Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Integrated IEW-TOPSIS and Fire Dynamics Simulation for Agent-Based Evacuation Modeling in Industrial Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020047 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, [...] Read more.
Emergency events in the industrial sector have been increasingly reported during the past decade. However, studies that focus on emergency evacuation to improve industrial safety are still scarce. Existing evacuation-related studies also lack a perspective of fire assembly point’s analysis. In this research, location of assembly points is analyzed using the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique based on the integrated information entropy weight (IEW) and techniques for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to support the fire evacuation plan. Next, we propose a novel simulation model that integrates fire dynamics simulation coupled with agent-based evacuation simulation to evaluate the impact of smoke and visibility from fire on evacuee behavior. Factors related to agent and building characteristics are examined for fire perception of evacuees, evacuees with physical disabilities, escape door width, fire location, and occupancy density. Then, the proposed model is applied to a case study of a home appliance factory in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Finally, results for the total evacuation time and the number of remaining occupants are statistically examined to suggest proper evacuation planning. Full article
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Article
Retrofitting Agricultural Self-Propelled Machines with Roll-Over and Tip-Over Protective Structures
Safety 2021, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020046 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, [...] Read more.
In the agricultural sector, the loss of stability related to the use of self-propelled agricultural machinery (SPAM) has caused and continues to cause accidents, often with fatal outcomes. The probability of occurrence of this risk can be reduced by acting on various aspects, but above all the presence of a protective structure is necessary. Depending on the machine, the protective structure can be a roll-over protective structure (ROPS), or a tip-over protective structure (TOPS). Hence, to reduce this gap, a reverse engineering approach and virtual engineering methods were applied starting from the analysis of harmonized standards actually in force, with the goal of providing both a reference procedure to be used in the risk assessment analysis of SPAM’s protective structures and technical information to manufacture and install protective structure on old agricultural machinery. Two representative case studies were used to validate the procedure by means of finite element method (FEM) analyses and computer aided design (CAD) prototyping. Results show that the proposed approach can represent a useful indication for the safety update of this type of machinery. Full article
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Article
Impact of Construction Safety Culture and Construction Safety Climate on Safety Behavior and Safety Motivation
Safety 2021, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020041 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of [...] Read more.
The construction industry is known for its disappointing safety performance. Therefore, rethinking current safety management frameworks is crucial. This study assesses a newly proposed construction safety culture and climate framework that aims to overcome the present ambiguity in the definitions and measurement of construction safety culture and construction safety climate. The goal is to provide a practical construction safety culture and safety climate framework that fits the construction industry’s needs. A survey was designed to validate the proposed framework and assess its influence on safety behavior and safety motivation. The survey was completed by 275 construction practitioners. The findings suggest that the construction safety culture initiates and maintains the construction safety climate. Similarly, the construction safety culture, which is represented by the actions of upper management and safety personnel, significantly contributes to higher levels of safety behavior and safety motivation, whereas the construction safety climate does not. Accordingly, this study highlights the importance of the construction safety culture’s influence on overall workplace culture. This study’s contribution to the body of knowledge is critical to improving construction workplaces’ overall safety performance. The findings can be strategically used by construction firms to address the construction industry’s higher rates of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Finally, the results obtained support the newly proposed framework of construction safety culture and climate, which, in turn, helps the industry better manage overall site safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Safety Culture)
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Article
Cooperation between Roads and Vehicles: Field Validation of a Novel Infrastructure-Based Solution for All Road Users’ Safety
Safety 2021, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020039 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other [...] Read more.
Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are expected to considerably influence road safety, traffic efficiency and comfort. Nevertheless, their market penetration is still limited, on the one hand due to the high costs of installation and maintenance of the infrastructures and, on the other hand, due to the price of support automated driving functions. A breakthrough C-ITS technological solution was studied, designed, built and tested that is based on the implementation of custom low-cost on-road platforms (named “strips”) that embed micro/nano sensors, communication technologies and energy harvesting to shift intelligence from the vehicle to the road infrastructure. The strips, through a V2X and LTE communication gateway, transmit real-time, reliable and accurate information at lane level about the environmental and road condition, the traffic and the other road users’ position and speed. The exchanged information supports a series of C-ITS functions and services extending equipped vehicles capabilities and providing similar functions to non-equipped ones (including powered two wheelers). The general framework and the technological solution proposed is presented and the results of the field trials, conducted in three pilot sites around Europe, quantify the promising system performance as well as the positive effects of the C-ITS applications developed and tested on driver/rider’s behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver Behavior Safety Research in Road Transportation)
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Article
A Combinatorial Safety Analysis of Cruise Ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion Plant Blackout
Safety 2021, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020038 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such [...] Read more.
Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) has been widely used for the propulsion of various ship types including cruise ships. Considering the potential consequences of blackouts, especially on cruise ships, it is essential to design and operate the ships’ power plants for avoiding and preventing such events. This study aims at implementing a comprehensive safety analysis for a cruise ship Diesel–Electric Propulsion (DEP) plant focusing on blackout events. The Combinatorial Approach to Safety Analysis (CASA) method is used to develop Fault Trees considering the blackout as the top event, and subsequently estimate the blackout frequency as well as implement importance analysis. The derived results demonstrate that the overall blackout frequency is close to corresponding values reported in the pertinent literature as well as estimations based on available accident investigations. This study deduces that the blackout frequency depends on the number of operating Diesel Generator (DG) sets, the DG set’s loading profile, the amount of electrical load that can be tripped during overload conditions and the plant operation phase. In addition, failures of the engine auxiliary systems and the fast-electrical load reduction functions, as well as the power generation control components, are identified as important. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CASA method to complex marine systems and reveals the parameters influencing the investigated system blackout frequency, thus providing better insights for these systems’ safety analysis and enhancement. Full article
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Article
Distraction in the Driving Simulator: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study with Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Drivers
Safety 2021, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7020036 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. [...] Read more.
Distraction is a major causal factor of road crashes, and very young and older drivers seem to be particularly susceptible to distracting stimuli; however, the possibilities of exploring the causes for increased distractibility of these groups in real traffic seem to be limited. Experiments in a driving simulator are a good choice to eliminate the risk for crashes and to present highly standardized stimulus combinations. In the present study, 72 subjects from four age groups completed a driving task that required occasional responses to the brake lights of a car in front. In addition, in certain experimental conditions, subjects had to respond to distracting visual or auditory stimuli. In addition to behavioral data, electrophysiological correlates of stimulus processing were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). In the two older groups, braking response times increased even in a simple task condition when visual distraction stimuli occurred. In more complex task conditions braking response times increased with acoustic and visual distractors in the middle-aged group as well. In these complex task conditions braking error rates, especially the missing of braking reaction in favor of the distracting task, increased under visual distraction with increasing age. Associated with this, a reduced P3b component in the event-related potential indicated an unfavorable allocation of mental resources. The study demonstrates the potential of driving simulators for studying effects of distraction, but also their limitations with respect to the interpretability of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driving Simulator)
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Article
The Italian Validation of OSCI: The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory
Safety 2021, 7(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010022 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
Although safety climate has been the object of multiple studies in the last thirty years, the relationship between safety climate and organizational climate has been scarcely investigated. The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory (OSCI) was the first and only validated instrument to allow [...] Read more.
Although safety climate has been the object of multiple studies in the last thirty years, the relationship between safety climate and organizational climate has been scarcely investigated. The Organizational and Safety Climate Inventory (OSCI) was the first and only validated instrument to allow the assessment of organizational and safety climates simultaneously and by using the same theoretical framework. The present work investigated the psychometric properties of OSCI in an Italian sample at the group level; study 1 (N = 745) examined the factor structure of the scale by using confirmatory factor analyses. Study 2 (N = 471) advanced the original Portuguese validation by testing its measurement equivalence across gender and company sector through multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses. Results confirmed one higher-order factor structure with four first-order factors for both Organizational Climate and Safety Climate, with Organizational Climate predicting Safety Climate. Moreover, the scale was found to be invariant between men and women and between different types of company. Reliability, discriminant, and criterion validities of the scale showed very good values. Overall, the findings strengthened the original claim of the OSCI to be a valid and innovative instrument, which allows the identification of specific dimensions of safety climate, starting from a more general model of organizational climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Instruments for Evaluating and Measuring Safety)
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Article
Are Double-Lane Roundabouts Safe Enough? A CHAID Analysis of Unsafe Driving Behaviors
Safety 2021, 7(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010020 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study investigated the nature and causes of unsafe driving behavior at roundabouts through an on-road study. Four urban double-lane roundabouts with different layouts were selected for an on-road study. Sixty-six drivers (41 males and 25 females) aged 18–65 years took part in [...] Read more.
This study investigated the nature and causes of unsafe driving behavior at roundabouts through an on-road study. Four urban double-lane roundabouts with different layouts were selected for an on-road study. Sixty-six drivers (41 males and 25 females) aged 18–65 years took part in the study. Unsafe behaviors observed during the in situ survey were divided into three different categories: entry unsafe behaviors, circulation unsafe behaviors, and exit unsafe behaviors. Three chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses were developed in order to analyze the influence of roundabout characteristics and maneuvers on unsafe behaviors at double-lane roundabouts. The results confirmed the awareness that double-lane roundabouts are unsafe and inadvisable. More than half of unsafe driving behaviors were found to be entry unsafe behaviors. Moreover, the entry radius was found to be the geometric variable most influencing unsafe driving behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Article
Research on the Use of Mobile Devices and Headphones on Pedestrian Crossings—Pilot Case Study from Slovakia
Safety 2021, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010017 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
The topic of the use of mobile devices and headphones on pedestrian crossings is much less explored in comparison to the use of the mobile phone while driving. Recent years have seen many discussions on this issue, especially in foreign countries. The Slovak [...] Read more.
The topic of the use of mobile devices and headphones on pedestrian crossings is much less explored in comparison to the use of the mobile phone while driving. Recent years have seen many discussions on this issue, especially in foreign countries. The Slovak Republic, however, has not been giving it enough attention (and it is not mentioned in the National Road Safety Plan for the Slovak Republic from 2011 to 2020). This paper aims to draw attention to this issue. It presents basic outputs of a pilot study on pedestrian safety, with a focus on the use of mobile devices and headphones at selected non-signalized pedestrian crossings in three Slovak cities. Overall, 9% of pedestrians used headphones or mobile devices at observed pedestrian crossings (4% of them used headphones, 1% used headphones and at same time used their mobile phone, 2% made phone calls and 2% used their mobile phones). While these numbers can be considered relatively low, the study proved that during weekdays every 2 min someone was using the crossing without fully focusing on crossing the road safely. Another main finding was that although the safety risk at pedestrian crossings is increased by factors such as rush hour traffic or reduced visibility, pedestrian behavior related to the use of mobile phones and headphones does not change. A safety assessment was also carried out at the crossings. The results show that pedestrian behavior is not affected by the level of safety of the crossing (e.g., visibility of the crossing for drivers). The results of the presented analysis suggest that action is needed to change that. Due to the lack of information about accidents involving pedestrians using mobile phones and headsets when crossing the road, no relevant statistical data could be analyzed. The dataset collected can be used as a basis for further investigation or comparisons with other countries of the relevant indicators. In future work, we would like to include a pedestrian–driver interaction factor focusing on driver speed behavior in relation to pedestrians (who are on or are about to step onto a pedestrian crossing) and identify critical situations caused by improper behavior of drivers and/or pedestrians. This will help to understand speed adjustment problems related to pedestrian crossings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Article
Physical Ergonomic Improvement and Safe Design of an Assembly Workstation through Collaborative Robotics
Safety 2021, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010014 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
One of the key interesting features of collaborative robotic applications is the potential to lighten the worker workload and potentiate better working conditions. Moreover, developing robotics applications that meets ergonomic criteria is not always a straightforward endeavor. We propose a framework to guide [...] Read more.
One of the key interesting features of collaborative robotic applications is the potential to lighten the worker workload and potentiate better working conditions. Moreover, developing robotics applications that meets ergonomic criteria is not always a straightforward endeavor. We propose a framework to guide the safe design and conceptualization of ergonomic-driven collaborative robotics workstations. A multi-disciplinary approach involving robotics and ergonomics and human factors shaped this methodology that leads future engineers through the digital transformation of a manual assembly (with repetitive and hazardous operations) to a hybrid workstation, focusing on the physical ergonomic improvement. The framework follows four main steps, (i) the characterization of the initial condition, (ii) the risk assessment, (iii) the definition of requirements for a safe design, and (iv) the conceptualization of the hybrid workstation with all the normative implications it entails. We applied this methodology to a case study in an assembly workstation of a furniture manufacturing company. Results show that the methodology adopted sets an adequate foundation to accelerate the design and development of new human-centered collaborative robotic workstations. Full article
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Article
Securing Schools against Terrorist Attacks
Safety 2021, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010013 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
The population is nowadays increasingly threatened by events that have an immediate impact on their health and lives. One of the most endangered targets are the so-called soft targets. These are such targets that are characterized by a high population concentration, and low [...] Read more.
The population is nowadays increasingly threatened by events that have an immediate impact on their health and lives. One of the most endangered targets are the so-called soft targets. These are such targets that are characterized by a high population concentration, and low or even no level of security against violent or even terrorist attacks. The research carried out by the authors clearly showed that one of the important and easily vulnerable soft targets are schools. This article focuses on the safety of schools and their facilities. The authors focused on finding out the safety of schools as soft targets in the Czech Republic. The security level of schools was measured at selected nursery, elementary, and secondary schools in the city of Brno. As well as technical elements, other factors contributing to the overall safety of schools were also verified. It was found that although a large number of schools have at least basic elements of security available, systemic and organizational measures are not sufficient for technical measures to be important. Full article
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Article
When the Tension Is Rising: A Simulation-Based Study on the Effects of Safety Incentive Programs and Behavior-Based Safety Management
Safety 2021, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010009 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 5
Abstract
When an organization’s management creates a goal conflict between workplace safety and the profitability of the organization, workers perceive work-safety tension. This leads to reduced safety-related behavior, culminating in higher rates of occupational injuries. In this study, we explored design components of behavior-based [...] Read more.
When an organization’s management creates a goal conflict between workplace safety and the profitability of the organization, workers perceive work-safety tension. This leads to reduced safety-related behavior, culminating in higher rates of occupational injuries. In this study, we explored design components of behavior-based safety programs: audit results and process communication, reward and punishment, and the framing of production goals as gains or losses. This allowed us to directly observe the effects of the goal conflicts and of the countermeasures that we designed in this study. We examined the perceived work-safety tension using a simulated water treatment plant in a laboratory study with 166 engineering students. Participants had the task of conducting a start-up procedure. The operators’ goal conflict was created by a choice between a safe and mandatory (less productive) procedure and an unsafe and forbidden (more productive) one. As participants were told that their payment for the study would depend on their performance, we expected that rule violations would occur. We found acceptance of measures and their design as important for rule related behavior. Work-safety tension emerged as a strong driver for violating safety rules. We conclude that safety incentive programs can become ineffective if goal conflicts create work-safety tension. Full article
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Article
An Examination of the Strava Usage Rate—A Parameter to Estimate Average Annual Daily Bicycle Volumes on Rural Roadways
Safety 2021, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010008 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
In Spain, a new challenge is emerging due to the increase of many recreational bicyclists on two-lane rural roads. These facilities have been mainly designed for motorized vehicles, so the coexistence of cyclists and drivers produces an impact, in terms of road safety [...] Read more.
In Spain, a new challenge is emerging due to the increase of many recreational bicyclists on two-lane rural roads. These facilities have been mainly designed for motorized vehicles, so the coexistence of cyclists and drivers produces an impact, in terms of road safety and operation. In order to analyze the occurrence of crashes and enhance safety for bicycling, it is crucial to know the cycling volume. Standard procedures recommend using data from permanent stations and temporary short counts, but bicycle volumes are rarely monitored in rural roads. However, bicyclists tend to track their leisure and exercise activities with fitness apps that use GPS. In this context, this research aims at analyzing the daily and seasonal variability of the Strava Usage Rate (SUR), defined as the proportion of bicyclists using the Strava app along a certain segment on rural highways, to estimate the Annual Average Daily Bicycle (AADB) volume on rural roads. The findings of this study offer possible solutions to policy makers in terms of planning and design of the cycling network. Moreover, the use of crowdsourced data from the Strava app will potentially save costs to public agencies, since public data could replace costly counting campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Article
Comparative Analyses of Parameters Influencing Children Pedestrian Behavior in Conflict Zones of Urban Intersections
Safety 2021, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010005 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Children pedestrians make up 30% of the total number of children injured in road traffic in the EU. Research shows that children are injured more often in the urban areas, in residential areas near schools and parks, often at intersections and pedestrian crossings. [...] Read more.
Children pedestrians make up 30% of the total number of children injured in road traffic in the EU. Research shows that children are injured more often in the urban areas, in residential areas near schools and parks, often at intersections and pedestrian crossings. In this study, children’s traffic behavior was analyzed by observation of signalized pedestrian crosswalks. According to the same methodology, the research was conducted in three cities in two countries (Enna, Italy, Osijek and Rijeka, Croatia) with different urban and traffic characteristics. A total of 900 measurements were analyzed, 300 in each of the cities at 18 pedestrian crosswalks located in an urban setting in the vicinity of primary schools. A detailed statistical analysis of the influence parameters shows that, as general influence parameters, pedestrian crosswalk length, movement in a group and the age of children can be distinguished. Factors that have proven to have a significant influence on the movement of children in two of the three cities observed are gender, supervision by adults, running and cellphone use. The result can serve as a valuable input for interventions in traffic education as well as a basis for the improvement of traffic conditions at intersections where children are regularly present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methods and Instruments for Evaluating and Measuring Safety)
Article
A Comprehensive Approach Combining Regulatory Procedures and Accident Data Analysis for Road Safety Management Based on the European Directive 2019/1936/EC
Safety 2021, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010006 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 8
Abstract
The European Union policy for road safety management is based on the European Directive 2019/1936/EC. Among the safety management procedures and strategies, road safety inspections (RSI) are an effective tool for preventing accident risk and reducing crash frequency and severity for existing road [...] Read more.
The European Union policy for road safety management is based on the European Directive 2019/1936/EC. Among the safety management procedures and strategies, road safety inspections (RSI) are an effective tool for preventing accident risk and reducing crash frequency and severity for existing road networks. The European Transport Safety Council encourages the extension of these measures to the main urban and rural roads by the 5th Road Safety Action Programme. In light of the above, in this study, a safety performance evaluation through the RSI approach is carried out for a high-risk rural road in Southern Italy in order to identify all the road infrastructure-related features with poor safety conditions. Afterwards, the relationship between infrastructure deficiencies and the frequency and severity of accidents is investigated; a significant relationship between accident density/total number of injured people and road markings gap is found. Furthermore, the results confirm that a high density of driveways strongly impacts crash frequency. The analysis of the contribution of multiple infrastructure-related variables on the crash occurrences is proposed by the identification of several mathematical models. A second-order AIC (Akaike’s information criterion) approach is carried out to compare the five fitted models investigated. Finally, a prediction calibrated model is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Article
Risk Assessment of a Battery-Powered High-Speed Ferry Using Formal Safety Assessment
Safety 2020, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6030039 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Fully electric ships have been widely developed, investigated and evaluated by the maritime industry as a potential solution to respond to the emissions control required according to the International Maritime Organization (IMO). This study aims at presenting a novel approach to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Fully electric ships have been widely developed, investigated and evaluated by the maritime industry as a potential solution to respond to the emissions control required according to the International Maritime Organization (IMO). This study aims at presenting a novel approach to evaluate the safety level of a battery-powered high speed catamaran. Following the Formal Safety Assessment procedure, the risk assessment of the considered ship was conducted leading to the identification of the involved hazards along with the estimation of their frequency and consequences thus allowing for the identification of the most severe hazards. Fault tree analysis is carried out for and the identified top events followed by an event tree analysis to estimate the risk and safety level of the vessel. Furthermore, a cost-benefit assessment is conducted to evaluate the financial impact of selected risk control options. The derived results indicate that the application of battery power systems for high speed ferries exhibits low and acceptable accident frequencies. It is also supported the current regulation to carry out mandatory risk assessment for battery-powered ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Article
Driver Take-Over Reaction in Autonomous Vehicles with Rotatable Seats
Safety 2020, 6(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6030034 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
A new concept in the interior design of autonomous vehicles is rotatable or swivelling seats that allow people sitting in the front row to rotate their seats and face backwards. In the current study, we used a take-over request task conducted in a [...] Read more.
A new concept in the interior design of autonomous vehicles is rotatable or swivelling seats that allow people sitting in the front row to rotate their seats and face backwards. In the current study, we used a take-over request task conducted in a fixed-based driving simulator to compare two conditions, driver front-facing and rear-facing. Thirty-six adult drivers participated in the experiment using a within-subject design with take-over time budget varied. Take-over reaction time, remaining action time, crash, situation awareness and trust in automation were measured. Repeated measures ANOVA and Generalized Linear Mixed Model were conducted to analyze the results. The results showed that the rear-facing configuration led to longer take-over reaction time (on average 1.56 s longer than front-facing, p < 0.001), but it caused drivers to intervene faster after they turned back their seat in comparison to the traditional front-facing configuration. Situation awareness in both front-facing and rear-facing autonomous driving conditions were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the manual driving condition, but there was no significant difference between the two autonomous driving conditions (p = 1.000). There was no significant difference of automation trust between front-facing and rear-facing conditions (p = 0.166). The current study showed that in a fixed-based simulator representing a conditionally autonomous car, when using the rear-facing driver seat configuration (where participants rotated the seat by themselves), participants had longer take-over reaction time overall due to physical turning, but they intervened faster after they turned back their seat for take-over response in comparison to the traditional front-facing seat configuration. This behavioral change might be at the cost of reduced take-over response quality. Crash rate was not significantly different in the current laboratory study (overall the average rate of crash was 11%). A limitation of the current study is that the driving simulator does not support other measures of take-over request (TOR) quality such as minimal time to collision and maximum magnitude of acceleration. Based on the current study, future studies are needed to further examine the effect of rotatable seat configurations with more detailed analysis of both TOR speed and quality measures as well as in real world driving conditions for better understanding of their safety implications. Full article
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Article
Muscle Activity during Postural Stability Tasks: Role of Military Footwear and Load Carriage
Safety 2020, 6(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6030035 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Decrements to postural control manifest as an increase in muscle activity, indicating continuous attempts to maintain body equilibrium and postural stability. Extrinsic factors such as footwear, and intrinsic factors such as muscle fatigue, can affect postural stability. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Decrements to postural control manifest as an increase in muscle activity, indicating continuous attempts to maintain body equilibrium and postural stability. Extrinsic factors such as footwear, and intrinsic factors such as muscle fatigue, can affect postural stability. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of two types of military footwear and a military-type load-carrying task on lower extremity muscle activity during various postural stability tasks. Sixteen males’ (age: 26.63 ± 3.93 years; mass: 87 ± 12.4 kg; height: 178.04 ± 6.2 cm) muscle activity from knee flexors, extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, and plantar flexors were measured using electromyography in standard (STD) and minimalist (MIN) military footwear, before (PRE) and after (POST) a simulated workload during sensory organization and motor control tests on the Neurocom EquitestTM. Mean muscle activity was analyzed using 2 (footwear) × 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha level of 0.05. Results revealed a requirement of significantly greater muscle activity in POST and STD. MIN demonstrated lesser balance decrements POST workload, which could be attributed to its design characteristics. Results will help in suggesting footwear design characteristics to minimize muscular exertion while eliciting better postural control, and to prevent postural instability due to overexertion in military personnel. Full article
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Article
Risk Perception and Its Influencing Factors among Construction Workers in Malawi
Safety 2020, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020033 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were “working at height (WAH)” “manual handling [...] Read more.
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were “working at height (WAH)” “manual handling of loads (MHL)” and “heavy workload or intense pressure to be more productive (HWP).” The study engaged multistage sampling of 376 subjects. Univariate analysis, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed in order to determine the main influencing factors among the independent variables. The study established that workers were aware of risks posed by their work. The majority perceived the risk associated with WAH, MHL and HWP as very high (62.7%, =8.80 ± 1.95); (48.5%, =8.10 ± 2.38); (57.9%, =8.49 ± 2.22) respectively. The study identified six factors as variables that showed a significant effect on workers’ perception of risk (p < 0.05). These factors were: “dreaded factor,” “avoidability and controllability,” “expert knowledge,” “personal knowledge,” “education level,” and “age”. It is concluded that contractors in the Malawian construction industry should integrate analysis of behaviors and risk perception of the workers and other players to guide the identification of better health and safety interventions at their worksites. Full article
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Role of Passengers in Single-Vehicle Drunk-Driving Crashes: An Injury-Severity Analysis
Safety 2020, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020030 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Background: Drunk-driving is a major crash risk factor, and crashes resulting from this risky behavior tend to be serious and have significant economic and societal impacts. The presence of passengers and their demographics and activities can influence risky driving behaviors such as drunk-driving. [...] Read more.
Background: Drunk-driving is a major crash risk factor, and crashes resulting from this risky behavior tend to be serious and have significant economic and societal impacts. The presence of passengers and their demographics and activities can influence risky driving behaviors such as drunk-driving. However, passengers could either be an “enabling” factor to take more risks or could be an “inhibiting” factor by ensuring safe driving by a drunk-driver. Objective: This study examines whether the presence of passengers affects the contributing factors of single-vehicle (SV) drunk-driving crashes, by presenting a severity analysis of single- and multi-occupant SV drunk-driving crashes, to identify risk factors that contribute to crash severity outcomes, for the effective implementation of relevant countermeasures. Method: A total of 7407 observations for 2012–2016 from the crash database of the State of Alabama was used for this study. The variables were divided into six classes: temporal, locational, driver, vehicle, roadway, and crash characteristics and injury severities into three: severe, minor, and no injury. Two latent class multinomial logit models—one each for single- and multi-occupant crashes—were developed, to analyze the effects of significant factors on injury severity outcomes using marginal effects. Results: The estimated results show that collision with a ditch, run-off road, intersection, winter season, wet roadway, and interstate decreased the probability of severe injuries in both single- and multi-occupant crashes, whereas rural area, road with downward grade, dark and unlit roadway, unemployed driver, and driver with invalid license increased the likelihood of severe injuries for both single- and multi-occupant crashes. Female drivers were more likely to be severely injured in single-occupant crashes, but less likely in multi-occupant crashes. A significant association was found between severe injuries and weekends, residential areas, and crash location close (<25 mi ≈40.23 km) to the residence of the at-fault driver in multi-occupant crashes. Sport utility vehicles were found to be safer when driving with passengers. Conclusions: The model findings show that, although many correlates are consistent between the single- and multi-occupant SV crashes that are associated with locational, roadway, vehicle, temporal, and driver characteristics, their effect can vary across the single- and multi-occupant driving population. The findings from this study can help in targeting interventions, developing countermeasures, and educating passengers to reduce drunk-driving crashes and consequent injuries. Such integrated efforts combined with engineering and emergency response may contribute in developing a true safe systems approach. Full article
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Article
Speeds of Young E-Cyclists on Urban Streets and Related Risk Factors: An Observational Study in Israel
Safety 2020, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020029 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In Israel, a growing use of electric bicycles by youngsters has been noted, with an increase in related injuries. In this study, an observational survey was conducted on typical urban streets, aiming to characterize the riding speeds of young e-cyclists compared to regular [...] Read more.
In Israel, a growing use of electric bicycles by youngsters has been noted, with an increase in related injuries. In this study, an observational survey was conducted on typical urban streets, aiming to characterize the riding speeds of young e-cyclists compared to regular cyclists and the associated risk factors in their behaviors. The survey covered 39 sites in eight cities, and included 1054 cyclists. The results showed that mean speeds of young e-cyclists were higher than those of regular cyclists at all types of sites, with a difference of 6–9 km/h. The mean speeds of e-bicycles were below 25 km/h, as prescribed by law, but the 85-percentile speeds were higher. E-cyclist speeds depend on the type of street, road layout and place of riding. More e-cyclists used the roadway compared to regular cyclists, however, on divided roads, more e-cyclists used sidewalks in spite of the law prohibition, thus endangering pedestrians. The majority of cyclists did not wear helmets. The unsafe behaviors of teenage e-cyclists increase the injury risk for themselves and for other road-users. Thus, separate bicycle infrastructure should be promoted in the cities. Road safety education and training of young e-cyclists with stronger enforcement of traffic regulations are also needed. Full article
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Article
Roadside Fixed-Object Collisions, Barrier Performance, and Fatal Injuries in Single-Vehicle, Run-Off-Road Crashes
Safety 2020, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020027 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
Objectives: To quantify the odds of fatal injuries associated with drivers involved in single-vehicle, run-off-road (SVROR), injury crashes. Methods: An in-service safety evaluation was carried out using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The odds of motorist death was lower for w-beam guardrail crashes [...] Read more.
Objectives: To quantify the odds of fatal injuries associated with drivers involved in single-vehicle, run-off-road (SVROR), injury crashes. Methods: An in-service safety evaluation was carried out using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The odds of motorist death was lower for w-beam guardrail crashes as compared to tree, pole, and concrete barrier crashes. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the odds of motorist death in concrete barrier crashes as compared to tree or pole crashes. The odds of motorist death were lower for curbs and collision-free crashes as compared to tree, pole, and barrier crashes. Thus, obstacles should be removed whenever possible and barriers installed only whenever absolutely necessary. The lack of vehicle containment (in barrier crashes) was found: (i) to tend to occur on higher-posted-speed-limit roads and result in a higher percentage of fatal crashes, (ii) to be more prevalent with the less rigid barrier type, and (iii) to result in a consistently higher percentage of fatal crashes under the concrete barrier category. Conclusions: Findings not only support state-of-the-art roadside design guidelines and crash-testing criteria, but they may also be useful in evaluating proposed roadside safety improvements. Full article
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Article
A Novel Method for Safety Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems—Application to a Ship Exhaust Gas Scrubber System
Safety 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020026 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) represent a systems category developed and promoted in the maritime industry to automate functions and system operations. In this study, a novel Combinatorial Approach for Safety Analysis is presented, which addresses the traditional safety methods’ limitations by integrating System Theoretic [...] Read more.
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) represent a systems category developed and promoted in the maritime industry to automate functions and system operations. In this study, a novel Combinatorial Approach for Safety Analysis is presented, which addresses the traditional safety methods’ limitations by integrating System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), Events Sequence Identification (ETI) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The developed method results in the development of a detailed Fault Tree that captures the effects of both the physical components/subsystems and the software functions’ failures. The quantitative step of the method employs the components’ failure rates to calculate the top event failure rate along with importance metrics for identifying the most critical components/functions. This method is implemented for an exhaust gas open loop scrubber system safety analysis to estimate its failure rate and identify critical failures considering the baseline system configuration as well as various alternatives with advanced functions for monitoring and diagnostics. The results demonstrate that configurations with SOx sensor continuous monitoring or scrubber unit failure diagnosis/prognosis lead to significantly lower failure rate. Based on the analysis results, the advantages/disadvantages of the novel method are also discussed. This study also provides insights for better safety analysis of the CPSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Article
Effect of Road Markings and Traffic Signs Presence on Young Driver Stress Level, Eye Movement and Behaviour in Night-Time Conditions: A Driving Simulator Study
Safety 2020, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020024 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 9
Abstract
The study investigates how the presence of traffic signalling elements (road markings and traffic signs) affects the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions. Statistics show that young drivers (≤30 years old) are often involved in road accidents, especially those that occur in [...] Read more.
The study investigates how the presence of traffic signalling elements (road markings and traffic signs) affects the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions. Statistics show that young drivers (≤30 years old) are often involved in road accidents, especially those that occur in night-time conditions. Among other factors, this is due to lack of experience, overestimation of their ability or the desire to prove themselves. A driving simulator scenario was developed for the purpose of the research and 32 young drivers took two runs using it: (a) one containing no road markings and traffic signs and (b) one containing road markings and traffic signs. In addition to the driving simulator, eye tracking glasses were used to track eye movement and an electrocardiograph was used to monitor the heart rate and to determine the level of stress during the runs. The results show statistically significant differences (dependent samples t-test) between the two runs concerning driving speed, lateral position of the vehicle, and visual scanning of the environment. The results prove that road markings and traffic signs provide the drivers with timely and relevant information related to the upcoming situation, thus enabling them to adjust their driving accordingly. The results are valuable to road authorities and provide an explicit confirmation of the importance of traffic signalling for the behaviour of young drivers in night-time conditions, and thus for the overall traffic safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Article
A Model to Predict Children’s Reaction Time at Signalized Intersections
Safety 2020, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020022 - 05 May 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Traffic accident statistics in urban areas, both locally in Croatia and at the European level, identify children as a group of vulnerable road users. The analysis of the parameters that influence the interaction of child pedestrians and other road users requires special attention. [...] Read more.
Traffic accident statistics in urban areas, both locally in Croatia and at the European level, identify children as a group of vulnerable road users. The analysis of the parameters that influence the interaction of child pedestrians and other road users requires special attention. This paper presents the results of research about the reaction time of children, measured both in laboratory conditions, via a computer reaction time test, and in actual traffic conditions. The results of the reaction time test in a situation with expected stimuli (a computer test) of children aged 6 to 10 years were compared with the results of the reaction time of adult traffic participants, drivers, who also took part in the computer test. Standard deviations of the reaction times between the control group (drivers, adults) and each subgroup of children were significantly different (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the largest developmental jump occurs between preschool children and first-grade children. In actual traffic conditions, the reaction time of children aged 4 to 16 years at the signalized intersection was measured. The model for predicting the reaction time of children in real traffic conditions was created using a neural network. The model prediction results matched well with the values measured in actual traffic conditions, for the observed intersection (correlation coefficient is 94.56%) and for the validation intersection (correlation coefficient is 92.29%). Parameters influencing children’s reaction times in real traffic conditions were identified by applying both statistical analysis and the neural network model developed. Using both methods, the same key distractors were identified—the movement of children in the group and the use of mobile phones. The case study was conducted at selected signalized intersections in the city of Osijek, Croatia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Safe Road Design)
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Article
The Effect of a LED Lighting Crosswalk on Pedestrian Safety: Some Experimental Results
Safety 2020, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020020 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 10
Abstract
The research presented in this paper is focused on the definition of a new methodology for evaluating how illuminated crosswalks influence drivers’ behavior when approaching the zebra in nighttime conditions. The proposed methodology is based on in situ speed measurements, and cars’ speed [...] Read more.
The research presented in this paper is focused on the definition of a new methodology for evaluating how illuminated crosswalks influence drivers’ behavior when approaching the zebra in nighttime conditions. The proposed methodology is based on in situ speed measurements, and cars’ speed was detected in an urban road segment of the city of Rome with a Telelaser instrument. Vehicles speed profiles are measured in the same road segment both in LED-illuminated conditions and in non-illuminated conditions. Results have shown a promising impact of the LED lighting system on pedestrian safety. In fact, cars’ mean speed decreases by 19.3% at the crosswalk section in illuminated conditions. Moreover, a positive effect on safety, in terms of mean speed reduction (−16.4%), was found even in the absence of pedestrians. Full article
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Article
Improved Strategies for the Maritime Industry to Target Vessels for Inspection and to Select Inspection Priority Areas
Safety 2020, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020018 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Inspection authorities such as the Port State Control Memoranda of Understanding use different policies and targeting methods to select vessels for inspections and rely primarily on past inspection outcomes. One of the main goals of inspections is to improve the safety quality of [...] Read more.
Inspection authorities such as the Port State Control Memoranda of Understanding use different policies and targeting methods to select vessels for inspections and rely primarily on past inspection outcomes. One of the main goals of inspections is to improve the safety quality of vessels and to reduce the probability of future incidents. This study shows there is room for improvement in targeting vessels for inspections and in determining vessel-specific inspection priority areas (e.g., bridge management versus machinery related items). For the year 2018, sixty percent of vessels that experienced very serious or serious (VSS) incidents were not selected for inspection up to three months prior to the incident and forty percent of the vessels that were inspected still had incidents of which only four percent were detained. Furthermore, one can observe a very low correlation (−0.04) between the probabilities of detention and incidents (VSS) for the year 2018. The proposed approach treats detention and incident types as separate risk dimensions and evaluates seven targeting methods against random selection of vessels using empirical data for 2018. The analysis is based on three comprehensive data sets that cover the world fleet and shows potential gains (reduction of false negative events) of 14–27 percent compared to random selection. This can be further improved by adding eight inspection priority risk areas that help inspectors to focus inspections by providing insight in the individual risk profile of vessels. Policy makers can further customize the approach by classifying the risk of vessels into categories and by selecting inspection targets and benchmark samples. A small application example is provided to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach for policy makers and inspection authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Article
High-Pressure Hydrogen Sulfide Experiments: How Did Our Safety Measures and Hazard Control Work during a Failure Event?
Safety 2020, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010015 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazardous, colorless, flammable gas with a distinct rotten-egg smell at low concentration. Exposure to a concentration greater than 500 ppm of H2S can result in irreversible health problems and death within minutes. Because of [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazardous, colorless, flammable gas with a distinct rotten-egg smell at low concentration. Exposure to a concentration greater than 500 ppm of H2S can result in irreversible health problems and death within minutes. Because of these hazards, operations such as oil and gas processing and sewage treatment that handle or produce H2S and/or sour gas require effective and well-designed hazard controls, as well as state-of-the-art gas monitoring/detection mechanisms for the safety of workers and the public. Laboratories studying H2S for improved understanding must also develop and continually improve upon lab-specific safety standards with unique detection systems. In this study, we discuss various H2S detection methods and hazard control strategies. Also, we share our experience regarding a leak that occurred as a result of the failure of a perfluoroelastomer O-ring seal on a small stirred autoclave vessel used for studying H2S hydrate dissociation/formation conditions in our laboratory, and discuss how our emergency response plan was activated to mitigate the risk of exposure to the researchers and public. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of Commuters’ Single-Bicycle Crashes in Insurance Data
Safety 2020, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010013 - 16 Feb 2020
Cited by 12
Abstract
In order to maximize the public health benefits of cycling, the negative impacts of cycling, such as the number and types of crashes, should be identified. Single-bicycle crashes, in which other road users are not collided with, are one of the main safety [...] Read more.
In order to maximize the public health benefits of cycling, the negative impacts of cycling, such as the number and types of crashes, should be identified. Single-bicycle crashes, in which other road users are not collided with, are one of the main safety concerns in cycling, but comprehensive knowledge on these crashes is not available due to poor data sources. This study aimed to identify characteristics of commuters’ single-bicycle crashes in Finland. Firstly, insurance data covering 9268 commuter bicycle crashes in 2016 and 2017 were analyzed to find single-bicycle crashes. The insurance data are based on self-reported crashes. In total, 3448 single-bicycle crashes were found with crash descriptions that were informative enough for investigation of their characteristics. According to the results, 62.9% (95% confidence interval +/− 1.6%) of the crashes were related to the infrastructure. In the majority of infrastructure-related crashes, the road surface was slippery. The slippery road surface was typically due to icy or snowy conditions. The lack of proper data complicates the recognition of single-bicycle crashes, and hence policy actions and research projects are needed to develop better data sources for proper investigation of cycling safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Article
Incident Causal Factors and the Reasons for Conducting Investigations: A Study of Five Ghanaian Large-Scale Mines
Safety 2020, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010009 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: This research sought to understand the perspective of mineworkers regarding incident investigations, with the objective of identifying incident investigations improvement opportunities. First, through interviews, the research sought to identify the causal factors considered during investigations and the reasons for conducting investigations in [...] Read more.
Background: This research sought to understand the perspective of mineworkers regarding incident investigations, with the objective of identifying incident investigations improvement opportunities. First, through interviews, the research sought to identify the causal factors considered during investigations and the reasons for conducting investigations in the Ghanaian mining industry. Secondly, through questionnaire surveys, the study focused on understanding the extent to which a large sample of mineworkers considered the identified causal factors and investigation reasons relevant and applicable in their mine. Method: Data were collected from 41 participants through interviews and 659 respondents through surveys, and the data were analyzed through thematic, content, and statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and correlation analysis. Result: The interviews led to the identification of five and nine categories of incident causal factors and reasons for investigating incidents, respectively. The results suggested a focus on workers’ unsafe acts as the main incident causal factor and identifying the person who caused the incident as one of the major reasons for investigating incidents, as these two factors where the modal choice from both the interviews and survey across all five mines. The results further showed that concerning the accident causal factors and the reasons for investigating incidents, no significant difference was observed between the perspectives of mineworkers involved in investigations and mineworkers with no investigation responsibilities. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the results that talking to ordinary mineworkers does not generate innovative safety responses in this context, as the workers believe whatever they are taught, without critiquing it. Again, the focus on workers’ behavior as an accident causal factor is an indication of single-loop learning in contrast to double-loop learning, and its implication as well as opportunities to strengthen incident investigation focusing on improving organizational safety have been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Safety)
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Article
Leaders’ Influence Tactics for Safety: An Exploratory Study in the Maritime Context
Safety 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6010008 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
A growing body of research has pointed out effective leadership as an important influencing factor for safety performance in various high-risk industrial contexts. However, limited systematic knowledge is available about how leaders can effectively persuade rule compliance, and stimulate actions and participation. Recognizing [...] Read more.
A growing body of research has pointed out effective leadership as an important influencing factor for safety performance in various high-risk industrial contexts. However, limited systematic knowledge is available about how leaders can effectively persuade rule compliance, and stimulate actions and participation. Recognizing effective means of influence is of value for safety leadership development and evaluation. This study seeks to empirically investigate leaders’ influence tactics for safety in a maritime context. Qualitative exploration is performed with data being collected through focus group discussions and individual interviews with 41 experienced shipboard leaders from various shipping sectors. Five core influence tactics—coaching, role modeling, pressure, consultation and exchange tactics—appeared to be the shipboard leaders’ effective tactics to influence subordinates’ safety compliance and participation behaviors in ship operations. Safety leadership influences flow from exemplification, expert and personal sources of power, and being pursued through soft and rational influence tactics rather than coercion or constructive inducements. The results indicate that the more relationship-oriented the leaders are, the more effective their safety leadership would be in influencing safety behaviors. The implication of the results for maritime safety leadership research, maritime education and training are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Safety and Operations)
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Review

Review
Occupational Accidents Related to Heavy Machinery: A Systematic Review
Safety 2021, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety7010021 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
Surface and underground mining, due to its technical challenges, is considered a hazardous industry. The great majority of accidents and fatalities are frequently associated with ineffective or inappropriate training methods. Knowing that knowledge of occupational accident causes plays a significant role in safety [...] Read more.
Surface and underground mining, due to its technical challenges, is considered a hazardous industry. The great majority of accidents and fatalities are frequently associated with ineffective or inappropriate training methods. Knowing that knowledge of occupational accident causes plays a significant role in safety management systems, it is important to systematise this kind of information. The primary objective of this systematic review was to find evidence of work-related accidents involving machinery and their causes and, thus, to provide relevant data available to improve the mining project (design). The Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement methodology was used to conduct the review. This paper provides the main research results based on a systematic review protocol registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), where the research strategy, information sources, and eligibility criteria are provided. From the 3071 articles identified, 16 were considered eligible and added to the study. Results are presented in a narrative-based form, with additional data provided in descriptive tables. The data analysed showed that the equipment often related to mining accidents are conveyor belts, haul trucks, and dumpers, especially during maintenance or repair activities. Attention should be paid to powered tools. Effective monitoring and machine operation control are some of the stated measures to minimise accidents. Particular attention should be paid to less experienced and senior workers, mainly through fatigue control, workload management, and appropriate training programs. Full article
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Review
On Driver Behavior Recognition for Increased Safety: A Roadmap
Safety 2020, 6(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6040055 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADASs) are used for increasing safety in the automotive domain, yet current ADASs notably operate without taking into account drivers’ states, e.g., whether she/he is emotionally apt to drive. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art of emotional and [...] Read more.
Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADASs) are used for increasing safety in the automotive domain, yet current ADASs notably operate without taking into account drivers’ states, e.g., whether she/he is emotionally apt to drive. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art of emotional and cognitive analysis for ADAS: we consider psychological models, the sensors needed for capturing physiological signals, and the typical algorithms used for human emotion classification. Our investigation highlights a lack of advanced Driver Monitoring Systems (DMSs) for ADASs, which could increase driving quality and security for both drivers and passengers. We then provide our view on a novel perception architecture for driver monitoring, built around the concept of Driver Complex State (DCS). DCS relies on multiple non-obtrusive sensors and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for uncovering the driver state and uses it to implement innovative Human–Machine Interface (HMI) functionalities. This concept will be implemented and validated in the recently EU-funded NextPerception project, which is briefly introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Driver Behaviour)
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Review
Reporting as a Key Element of an Effective Near-Miss Management System in Shipping
Safety 2020, 6(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6040053 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Shipping is a high-risk industry and prone to accidents. A near-miss management system is an important aspect of the safety performance in shipping because the causes are the same for near-misses and accidents. Reporting, analyzing, and learning from near-misses can prevent the recurrence [...] Read more.
Shipping is a high-risk industry and prone to accidents. A near-miss management system is an important aspect of the safety performance in shipping because the causes are the same for near-misses and accidents. Reporting, analyzing, and learning from near-misses can prevent the recurrence of accidents and thus improve safety on ships. This paper addresses near-miss management systems in shipping and provides insights into the quality of the implementation of these systems, with an emphasis on the importance of reporting. Research data were derived from two surveys and supported by data gained from near-miss reports and existing literature reviews. Professional seafarers of various ranks, ages, nationalities, and experiences, serving on tankers, cruise ships, bulk carriers, and container ships, voluntarily participated in these surveys. The first survey comprised 223 participants, and the second survey involved 22 participants. The research results indicate that near-miss reporting is inadequate, and several barriers limit appropriate near-miss reporting. The difficulty of seafarers in identifying near-miss events was found to be one of the major barriers to near-miss reporting at sea. Based on this research, a conceptual model of a near-miss management system was developed, and measures that can be applied to overcome barriers and increase reporting are proposed. Full article
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Review
Aquatic Competencies and Drowning Prevention in Children 2–4 Years: A Systematic Review
Safety 2020, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety6020031 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
Aquatic competencies have been proposed as a prevention strategy for children aged 2–4 years who are over-represented in drowning statistics. For this recommendation to be made, exploration of the connection between aquatic competencies and drowning is required. This review critically analyzed studies exploring [...] Read more.
Aquatic competencies have been proposed as a prevention strategy for children aged 2–4 years who are over-represented in drowning statistics. For this recommendation to be made, exploration of the connection between aquatic competencies and drowning is required. This review critically analyzed studies exploring aquatic competencies and their effect on drowning and/or injury severity in children 2–4 years. English language peer-reviewed literature up to 31 July 2019 was searched and the PRISMA process utilized. Data were extracted from twelve studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Findings from this study included that aquatic competencies were not found to increase risk of drowning and demonstrated children aged 2–4 years are capable of developing age-appropriate aquatic competencies. Age-appropriate aquatic competencies extracted were propulsion/locomotion, flotation/buoyancy, water familiarization, submersion and water exits. The acquisition of these competencies holds benefit for the prevention of drowning. No evidence was found relating to injury severity. There was limited exploration of the relationship between aquatic competencies attainment and age-related developmental readiness. The review highlights the need for consistent measures of exposure, clarity around skills acquisition, better age-specific data (2 years vs. 3 years vs. 4 years), studies with larger sample sizes, further exploration of the dose–response relationship and consistent skill level testing across age groups. Further investigation is required to establish the efficacy of aquatic competencies as a drowning prevention intervention, as well as exploring the relationship between aquatic competencies and age-related developmental readiness. In conclusion, early evidence suggests aquatic competencies can help to reduce drowning. Full article
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