It is largely consented that the bicycle is a sustainable mobility alternative in the city. Despite its many benefits, cycling comprises risks of injury or death. Among others, these risks are a result of unsafe overtaking manoeuvres performed by motorized vehicles against cyclists. This study aims to identify the characteristics of the road network and traffic influencing the lateral distance and duration of overtaking. Using bicycles equipped with distance sensors, GPS, and cameras, four cyclists covered 1689 km in Montréal. Hence, 3591 overtakings were identified with an average distance of 176 cm; 111 overtaking manoeuvres took place at distances less than 1 m, resulting in an unsafe event for every 32 overtakings. On average, the duration of an overtaking was 1.082 s and dangerous overtakings (less than one metre) lasted 0.57 s more than safe overtakings (one metre and over). A generalized additive logit model (GAM) is built to predict the likelihood of a dangerous lateral passing (less than 1 m). The results show that in taking a major route, the presence of parked vehicles and the time required for overtaking significantly increase the probability of experiencing a dangerous overtaking. However, the participant, type of vehicle, or presence of a bike lane have no significant effect. Therefore, the results demonstrate the importance of keeping cyclists isolated from traffic. Furthermore, providing a bike path along parking spaces seems to be a solution that does not enhance cyclist safety.
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