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Article

Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups

Institute of Automotive Engineering, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Academic Editor: Raphael Grzebieta
Safety 2022, 8(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030
Received: 22 January 2022 / Revised: 29 March 2022 / Accepted: 6 April 2022 / Published: 11 April 2022
This study explores how drivers are affected by automation when driving in rested and fatigued conditions. Eighty-nine drivers (45 females, 44 males) aged between 20 and 85 years attended driving experiments on separate days, once in a rested and once in a fatigued condition, in a counterbalanced order. The results show an overall effect of automation to significantly reduce drivers’ workload and effort. The automation had different effects, depending on the drivers’ conditions. Differences between the manual and automated mode were larger for the perceived time pressure and effort in the fatigued condition as compared to the rested condition. Frustration was higher during manual driving when fatigued, but also higher during automated driving when rested. Subjective fatigue and the percentage of eye closure (PERCLOS) were higher in the automated mode compared to manual driving mode. PERCLOS differences between the automated and manual mode were higher in the fatigued condition than in the rested condition. There was a significant interaction effect of age and automation on drivers’ PERCLOS. These results are important for the development of driver-centered automation because they show different benefits for drivers of different ages, depending on their condition (fatigued or rested). View Full-Text
Keywords: driver; partial automation; fatigue; age; gender; workload; PERCLOS; reaction time driver; partial automation; fatigue; age; gender; workload; PERCLOS; reaction time
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arefnezhad, S.; Eichberger, A.; Koglbauer, I.V. Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups. Safety 2022, 8, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030

AMA Style

Arefnezhad S, Eichberger A, Koglbauer IV. Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups. Safety. 2022; 8(2):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arefnezhad, Sadegh, Arno Eichberger, and Ioana Victoria Koglbauer. 2022. "Effects of Automation and Fatigue on Drivers from Various Age Groups" Safety 8, no. 2: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020030

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