Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3202-3242; doi:10.3390/molecules17033202
Review

Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids

1,2,* email, 3 and 3
Received: 22 December 2011; in revised form: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments that provide bright coloration to plants and animals. Dietary intake of carotenoids is inversely associated with the risk of a variety of cancers in different tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that some carotenoids have potent antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles for the compounds. Since chemoprevention is one of the most important strategies in the control of cancer development, molecular mechanism-based cancer chemoprevention using carotenoids seems to be an attractive approach. Various carotenoids, such as β-carotene, a-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, have been proven to have anti-carcinogenic activity in several tissues, although high doses of β-carotene failed to exhibit chemopreventive activity in clinical trials. In this review, cancer prevention using carotenoids are reviewed and the possible mechanisms of action are described.
Keywords: carotenoids; xanthophylls; cancer chemoprevention; mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanaka, T.; Shnimizu, M.; Moriwaki, H. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids. Molecules 2012, 17, 3202-3242.

AMA Style

Tanaka T, Shnimizu M, Moriwaki H. Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids. Molecules. 2012; 17(3):3202-3242.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanaka, Takuji; Shnimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka. 2012. "Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids." Molecules 17, no. 3: 3202-3242.

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