Latest Articles

Open AccessReview
Exercise Training as Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 35; doi:10.3390/jfmk2040035 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a growing health epidemic in developed countries with increased prevalence in obese and diabetic populations. Exercise is an established and essential component of lifestyle modification for NAFLD disease management. Despite numerous studies reporting exercise-mediated improvements in NAFLD,
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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a growing health epidemic in developed countries with increased prevalence in obese and diabetic populations. Exercise is an established and essential component of lifestyle modification for NAFLD disease management. Despite numerous studies reporting exercise-mediated improvements in NAFLD, there remains a large gap in our knowledge of how to optimize exercise prescriptions and whether the benefits of exercise extend beyond improvements in liver fat. In this review, we summarize studies that have investigated the independent effects of exercise training on liver enzymes, hepatic fat, and histologic markers in NAFLD. Overall, 12-weeks of aerobic, resistance, the combination of aerobic and resistance, and novel training modalities, including acceleration and hybrid training, significantly improve liver enzymes and hepatic fat. The greatest benefits in NAFLD may occur through the combination of aerobic and resistance training that targets both cardiorespiratory fitness, and mediators of skeletal muscle, known as myokines. Understanding the role of myokines in the beneficial effects of exercise in NAFLD may identify future therapeutic targets that can be modified with tailored exercise prescriptions. Full article
Open AccessReview
Refugee Policy Implications of U.S. Immigration Medical Screenings: A New Era of Inadmissibility on Health-Related Grounds
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1107; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101107 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Refugees frequently face extended delays in their efforts to enter the United States (U.S.) and those who are successful, in many cases, encounter overwhelming obstacles, inadequate resources, and a complex system of legal barriers. Travel restrictions based on equivocal health concerns and a
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Refugees frequently face extended delays in their efforts to enter the United States (U.S.) and those who are successful, in many cases, encounter overwhelming obstacles, inadequate resources, and a complex system of legal barriers. Travel restrictions based on equivocal health concerns and a drop in refugee admittance ceilings have complicated the situation. The authors retrieved and analyzed peer-reviewed journal articles, government agency press releases, media postings, epidemiologic factsheets, and relevant lay publications to critically assess U.S. policy regarding refugee resettlement based on health-related grounds. While refugees arguably exhibit an increased incidence of measles and tuberculosis compared with the U.S. population, the legitimacy of the medical examination will be undermined if other diseases that are endemic to refugee populations, yet currently deemed admissible, are used to restrict refugees from entering the U.S. This paper addressees the historic refugee policy of the U.S. and its consequent effect on the health of this vulnerable population. The needs of refugees should be carefully considered in the context of increased disease burden and the associated health care challenges of the country as a whole. Full article
Open AccessReview
Anatomy and Physiology of Knee Stability
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(4), 34; doi:10.3390/jfmk2040034 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Knee instability has been the focus of large number of studies over the last decade; however, a high incidence rate of injury still exists. The aim of this short report is to examine knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability.
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Knee instability has been the focus of large number of studies over the last decade; however, a high incidence rate of injury still exists. The aim of this short report is to examine knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability. Knee joint stability requires the integration of a complex set of anatomical structures and physiological mechanism. Compromising any of these structures leads to destabilisation and increased risk of injuries. This review highlights the structure and soft tissue of the knee that contribute to its stability and function. This introduction is part of the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology’s Special Issue “The Knee: Structure, Function and Rehabilitation”. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Incredible Journey of Begomoviruses in Their Whitefly Vector
Viruses 2017, 9(10), 273; doi:10.3390/v9100273 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Begomoviruses are vectored in a circulative persistent manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The insect ingests viral particles with its stylets. Virions pass along the food canal and reach the esophagus and the midgut. They cross the filter chamber and the midgut into
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Begomoviruses are vectored in a circulative persistent manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The insect ingests viral particles with its stylets. Virions pass along the food canal and reach the esophagus and the midgut. They cross the filter chamber and the midgut into the haemolymph, translocate into the primary salivary glands and are egested with the saliva into the plant phloem. Begomoviruses have to cross several barriers and checkpoints successfully, while interacting with would-be receptors and other whitefly proteins. The bulk of the virus remains associated with the midgut and the filter chamber. In these tissues, viral genomes, mainly from the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) family, may be transcribed and may replicate. However, at the same time, virus amounts peak, and the insect autophagic response is activated, which in turn inhibits replication and induces the destruction of the virus. Some begomoviruses invade tissues outside the circulative pathway, such as ovaries and fat cells. Autophagy limits the amounts of virus associated with these organs. In this review, we discuss the different sites begomoviruses need to cross to complete a successful circular infection, the role of the coat protein in this process and the sites that balance between virus accumulation and virus destruction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1127; doi:10.3390/ma10101127 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment
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Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–15Mo–5Zr–3Al and Ti–15Zr–4Nb–4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Chordality, Vertex Separators and Hyperbolicity on Graphs
Symmetry 2017, 9(10), 199; doi:10.3390/sym9100199 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
A graph is chordal if every induced cycle has exactly three edges. A vertex separator set in a graph is a set of vertices that disconnects two vertices. A graph is δ-hyperbolic if every geodesic triangle is δ-thin. In this paper,
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A graph is chordal if every induced cycle has exactly three edges. A vertex separator set in a graph is a set of vertices that disconnects two vertices. A graph is δ-hyperbolic if every geodesic triangle is δ-thin. In this paper, we study the relation between vertex separator sets, certain chordality properties that generalize being chordal and the hyperbolicity of the graph. We also give a characterization of being quasi-isometric to a tree in terms of chordality and prove that this condition also characterizes being hyperbolic, when restricted to triangles, and having stable geodesics, when restricted to bigons. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Kinetics and Molecular Docking Studies of 6-Formyl Umbelliferone Isolated from Angelica decursiva as an Inhibitor of Cholinesterase and BACE1
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1604; doi:10.3390/molecules22101604 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Coumarins, which have low toxicity, are present in some natural foods, and are used in various herbal remedies, have attracted interest in recent years because of their potential medicinal properties. In this study, we report the isolation of two natural coumarins, namely umbelliferone
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Coumarins, which have low toxicity, are present in some natural foods, and are used in various herbal remedies, have attracted interest in recent years because of their potential medicinal properties. In this study, we report the isolation of two natural coumarins, namely umbelliferone (1) and 6-formyl umbelliferone (2), from Angelica decursiva, and the synthesis of 8-formyl umbelliferone (3) from 1. We investigated the anti-Alzheimer disease (anti-AD) potential of these coumarins by assessing their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Among these coumarins, 2 exhibited poor inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, and modest activity against BACE1. Structure–activity relationship analysis showed that 2 has an aldehyde group at the C-6 position, and exhibited strong anti-AD activity, whereas the presence or absence of an aldehyde group at the C-8 position reduced the anti-AD activity of 3 and 1, respectively. In addition, 2 exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. A kinetic study revealed that 2 and 3 non-competitively inhibited BACE1. To confirm enzyme inhibition, we predicted the 3D structures of AChE and BACE1, and used AutoDock 4.2 to simulate binding of coumarins to these enzymes. The blind docking studies demonstrated that these molecules could interact with both the catalytic active sites and peripheral anionic sites of AChE and BACE1. Together, our results indicate that 2 has an interesting inhibitory activity in vitro, and can be used in further studies to develop therapeutic modalities for the treatment of AD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simulation of Low and High Cycle Fatigue Failure Effects for Metal Matrix Composites Based on Innovative J2-Flow Elastoplasticity Model
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1126; doi:10.3390/ma10101126 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
New elastoplastic J2-flow constitutive equations at finite deformations are proposed for the purpose of simulating the fatigue failure behavior for metal matrix composites. A new, direct approach is established in a two-fold sense of unification. Namely, both low and high cycle
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New elastoplastic J2-flow constitutive equations at finite deformations are proposed for the purpose of simulating the fatigue failure behavior for metal matrix composites. A new, direct approach is established in a two-fold sense of unification. Namely, both low and high cycle fatigue failure effects of metal matrix composites may be simultaneously simulated for various cases of the weight percentage of reinforcing particles. Novel results are presented in four respects. First, both the yield condition and the loading–unloading conditions in a usual sense need not be involved but may be automatically incorporated into inherent features of the proposed constitutive equations; second, low-to-high cycle fatigue failure effects may be directly represented by a simple condition for asymptotic loss of the material strength, without involving any additional damage-like variables; third, both high and low cycle fatigue failure effects need not be separately treated but may be automatically derived as model predictions with a unified criterion for critical failure states, without assuming any ad hoc failure criteria; and, finally, explicit expressions for each incorporated model parameter changing with the weight percentage of reinforcing particles may be obtainable directly from appropriate test data. Numerical examples are presented for medium-to-high cycle fatigue failure effects and for complicated duplex effects from low to high cycle fatigue failure effects. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Structure–Function Relationships Underlying the Capacity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin to Disarm Host Phagocytes
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 300; doi:10.3390/toxins9100300 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Bordetellae, pathogenic to mammals, produce an immunomodulatory adenylate cyclase toxin–hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) that enables them to overcome the innate immune defense of the host. CyaA subverts host phagocytic cells by an orchestrated action of its functional domains, where an extremely
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Bordetellae, pathogenic to mammals, produce an immunomodulatory adenylate cyclase toxin–hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) that enables them to overcome the innate immune defense of the host. CyaA subverts host phagocytic cells by an orchestrated action of its functional domains, where an extremely catalytically active adenylyl cyclase enzyme is delivered into phagocyte cytosol by a pore-forming repeat-in-toxin (RTX) cytolysin moiety. By targeting sentinel cells expressing the complement receptor 3, known as the CD11b/CD18 (αMβ2) integrin, CyaA compromises the bactericidal functions of host phagocytes and supports infection of host airways by Bordetellae. Here, we review the state of knowledge on structural and functional aspects of CyaA toxin action, placing particular emphasis on signaling mechanisms by which the toxin-produced 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) subverts the physiology of phagocytic cells. Full article
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