Latest Articles

Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Fluid and Complex Obstacle Coupling Based on Narrow Band FLIP Method
Water 2018, 10(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060811 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
With the continuous development of fluid simulation theory and technology, there are increasingly higher requirements for simulation of complex fluid interaction. Fluid simulation based on the Eulerian method is limited by the grid resolution, and the sawtooth phenomenon occurs near the obstacle boundary.
[...] Read more.
With the continuous development of fluid simulation theory and technology, there are increasingly higher requirements for simulation of complex fluid interaction. Fluid simulation based on the Eulerian method is limited by the grid resolution, and the sawtooth phenomenon occurs near the obstacle boundary. To enhance the fluid interaction performance with complex obstacle, an advanced fluid interaction method was proposed based on NBFLIP. Improved from FLIP method, the NBFLIP method combines the advantages of Euler method and Lagrangian method. The SDF method is proposed in complex obstacle discretion, with an expectation to facilitate the processing with obstacle boundary and efficiency improvement. Compared with FLIP method, particle number in NBFLIP method is reduced by 86.2% and the average running time per frame is reduced by 36.1%. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improvement in Harmonic Compensation of a Smart Charger with a Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders
Energies 2018, 11(6), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061604 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper presents an improvement in harmonic compensation performance of a previously proposed smart charger (SC) with a constant dc-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC) strategy for electric vehicles (EVs) in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs). A controller for 3rd harmonic currents in d-q
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an improvement in harmonic compensation performance of a previously proposed smart charger (SC) with a constant dc-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC) strategy for electric vehicles (EVs) in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs). A controller for 3rd harmonic currents in d-q coordinates is added to the previously proposed SC. This addition improves harmonic compensation performance of the source currents. We briefly introduce harmonic current compensation using the previously proposed CDCVC-based algorithm for the SC. Then, the basic principles of the proposed controller for the 3rd harmonic currents in d-q coordinates are discussed in detail. It is shown that synchronization of the current controllers for both the fundamental and 3rd harmonic components is required. The switching frequency of a three-leg pulse-width modulated rectifier with a bidirectional dc–dc converter, which performs the SC, is determined considering the synchronization of the current controllers. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor are achieved during both battery charging and discharging operations in EVs, improving the harmonic compensation performance of the previously proposed SC. Experimental results also demonstrate that the total harmonic distortion values of source currents are improved by 8.4% and 3.6% with the proposed controller for 3rd harmonic currents, when the SC is discharging, for example. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
End Use Level Water and Energy Interactions: A Large Non-Residential Building Case Study
Water 2018, 10(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060810 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Within the European Union, buildings account for around 40% of the energy use and 36% of CO2 emissions, thus representing a significant challenge in the context of recent EU directives that require all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by 2020. Reduced
[...] Read more.
Within the European Union, buildings account for around 40% of the energy use and 36% of CO2 emissions, thus representing a significant challenge in the context of recent EU directives that require all new buildings to be nearly zero-energy by 2020. Reduced consumption of water, and hot water in particular, provides a significant opportunity to reduce energy consumption. While there have been numerous studies pertaining to the water-energy nexus of residential buildings, the complexity of water networks in larger buildings has meant that this area has been relatively unexplored. The paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the hot water use profile, associated energy use, on-site pumping energy use, carbon emissions, and solar energy harvesting potential in an Irish university building over periods before and after water conservation efforts. Total water-related energy consumption (including the heating and pumping losses) were analysed using the WHAM model and modified pumping energy expressions. The results revealed that water heating including losses contributed to as high as 30% of total building energy consumption, and stringent water conservation measures reduced the average hot water use rate by 8.5 m3/day. It was found that 10% of the total pumping energy was constituted by pump start-ups. Simulation results for solar harvesting potential in the study site found that around 60% of water heating energy demand could be met by solar energy in the new water demand scenario. The study results can act as a benchmark for similar buildings, and the model combination can be emulated in future studies. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Family TXT: Feasibility and Acceptability of a mHealth Obesity Prevention Program for Parents of Pre-Adolescent African American Girls
Children 2018, 5(6), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/children5060081 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination
[...] Read more.
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination theory-grounded text messages promoting a healthy home food and activity environment to parents of 8–10-year-old African American girls. A one-group design with baseline and immediate post-intervention assessments was utilized. Mothers (n = 19) received 36 text messages over 12 weeks. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed through staff logs and post-intervention surveys and an interview. Feasibility and acceptability criteria were met. Mothers reported positive reactions to the intervention; they liked the program, used the information, and all but one gave it an A or B grade. The majority made changes and shared the text messages with others. This research provides evidence that a theoretically grounded mHealth child obesity prevention intervention is feasible and acceptable to parents of African American girls. Full article
Open AccessReview
NHC-Based Iron Sensitizers for DSSCs
Inorganics 2018, 6(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6020063 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are promising photovoltaic devices because of their low cost and transparency. Ruthenium polypyridine complexes have long been considered as lead sensitizers for DSSCs, allowing them to reach up to 11% conversion efficiency. However, ruthenium suffers from serious drawbacks
[...] Read more.
Nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are promising photovoltaic devices because of their low cost and transparency. Ruthenium polypyridine complexes have long been considered as lead sensitizers for DSSCs, allowing them to reach up to 11% conversion efficiency. However, ruthenium suffers from serious drawbacks potentially limiting its widespread applicability, mainly related to its potential toxicity and scarcity. This has motivated continuous research efforts to develop valuable alternatives from cheap earth-abundant metals, and among them, iron is particularly attractive. Making iron complexes applicable in DSSCs is highly challenging due to an ultrafast deactivation of the metal–ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) states into metal-centered (MC) states, leading to inefficient injection into TiO2. In this review, we present our latest developments in the field using Fe(II)-based photosensitizers bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, and their use in DSSCs. Special attention is paid to synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical, and computational characterization. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Modeling Fixed Bed Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production through Steam Reforming Reactions: A Critical Analysis
Membranes 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8020034 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Membrane reactors for hydrogen production have been extensively studied in the past years due to the interest in developing systems that are adequate for the decentralized production of high-purity hydrogen. Research in this field has been both experimental and theoretical. The aim of
[...] Read more.
Membrane reactors for hydrogen production have been extensively studied in the past years due to the interest in developing systems that are adequate for the decentralized production of high-purity hydrogen. Research in this field has been both experimental and theoretical. The aim of this work is two-fold. On the one hand, modeling work on membrane reactors that has been carried out in the past is presented and discussed, along with the constitutive equations used to describe the different phenomena characterizing the behavior of the system. On the other hand, an attempt is made to shed some light on the meaning and usefulness of models developed with different degrees of complexity. The motivation has been that, given the different ways and degrees in which transport models can be simplified, the process is not always straightforward and, in some cases, leads to conceptual inconsistencies that are not easily identifiable or identified. Full article
Open AccessReview
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disorders
Cells 2018, 7(6), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7060063 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has
[...] Read more.
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has different physiological and clinical symptoms, they appear to share certain pathological traits such as intracellular stress and inflammation induced by metabolic disturbance stemmed from over nutrition frequently aggravated by a modern, sedentary life style. These modern ways of living inundate cells and organs with saturating levels of sugar and fat, leading to glycotoxicity and lipotoxicity that induce intracellular stress signaling ranging from oxidative to ER stress response to cope with the metabolic insults (Mukherjee, et al., 2015). In this review, we discuss the roles played by cellular stress and its responses in shaping metabolic disorders. We have summarized here current mechanistic insights explaining the pathogenesis of these disorders. These are followed by a discussion of the latest therapies targeting the stress response pathways. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Institutional Open Access Program (IOAP)

IOAP participants benefit from discounts and convenient payment options.

Feedback

We are keen to hear what you think about MDPI. To leave us your feedback, suggestions or questions please click here.

See what our authors and guest editors say about us.

About MDPI

MDPI.com is a platform for peer-reviewed, scientific open-access journals operated by MDPI, based in Basel, Switzerland. Additional offices are located in Beijing and Wuhan (China) as well as in Barcelona (Spain).

Back to Top