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Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids
Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-Uzura, Gifu 500-8285, Japan
Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
Department of Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2011; in revised form: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids
Abstract: Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described.
Keywords: carotenoids; xanthophylls; cancer chemoprevention; mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tanaka, T.; Shnimizu, M.; Moriwaki, H. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids. Molecules 2012, 17, 3202-3242.
Tanaka T, Shnimizu M, Moriwaki H. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids. Molecules. 2012; 17(3):3202-3242.
Tanaka, Takuji; Shnimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka. 2012. "Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids." Molecules 17, no. 3: 3202-3242.