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Open AccessArticle
Gaze and Arrows: The Effect of Element Orientation on Apparent Motion is Modulated by Attention
Vision 2017, 1(3), 21; doi:10.3390/vision1030021 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In two experiments we investigated whether stimuli that elicit automatic orienting of attention (i.e., arrow or averted gaze) could drive apparent motion perception in one of two possible directions, modulating the effect of a low-level property (the orientation of elements along the motion
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In two experiments we investigated whether stimuli that elicit automatic orienting of attention (i.e., arrow or averted gaze) could drive apparent motion perception in one of two possible directions, modulating the effect of a low-level property (the orientation of elements along the motion direction). To this end, the competing motion paradigm was used, in which at time 1, a stimulus appears in the center of the display, and at time 2, two other stimuli appear in different spatial locations. Three kinds of stimuli with eight possible orientations were used in separate blocks; (1) a line; (2) an arrow; and, (3) an averted gaze. First, since the three stimuli present in the display at time 2 should be perceived to be located at the same distance (i.e., equidistant), the threshold for perceived equidistance was calculated for each participant and then used as the customized inter-stimulus distance. Participants were asked to press the button corresponding to the direction of the perceived motion. Results show a preference for collinear motion (motions between elements oriented along the motion direction), with a higher percentage of responses for gaze and arrow stimuli. In Experiment 1, a difference between gaze- and arrow-stimuli was observed. Apparent motion was seen towards the collinear position more often for gaze than for arrow when the stimulus was pointing to the vertical directions, while the opposite was true when the stimulus was pointing to the horizontal directions. In Experiment 2, where the lightness contrast between the gaze and the background was reduced, no difference between gaze- and arrow-stimuli emerged. We interpret our results as due to the social and biological value of gaze, which solved a possible ambiguity between gaze direction and the directions conveyed by the figural properties of the contrasted background in Experiment 1. These findings are consistent with the idea that stimuli known to automatically orient visual attention modulate motion perception. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Aerosol on the Retrieval Accuracy of NO2 Slant Column Density
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 867; doi:10.3390/rs9080867 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We investigate the effects of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol peak height (APH), measurement geometry (solar zenith angle (SZA) and viewing zenith angle (VZA)), relative azimuth angle, and surface reflectance on the accuracy of NO2 slant column density
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We investigate the effects of aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol peak height (APH), measurement geometry (solar zenith angle (SZA) and viewing zenith angle (VZA)), relative azimuth angle, and surface reflectance on the accuracy of NO2 slant column density using synthetic radiance. High AOD and APH are found to decrease NO2 SCD retrieval accuracy. In moderately polluted (5 × 1015 molecules cm−2 < NO2 vertical column density (VCD) < 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2) and clean regions (NO2 VCD < 5 × 1015 molecules cm−2), the correlation coefficient (R) between true NO2 SCDs and those retrieved is 0.88 and 0.79, respectively, and AOD and APH are about 0.1 and is 0 km, respectively. However, when AOD and APH are about 1.0 and 4 km, respectively, the R decreases to 0.84 and 0.53 in moderately polluted and clean regions, respectively. On the other hand, in heavily polluted regions (NO2 VCD > 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2), even high AOD and APH values are found to have a negligible effect on NO2 SCD precision. In high AOD and APH conditions in clean NO2 regions, the R between true NO2 SCDs and those retrieved increases from 0.53 to 0.58 via co-adding four pixels spatially, showing the improvement in accuracy of NO2 SCD retrieval. In addition, the high SZA and VZA are also found to decrease the accuracy of the NO2 SCD retrieval. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Decision Fusion for Urban Land-Use/Land-Cover Classification Based on Adaptive Differential Evolution Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(8), 868; doi:10.3390/rs9080868 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Hyperspectral images and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data have, respectively, the high spectral resolution and accurate elevation information required for urban land-use/land-cover (LULC) classification. To combine the respective advantages of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, this paper proposes an optimal decision fusion method
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Hyperspectral images and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data have, respectively, the high spectral resolution and accurate elevation information required for urban land-use/land-cover (LULC) classification. To combine the respective advantages of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, this paper proposes an optimal decision fusion method based on adaptive differential evolution, namely ODF-ADE, for urban LULC classification. In the ODF-ADE framework the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and digital surface model (DSM) are extracted to form the feature map. The three different classifiers of the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), support vector machine (SVM) and multinomial logistic regression (MLR) are used to classify the extracted features. To find the optimal weights for the different classification maps, weighted voting is used to obtain the classification result and the weights of each classification map are optimized by the differential evolution algorithm which uses a self-adaptive strategy to obtain the parameter adaptively. The final classification map is obtained after post-processing based on conditional random fields (CRF). The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is very effective in urban LULC classification. Full article
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Open AccessReview
In Quest for Improved Drugs against Diabetes: The Added Value of X-ray Powder Diffraction Methods
Biomolecules 2017, 7(3), 63; doi:10.3390/biom7030063 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Human insulin (HI) is a well-characterized natural hormone which regulates glycose levels into the blood-stream and is widely used for diabetes treatment. Numerous studies have manifested that despite significant efforts devoted to structural characterization of this molecule and its complexes with organic compounds
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Human insulin (HI) is a well-characterized natural hormone which regulates glycose levels into the blood-stream and is widely used for diabetes treatment. Numerous studies have manifested that despite significant efforts devoted to structural characterization of this molecule and its complexes with organic compounds (ligands), there is still a rich diagram of phase transitions and novel crystalline forms to be discovered. Towards the improvement of drug delivery, identification of new insulin polymorphs from polycrystalline samples, simulating the commercially available drugs, is feasible today via macromolecular X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). This approach has been developed, and is considered as a respectable method, which can be employed in biosciences for various purposes, such as observing phase transitions and characterizing bulk pharmaceuticals. An overview of the structural studies on human insulin complexes performed over the past decade employing both synchrotron and laboratory sources for XRPD measurements, is reported herein. This review aims to assemble all of the recent advances in the diabetes treatment field in terms of drug formulation, verifying in parallel the efficiency and applicability of protein XRPD for quick and accurate preliminary structural characterization in the large scale. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Pathophysiology and Neuroprotective Strategies in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury and Stroke
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(8), 110; doi:10.3390/brainsci7080110 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and stroke are closely related and devastating conditions that can affect individuals of all ages.[...] Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Peritoneal Mesothelioma with Residential Asbestos Exposure. Report of a Case with Long Survival (Seventeen Years) Analyzed by Cgh-Array
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1818; doi:10.3390/ijms18081818 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive tumor with limited therapeutic options. We report a case of a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) epithelioid type, with environmental asbestos exposure, in a 36-year-old man, with a long survival (17 years). The patient received standard treatment
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Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive tumor with limited therapeutic options. We report a case of a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) epithelioid type, with environmental asbestos exposure, in a 36-year-old man, with a long survival (17 years). The patient received standard treatment which included cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Methods and Results: Molecular analysis with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-array was performed on paraffin-embedded tumoral samples. Multiple chromosomal imbalances were detected. The gains were prevalent. Losses at 1q21, 2q11.1→q13, 8p23.1, 9p12→p11, 9q21.33→q33.1, 9q12→q21.33, and 17p12→p11.2 are observed. Chromosome band 3p21 (BAP1), 9p21 (CDKN2A) and 22q12 (NF2) are not affected. Conclusions: the defects observed in this case are uncommon in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Some chromosomal aberrations that appear to be random here, might actually be relevant events explaining the response to therapy, the long survival and, finally, may be considered useful prognostic factors in peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forecasting of Industrial Water Demand Using Case-Based Reasoning—A Case Study in Zhangye City, China
Water 2017, 9(8), 626; doi:10.3390/w9080626 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original
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Forecasting the industrial water demand accurately is crucial for sustainable water resource management. This study investigates industrial water demand forecasting by case-based reasoning (CBR) in an arid area, with a case study of Zhangye, China. We constructed a case base with 420 original cases of 28 cities in China, extracted six attributes of the industrial water demand, and employed a back propagation neural network (BPN) to weight each attribute, as well as the grey incidence analysis (GIA) to calculate the similarities between target case and original cases. The forecasting values were calculated by weighted similarities. The results show that the industrial water demand of Zhangye in 2030, which is the t arget case, will reach 11.9 million tons. There are 10 original cases which have relatively high similarities to the target case. Furthermore, the case of Yinchuan, 2010, has the largest similarity, followed by Yinchuan, 2009, and Urumqi, 2009. We also made a comparison experiment in which case-based reasoning is more accurate than the grey forecast model and BPN in water demand forecasting. It is expected that the results of this study will provide references to water resources management and planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solanum trilobatum L. Ameliorate Thioacetamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 68; doi:10.3390/antiox6030068 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) has been well known as nightshade, commonly used by diverse populations to heal several disorders. Earlier studies in Solanum trilobatum were focused on different pharmacological activities and a few were concerned with antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Thus, the current
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Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) has been well known as nightshade, commonly used by diverse populations to heal several disorders. Earlier studies in Solanum trilobatum were focused on different pharmacological activities and a few were concerned with antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Thus, the current study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects of S. trilobatum L. on thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in Wistar albino rats. The rats were kept into four groups and six animals each. Group A was normal control. Group B was the TAA treated control. Groups C and D were pretreated with the aqueous extract from the leaves of S. trilobatum (100 mg, 200 mg/kg bw p.o.) once daily for 10 consecutive days administration followed by a single dose infusion of TAA (100 mg/kg s.c.). After 10 days, blood and livers were collected. The biochemical assay was carried out in the GSH (reduced glutathione), TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), Na+-K+-ATPase, and antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GST (glutathione-S-transferase), and GR (glutathione reductase) were analyzed in samples of blood and liver. Treatment with S.trilobatum reduced blood and liver TBARS, and Na+ K+ ATPase activity in TAA (thioacetamide)-induced hepatotoxicity rats. Furthermore, the above antioxidant enzymes were increased in the pretreatment of S.trilobatum in TAA intoxicated rats. Finally, we concluded that S. Trilobatum displayed potent antioxidant properties and alleviate oxidative stress induced hepatotoxic effects and possible engross mechanisms related to free radical scavenging properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On Minimal Covolume Hyperbolic Lattices
Mathematics 2017, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/math5030043 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We study lattices with a non-compact fundamental domain of small volume in hyperbolic space Hn. First, we identify the arithmetic lattices in Isom+Hn of minimal covolume for even n up to 18. Then, we discuss the related problem
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We study lattices with a non-compact fundamental domain of small volume in hyperbolic space Hn. First, we identify the arithmetic lattices in Isom+Hn of minimal covolume for even n up to 18. Then, we discuss the related problem in higher odd dimensions and provide solutions for n=11 and n=13 in terms of the rotation subgroup of certain Coxeter pyramid groups found by Tumarkin. The results depend on the work of Belolipetsky and Emery, as well as on the Euler characteristic computation for hyperbolic Coxeter polyhedra with few facets by means of the program CoxIter developed by Guglielmetti. This work complements the survey about hyperbolic orbifolds of minimal volume. Full article

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