffolding within the course can be used to aid in the accomplishment of the course learning outcomes. Scaffolding within the course curriculum can move students through Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy levels toward the mastery of specific skills. Writing is a major area of assessment as an indication of learning across disciplines. Scaffolding rubrics were used within sociology courses to specifically address both student learning and mechanical writing skills. Preliminary results of using rubrics to enhance student learning and scaffolding in eight courses (one 100-level, one 200-level, two 300-level, and four 400-level sociology courses) will be presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
3D Shape Reconstruction of 3D Printed Transparent Microscopic Objects from Multiple Photographic Images Using Ultraviolet Illumination
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060261 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We propose and demonstrate a simple, low-cost, three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition method for transparent 3D printed microscopic objects. Our method uses ultraviolet (UV) illumination to obtain high-contrast silhouette images of transparent 3D printed polymer objects. Multiple silhouette images taken from different viewpoints make
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We propose and demonstrate a simple, low-cost, three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition method for transparent 3D printed microscopic objects. Our method uses ultraviolet (UV) illumination to obtain high-contrast silhouette images of transparent 3D printed polymer objects. Multiple silhouette images taken from different viewpoints make it possible to reconstruct the 3D shape of this transparent object. A 3D shape acquisition system consisting of a UV light-emitting diode, charge-coupled device camera and a rotation stage was constructed and used to successfully reconstruct the 3D shape of a transparent bunny model produced using micro-stereolithography. In addition, 3D printed pillar array models, with different diameters on the order of several hundred micrometers, were reconstructed. This method will be a promising tool for the 3D shape reconstruction of transparent 3D objects on both the micro- and macro-scale by changing the imaging lens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Possible Synergistic Effects of Glutathione and C-Reactive Protein in the Progression of Liver Cirrhosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060678 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients
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Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients and compared them with healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed the relationship of the GSH status and levels of inflammatory markers with the severity of the disease. This was a cross-sectional study. In total, we recruited 63 liver cirrhotic patients with Child–Turcotte–Pugh class A scores, and 12 patients with class B–C scores, together with 110 healthy subjects. Patients with class B–C scores showed the highest level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) when compared with class A patients or healthy subjects. Patients in class A group had significantly higher GSH levels when compared with class B–C group or healthy subjects. After adjusting for potential confounders and each other, serum hs-CRP levels showed positive association with the Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores, while GSH levels showed negative association with Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores. Interactions were found between levels of plasma GSH and serum hs-CRP (β = 0.004, p = 0.016). CRP and GSH levels, which had showed interactions, were associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Study of the Role of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Fractional Excretion of Magnesium in Children: Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitors
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060677 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: It was shown in animal models and adults that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in the pathophysiology of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced renal magnesium loss. In children, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear, which was set as the purpose of
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Background: It was shown in animal models and adults that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in the pathophysiology of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced renal magnesium loss. In children, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear, which was set as the purpose of the present study. Methods: Children with nephrotic syndrome and renal transplant children treated with CNI (n = 50) and non-CNI treated children (n = 46) were included in this study. Urine and serum samples were collected at three time points to determine magnesium, creatinine, and EGF. The magnesium intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Serum Mg2+ and urinary EGF/creatinine were significantly lower in the CNI treated children, with significantly more CNI-treated children developing hypomagnesaemia. In the latter patients, the fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg2+) was significantly higher. Urinary EGF, age, renal function, and serum magnesium were independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. Only 29% of the children reached the recommended daily intake of magnesium. The magnesium intake did not differ between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic patients and was not a predictor of the FE Mg2+. Conclusions: In CNI-treated children who developed hypomagnesemia, the FE Mg2+ was increased. The urinary EGF concentration, age, and renal function are independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi
Materials 2018, 11(6), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060897 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more
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The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM)—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Spatial Registration and Target Tracking Method for Sensors on Multiple Missiles
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061723 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Inspired by the problem that the current spatial registration methods are unsuitable for three-dimensional (3-D) sensor on high-dynamic platform, this paper focuses on the estimation for the registration errors of cooperative missiles and motion states of maneuvering target. There are two types of
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Inspired by the problem that the current spatial registration methods are unsuitable for three-dimensional (3-D) sensor on high-dynamic platform, this paper focuses on the estimation for the registration errors of cooperative missiles and motion states of maneuvering target. There are two types of errors being discussed: sensor measurement biases and attitude biases. Firstly, an improved Kalman Filter on Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF-KF) coordinate algorithm is proposed to estimate the deviations mentioned above, from which the outcomes are furtherly compensated to the error terms. Secondly, the Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PLKF) and the nonlinear scheme the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) with modified inputs are employed for target tracking. The convergence of filtering results are monitored by a position-judgement logic, and a low-pass first order filter is selectively introduced before compensation to inhibit the jitter of estimations. In the simulation, the ECEF-KF enhancement is proven to improve the accuracy and robustness of the space alignment, while the conditional-compensation-based PLKF method is demonstrated to be the optimal performance in target tracking. Full article
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