Special Issue "Carotenoids"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Hans-Richard Sliwka
Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
E-Mail: richard.sliwka@ntnu.no

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carotenoids are, by definition, polyenes of 6-14 conjugated double bonds, stabilized by methyl groups and cyclohexene endrings. Straight chain polyenes without these stabilizations only reach 5 double bonds. The major part of the 750 natural carotenoids occurs with 9-11 conjugated double bonds, which may be the effective range regarding stability and activity. Such carotenoids are given as prime examples in textbooks to explain UV-VIS spectroscopy. Carotenoids with a considerably increased number of double bonds have been synthesized to approach λ, the magic absorption limit.

Carotenoids participate in photosynthesis and are, therefore, biosynthesized in plants and alga. Although photosynthesis may appear a long procedure taking place during hours of sunlight exposition the photophysical examination of light absorbing by carotenoids has reached the incredible short span of femtoseconds. In water based environments carotenoids aggregate to micelles and vesicles; increasing effort is directed to study these nano sized structures. Carotenoid chemists have traditionally focused on structure elucidation and on synthesis and various natural occurring carotenoids are also available by synthesis. Eight carotenoids are offered industrially in considerable amounts and are marketed as food and feed colors. Since most carotenoids are hydrophobic, they add to proteins for passing aqueous environments. Hydrophobicity also obstructs an all-purpose assignment of carotenoids and they need extensive formulation before introduced in water-based applications, e.g. as food colors. The pharmacological importance of carotenoids has been limited; a few modified carotenoids for the treatment of cardiovascular and ophthalmological diseases pass now clinical or pharmacokinetic studies. Carotenoids function as molecular wires and modified carotenoids have been developed for electrochemical and spectroscopic research.

Carotenoids are best known as antioxidants. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the intact carotenoid is the active agent or one of its oxidative degradation products. A practical impact of carotenoids to the development of chemistry cannot be underestimated: the purification method “chromatography” was invented with these colorful compounds. Carotenoids are the subject of substantial interdisciplinary research. It is hoped that the special issue of Molecules attract researchers who present the various aspects of carotenoid research.

Hans-Richard Sliwka
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • aggregation
  • amphiphiles
  • antioxidants
  • bioorganic chemistry
  • biophysics
  • biosynthesis
  • biotransformations
  • carbocations
  • carotenoids
  • cations
  • chirality
  • chromophores
  • chromatography
  • conjugation
  • cyclic voltammetry
  • density functional calculations
  • electron transfer
  • energy transfer
  • fatty acids
  • fluorescence
  • lipids
  • membranes
  • molecular electronics
  • molecular modeling
  • monolayers
  • nanostructures
  • natural products
  • nonlinear optics
  • photophysics
  • photosynthesis
  • radical ions
  • radicals
  • self-assembly
  • singlet oxygen
  • structure-activity relationships
  • surfactants
  • total synthesis
  • UV/Vis spectroscopy
  • vesicles
  • wittig reactions

Published Papers (16 papers)

by  and
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11255-11268; doi:10.3390/molecules170911255
Received: 4 September 2012; in revised form: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
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by  and
Molecules 2012, 17(5), 5651-5660; doi:10.3390/molecules17055651
Received: 7 February 2012; in revised form: 4 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | PDF Full-text (227 KB)

by , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(5), 5003-5012; doi:10.3390/molecules17055003
Received: 22 March 2012; in revised form: 17 April 2012 / Accepted: 19 April 2012 / Published: 30 April 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (305 KB)

by , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4755-4769; doi:10.3390/molecules17044755
Received: 6 February 2012; in revised form: 28 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 23 April 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction

by , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 3981-3988; doi:10.3390/molecules17043981
Received: 19 March 2012; in revised form: 30 March 2012 / Accepted: 31 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

by ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 3202-3242; doi:10.3390/molecules17033202
Received: 22 December 2011; in revised form: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (684 KB)

by  and
Molecules 2012, 17(3), 2877-2928; doi:10.3390/molecules17032877
Received: 9 January 2012; in revised form: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (519 KB)

by ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2188-2218; doi:10.3390/molecules17022188
Received: 10 December 2011; in revised form: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2252 KB)

by ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2140-2160; doi:10.3390/molecules17022140
Received: 4 January 2012; in revised form: 30 January 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (410 KB)

by  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 2030-2048; doi:10.3390/molecules17022030
Received: 18 January 2012; in revised form: 13 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (289 KB)

by ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1809-1818; doi:10.3390/molecules17021809
Received: 30 November 2011; in revised form: 26 January 2012 / Accepted: 1 February 2012 / Published: 10 February 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (691 KB)

by , , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1535-1547; doi:10.3390/molecules17021535
Received: 5 December 2011; in revised form: 28 January 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (249 KB)

by , , , , , , , , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1138-1148; doi:10.3390/molecules17021138
Received: 25 October 2011; in revised form: 22 December 2011 / Accepted: 4 January 2012 / Published: 24 January 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1278 KB)
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by ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 1039-1054; doi:10.3390/molecules17011039
Received: 30 November 2011; in revised form: 16 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 20 January 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1227 KB) | Supplementary Files

by , , , , , , , , , , ,  and
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 688-702; doi:10.3390/molecules17010688
Received: 9 December 2011; in revised form: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2012 / Published: 12 January 2012
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (285 KB)
abstract graphic

by , ,  and
Molecules 2011, 16(12), 10491-10506; doi:10.3390/molecules161210491
Received: 17 November 2011; in revised form: 3 December 2011 / Accepted: 8 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
Show/Hide Abstract | Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (213 KB)

Last update: 4 March 2014

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