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Volume 4, ECAS 2020
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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2021, IECF 2020

The 1st International Electronic Conference on Forests—Forests for a Better Future: Sustainability, Innovation, Interdisciplinarity

Online | 15–30 November 2020

Editors: Dr. Angela Lo Monaco, Dr. Cate Macinnis-Ng and Prof. Dr. Om P. Rajora

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This 1st International Electronic Conference on Forests (IECF), held on 15–30 November 2020, was an opportunity to showcase current research under the theme of Forests for a Better Future: [...] Read more.
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Proceedings
A Review on the Nematicidal Activity of Volatile Allelochemicals against the Pinewood Nematode
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08003 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, induces shoot yellowing and wilting by injuring pine vascular tissues and resin canals. In Asia, it has devastated wide forests of susceptible pine with drastic ecological, economic and cultural repercussions. In 1999, it reached Europe (Portugal) [...] Read more.
The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, induces shoot yellowing and wilting by injuring pine vascular tissues and resin canals. In Asia, it has devastated wide forests of susceptible pine with drastic ecological, economic and cultural repercussions. In 1999, it reached Europe (Portugal) and despite the actions of the authorities, it rapidly advanced to the border areas of Spain, threatening other European pine forests. Chemical control has been used in Asia with remarkable success, yet most nematicides are dangerous to human health and the environment. Natural volatile allelochemicals (VA) and derivatives are sustainable alternatives, providing many advantages to commercial nematicides. The present work summarizes available bibliographic information on VAs with activity against the PWN and reviews the chemical properties leading to nematoxicity. Published works have reported over 250 VAs in direct contact assays. Compounds highly active against the PWN belong to monoterpenoid, phenylpropanoid and aliphatic alcohols; aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters and sulphide groups. The presence of highly electronegative elements in these structures appears to increase activity. Trisulphides, coumarins, medium carbon chain length aliphatic alcohols and derivatives comprise the top five most active allelochemicals. An indication of their mechanisms of action can be obtained from studying the reported structure–activity relationships. Full article
Abstract
Infection and Spread of Root Rot Caused by Heterobasidion Parviporum in Picea Abies Stands after Thinning: Case Studies on Former Pasture and Meadow Lands
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07950 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
: Afforestation of former agricultural lands is a well-established practice in several countries. It is beneficial for avoiding previous-generation forest diseases and expanding forest areas. However, several biotic and abiotic risks have been reported for such stands as well as a higher risk [...] Read more.
: Afforestation of former agricultural lands is a well-established practice in several countries. It is beneficial for avoiding previous-generation forest diseases and expanding forest areas. However, several biotic and abiotic risks have been reported for such stands as well as a higher risk of Heterobasidion root rot after thinning. Therefore, this study investigates the spread patterns of Heterobasidion root rot in three Picea abies (L.) Karst. Plantations established on former pasture and meadow lands and subjected to forest management practices. First of all, to get an insight into the average infection rate we sampled all standing trees (157 in total) within a transect all along the sampling area. It showed slightly lower infection in pastures than in former meadows (16% vs. 29% and 33%, respectively). Based on those data and the observed dieback all over the stand, we established circle sample plots in disease centres where all trees and stumps were analysed, and the average infection rate there was 34–41%. All obtained Heterobasidion isolates belonging to Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen. Isolates were paired to detect genotype size and infection origin. Of 141 genets examined, 99 were single-tree, indicating primary infection, and 42 formed territorial clones (160 trees and or stumps) indicating the spread of infection through root contacts. The following conclusions were reached: (i) on average, primary infection in such stands is essential, but in older stands secondary infection predominates; (ii) H. parviporum can form large (up to 137 m2) territorial clones in forests on former pasture and meadow lands causing extensive tree dieback and mortality. This study was financially supported by European Regional Development Fund’s Post-doctoral Research project No. 1.1.1.2/VIAA/2/18/298 “Determining the risk of Heterobasidion root-rot and fungal communities in roots of Norway spruce stands on former agricultural land”. Full article
Proceedings
The Use of Microsatellites Markers in Molecular Characteristics of Hybrids between Pulsatilla Species
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07773 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 108
Abstract
Pulsatilla × hackelii Pohl. is the most common hybrid between Pulsatilla patens and Pulsatilla pratensis. It occurs in the natural environment, most often in sites together with parental forms. Pulsatilla × hackelii is morphologically intermediate between the pure [...] Read more.
Pulsatilla × hackelii Pohl. is the most common hybrid between Pulsatilla patens and Pulsatilla pratensis. It occurs in the natural environment, most often in sites together with parental forms. Pulsatilla × hackelii is morphologically intermediate between the pure Pulsatilla species. Separation of hybrid individuals from pure Pulsatilla species requires a whole set of morphological features. Completed plastid genome provides molecular evidence for the hybrid origin of Pulsatilla × hackelii. In our study, we present the—genotypic characteristics of Pulsatilla × hackelii based on microsatellite markers developed for Pulsatilla vulgaris. A specimen of the hybrid was found in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, near Bocheniec village, in the vicinity of a forest road in a fresh mixed coniferous forest (Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981) J. Mat. 1988). We amplified a set of 10 microsatellites in two multiplex PCR reactions. From the 10 analyzed loci, we successfully amplified eight. The analyzed microsatellites in population studies of three Pulsatilla species showed some species-specific alleles. In the case of the Pulsatilla × hackelii sample, we obtained PCR products in the case of 5 loci developed for P. vulgaris but successfully crossamplified in P. patens and P. pratensis. Additionally, we obtained results for two loci, which crossamplified only for Pulsatilla patens and one only for Pulsatilla pratensis. Among the investigated markers, two were monomorphic and the remaining six were polymorphic, which makes them highly informative in population studies for pasque-flower species as Pulsatilla patens, P. pratensis, and P. vernalis. The obtained results indicated that analyzed microsatellite markers could be used for hybrids identification, although there is a need for further research on a larger number of hybridized individuals. Full article
Proceedings
Comparison of Microsatellites and SNP Markers in Genetic Diversity Level of Two Scots Pine Stands
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07776 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), is one of the dominant species in Poland and one of the main forest tree species in northern and central Europe. This species is of great economic importance. The Scots pine is highly adaptable to changing environmental [...] Read more.
Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), is one of the dominant species in Poland and one of the main forest tree species in northern and central Europe. This species is of great economic importance. The Scots pine is highly adaptable to changing environmental conditions. A number of ecotypes have been characterized and the formation of these ecotypes are related with development of different phenotypic characteristics; morphological, physiological, and ecological. Molecular studies, based on DNA polymorphism, have been used for more than 20 years to analyze the genetic diversity of the Scots pine population. The most popular are microsatellite markers due to the fact of wide availability and high polymorphism. However, the use of these markers is also associated with certain limitations, due to complex mutation models or high incidence of homoplasia. These features are prompting scientists to look for alternative types of markers such as, for example, SNP. In our study we conducted a comparison of the basic parameters of genetic variability of two Scots pine stands (25 and 24 trees in each) for 20 SNP markers and 4 microsatellite markers. For the 20 SNP loci the observed heterozygosity (Ho) was equal to 0.34 for both stands and the expected heterozygosity (He) was equal to 0.34 for the first stand and 0.37 for the second. No statistically significant genetic distance was observed between them. For the microsatellite markers observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.81 and 0.74, and the expected heterozygosity (He) was equal to 0.85 and 0.85 respectively for the stands, and similarly no statistical significant genetic distance was observed. Literature data of different genetic markers showed the higher informativeness of randomly chosen microsatellites than single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for study population differentiation. But some analyzes confirm that the appropriate number of SNP markers can be more informative for population structure inference. Full article
Proceedings
Determination of the Safest Route for Logging Trucks Based on Road Types and Conditions
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08068 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Hauling of wood-based forest products is a complex problem that requires evaluation of many alternative routes. Forest transportation has been generally done by using logging trucks with high carrying capacity. Logging truck driving is one of the dangerous occupations in forestry, particularly in [...] Read more.
Hauling of wood-based forest products is a complex problem that requires evaluation of many alternative routes. Forest transportation has been generally done by using logging trucks with high carrying capacity. Logging truck driving is one of the dangerous occupations in forestry, particularly in Turkey, where forest lands are mostly located in mountainous regions with steep slopes. The safety risk of truck driving mainly depends on the road standards and conditions. The majority of the forest roads in Turkey have low standards that limit the maneuverability of logging trucks. In such conditions, forest transportation should be planned by considering not only transportation costs but also the safety of logging truck driving. In this study, the GIS-based network analysis method was used to develop the optimum transportation plans for two scenarios. In the first scenario, an optimum plan that minimized the total transportation cost was developed, while a transportation plan that ensured the safest logging truck driving was optimized in the second scenario. A safety score was assigned to each road section based on the road type (asphalt, gravel, forest road) and road conditions (good, medium, poor). In the study area, located in the city of Bursa in Turkey, there were three forest depots and five landings. The results indicated that the transportation cost increased by 15.76% when the safety of logging truck driving was prioritized. In this scenario, forest products from three landings were transported to different depots, compared to the first scenario. Full article
Proceedings
Influence of Selected Material and Process Parameters on the Durability of Briquettes Made of Shredded Logging Residues
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07777 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
The nonhomogeneous physical properties of the raw material in the form of shredded logging residues, and its composition may cause a serious problem in its further use. As a result of conducted research, it was found that the elemental composition of logging residues [...] Read more.
The nonhomogeneous physical properties of the raw material in the form of shredded logging residues, and its composition may cause a serious problem in its further use. As a result of conducted research, it was found that the elemental composition of logging residues (low nitrogen and ash contents) is suitable for raw materials dedicated to energy use. The possibility of using this raw material for the production of briquettes and the correlation between the physical properties of the final product and the parameters of the raw material and the briquetting process were also determined. The material used for tests was wood chips with moisture contents of 10%, 15%, 20%, compacted in a closed chamber at the temperatures of 22, 73 and 103 °C at unit pressures of approx. 65 MPa. The best results were obtained for the material moisture content of 10%. It was found that the temperature of the wood chips during agglomeration influences the degree of compaction and durability of the obtained briquettes. It is more advantageous to conduct compaction at a higher temperature. The research also determined the effect of the fractional composition of the briquetted mixture divided into size groups 0–1, 1–4, 4–8, and 8–16 mm, its moisture and temperature of the process on the durability of the product. On the basis of the obtained results, the most favorable fractional composition of the briquetted mixture, its moisture and temperature of the compaction process were determined. Full article
Proceedings
Basic Examination of the Harvesting of Small-Diameter Trees as Unutilized Forest Biomass in Japan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07872 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
In order to secure the supply source as well as promote the further utilization of forest biomass following the completion of the Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Renewable Energy (FIT), small-diameter trees, including samples from not only young planted forests but also broad-leaved trees [...] Read more.
In order to secure the supply source as well as promote the further utilization of forest biomass following the completion of the Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Renewable Energy (FIT), small-diameter trees, including samples from not only young planted forests but also broad-leaved trees from coppice forests, can be expected to be a prospective solution in Japan. With the aim of discussing the most effective method of harvesting such small-diameter trees as unutilized forest biomass appropriate for Japan, a simplified model forest was assumed in this study, while the harvesting of small-diameter trees was investigated with a truck-mounted multi-tree felling head and time-studied. As a result, the machine used in the experiment could fell a maximum of six trees in a row from a forest road, but the harvesting (felling, accumulating, and chipping) cost was the lowest when the machine felled five trees in a row. Full article
Proceedings
Therapeutic Functions of Forests and Green Areas with Regard to the Universal Potential of Sensory Gardens
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07899 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
The category of green areas which intensify feelings using a small area includes sensory gardens. They also have major potential for eliminating stress symptoms and stimulating sensory feelings among people with disabilities. Sensory gardens, as an element of universal recreational development in urban [...] Read more.
The category of green areas which intensify feelings using a small area includes sensory gardens. They also have major potential for eliminating stress symptoms and stimulating sensory feelings among people with disabilities. Sensory gardens, as an element of universal recreational development in urban and suburban conditions, can perfectly fulfill social, educational, and therapeutic functions. Their distinguishing feature is a strong influence on non-visual senses. Spaces that are adapted to the needs of people with disabilities give a sense of security, provide greater independence, can be used for passive and active therapy, and constitute a zone of social inclusion. Sensory gardens can be considered as an example of a comprehensive development of green areas that meets the requirements of universal design. The presented study is a review. The authors show that providing urban communities with a form of therapeutic contact with nature through the use of urban forests is very important of improving their quality of life. Special attention was paid to the potential of sensory gardens in the designing of forms of recreational development, which may be an opportunity to reduce the process of social exclusion of people with disabilities in the local environment. Full article
Proceedings
Concept of Forest Development Phases: Identification and Classification Issues
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08089 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
The decision making in forestry and choosing the appropriate silvicultural practices are based on the knowledge about forest development. Usually, forest development is described as a cycle or sequence of phases similar to the development cycles of organisms. The information about the development [...] Read more.
The decision making in forestry and choosing the appropriate silvicultural practices are based on the knowledge about forest development. Usually, forest development is described as a cycle or sequence of phases similar to the development cycles of organisms. The information about the development cycle of unmanaged forest ecosystems is applied and adapted to managed stands to refine the managerial approaches and decision making. Moreover, natural forests are more stable and resist pests and diseases better. Thus, knowing the mechanisms that lie behind this self-sustainability could help in forest management. Assigning a patch of a stand a specific development phase makes it possible to evaluate its productivity and make decisions about necessary silvicultural operations. Yet there is no single opinion among scientists about how many phases the forest’s life cycle has, not to mention that different classifications offer different and sometimes even contradictory criteria to define the current forest development phase for a given subplot. The confusion in terminology for stand structures and stand development phases is also an issue to be considered. Additionally, the most popular approaches to assigning forest development phases are compared. A short overview of the algorithms used to define the forest development phases is given. There is a lack of a complex approach in the offered algorithms of assigning a subplot to a certain development phase. In particular, soil properties, as well as belowground biomass, are entirely ignored. It is necessary to develop a more comprehensive and detailed approach to defining forest development phases and arranging the diagnostic criteria in a clear and easy-to-use system that could enhance decision making in forestry. Only a few studies are currently focused on soil properties and belowground biomass in temperate deciduous forests under different development phases. Although there is still little information on this issue, the data are insufficient and/or controversial. Our study offers several possible directions to make the classifications of forest development phases more elaborate by considering the soil and belowground parameters. They include, but are not limited to, the quantity, density, humidity, and acidity of the forest floor, soil respiration, and content of water-extractable organic matter in the soil. Full article
Proceedings
Aboveground Live and Dead Biomass Distribution Using Allometric Equation in the Restored Mines of the PPC’s Western Macedonia Lignite Center  
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08076 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Forests and forest plantations rank first in storing carbon and play a substantial role in climate change mitigation. Assimilated carbon is stored in the above- and belowground parts of trees, in dead wood, in litter, and in soil. The Greek power generation and [...] Read more.
Forests and forest plantations rank first in storing carbon and play a substantial role in climate change mitigation. Assimilated carbon is stored in the above- and belowground parts of trees, in dead wood, in litter, and in soil. The Greek power generation and supply company PPC S.A. started environmental rehabilitation projects to rehabilitate restored areas after the end of exploitation at the open-cast lignite mines of the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia in the 1980s by planting different tree species, mainly black locust. Today some of these plantations are almost 40 years old and occupy 2,200 ha in total. The dominant planted species is black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), a fast-growing pioneer species, covering 95% of the planted area. Other planted species are Spartium junceum and Cupressus arizonica, covering 2.45% and 1.44%, respectively. The aim of this study was to measure and estimate the live and dead aboveground biomass distribution across the planted sites in the restored waste dumps of Amyntaio and Ptolemaida lignite mines. A total of 215 sample plots of 100 m2 each were set up through systematic sampling at a grid dimension of 500 × 500 m. In each sample plot, the tree species (dbh (cm)), tree height, and height to live crown (m) were recorded for all trees. The aboveground biomass was estimated using an exponential allometric model. The results show that in the tree-planted restored areas of the Amyntaio mine, the aboveground biomass ranges from 20.1 to 90.2 tn ha−1, and in that of the Ptolemaida mine from 11.6 to 75.8 tn ha−1. The spatial biomass distribution seems to show a trend of increase from southeast to northwest in Ptolemaida and from west to north in the Amyntaio mine. The standing dead wood ranges from 0 to 19.8 tn ha−1 for Amyntaio and 0 to 41.9 tn ha−1 for the Ptolemaida mine, and the lying dead wood from 0.5 to 19.5 ha−1 and 0.5 to 66 m3 ha−1, respectively. The overall decay degree that was classified into quality classes from 1 to 5 ranges as: 10% for decay class (1), 27% for decay class (2), 45% for decay class (3), 17% for decay class (4), and 1% for decay class (5). The black locust shows a remarkable ability to survive and grow on disturbed sites, such as the restored mines in the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia. It is very competitive compared with other planted species and has created the necessary forest environment for the natural regeneration of other more shade-tolerant and soil-demanding species, such as oaks and maples. Full article
Proceedings
Development of Biocontrol Agents to Manage Major Diseases of Tropical Plantation Forests in Indonesia: A Review
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07907 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
In 2018, the area of plantation forests in Indonesia reached 8,668,670 ha. Pests and diseases have been considered as critical factors in sustainable production of plantation forests in the humid tropic areas. With the introduction of new plant species such as fast-growing plants [...] Read more.
In 2018, the area of plantation forests in Indonesia reached 8,668,670 ha. Pests and diseases have been considered as critical factors in sustainable production of plantation forests in the humid tropic areas. With the introduction of new plant species such as fast-growing plants of acacias and eucalypts, new pests and diseases have become emerging threats. Several pathogenic fungi and bacteria have been recorded in plantation forests in Indonesia since their early establishment. The fungal species associated with the most common diseases include Ceratocystis manginecans (Ceratocystis wilt and dieback), Ganoderma philippii (red root rot), Phellinus noxius (brown root rot and heart rot), and Fusarium spp. (Fusarium wilt), whereas the major bacterial pathogens are Ralstonia spp. (bacterial wilt) and Xanthomonas spp. (leaf streak). As one key component of integrated pest management, biocontrol measure plays significant roles in managing major diseases of tropical plantation forests in Indonesia. A number of forestry companies have put development of biocontrol agents as one of their priority research programs. For this scenario, antagonists have been collected and isolated from different ecosystems. This paper reviews development of biocontrol agents to manage major diseases of tropical plantation forests in Indonesia. Full article
Proceedings
Provenance Trials of the Mexican Spruces in Nursery Conditions: Three Species Endangered by Climatic Variation
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08080 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
The three Mexican spruces’ distributions are fragmented, which could lead to phenological, morphological and genetic differentiation, partially caused by local adaptation. In this study, we examined the effect that climatic variables had on the survival and growth of 5641 Picea seedlings, coming from [...] Read more.
The three Mexican spruces’ distributions are fragmented, which could lead to phenological, morphological and genetic differentiation, partially caused by local adaptation. In this study, we examined the effect that climatic variables had on the survival and growth of 5641 Picea seedlings, coming from eight seed provenances of three species and produced in identical nursery conditions. The respective responses of each species and provenance can be considered as a proxy of the genetic differentiation and adaptation of each population. A cluster analysis revealed: (i) significant differences in genetic quantitative traits among the three Picea species and (ii) significant correlations between genetic quantitative traits and climatic factors. Full article
Proceedings
An Operationally Relevant Framework for Mapping Spot Fire Transmission Potential
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08001 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Spotting is an important fire spread mechanism and cause of fireline breaches, yet current models provide only coarse metrics of spotting behavior that are underutilized in fire operations. We developed a spatial framework to quantify and map potential sources and sinks of spot [...] Read more.
Spotting is an important fire spread mechanism and cause of fireline breaches, yet current models provide only coarse metrics of spotting behavior that are underutilized in fire operations. We developed a spatial framework to quantify and map potential sources and sinks of spot fire transmission across control lines, based on models of ember production, ember transport, and receiving fuel bed ignition probability. The framework provides several spatially explicit measures of spotting potential (SP), conditional on fire extent and weather, that are designed to inform control line selection and resource allocation to tasks such as line prep, retardant application, and holding operations. We evaluated the utility of SP using two wildfire case studies with growth episodes attributed to spotting. SP captured the general trends in spotting behavior from these wind-driven fires. In its current form, SP may be useful for relative evaluation of control lines, and to help managers think prescriptively about the control tactics necessary on both the source and receiving sides of control lines to avoid spotting breaches. Future research priorities are refining the component models and empirical calibration of SP to spotting probability. Full article
Proceedings
Comparative Evaluation of Inspection Techniques for Decay Detection in Urban Trees
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07969 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Green areas in cities are acquiring an increasingly important role in urban architecture. However, a crucial problem associated with urban trees is the need to know and evaluate the health of plants in order to ensure the safety and security of citizens. One [...] Read more.
Green areas in cities are acquiring an increasingly important role in urban architecture. However, a crucial problem associated with urban trees is the need to know and evaluate the health of plants in order to ensure the safety and security of citizens. One important process consists of the technical assessment of the conditions of standing trees, in order to prevent their falling due to strength failure or damage caused by internal decay. In recent years, investigations with non-destructive techniques on urban trees have shown great success in detecting internal decay, which, depending on the severity of the case, makes the stability of the entire plant or parts of it precarious. This study reports the results of an inspection protocol that combines single-path stress wave timer and micro-drilling resistance to detect internal defects on Melia trees (Melia azedarach L.) located in the city of Reggio Calabria, Southern Italy. Full article
Proceedings
Artificial Weathering Effect on Surface of Heat-Treated Wood of Ayous (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Shum)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07975 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
The wood characteristics due to weather conditions change over time, particularly the color that reflects chemical changes. Natural ageing is usually a relatively slow process; therefore, artificial ageing plays an important role in assessing the performance by shortening the time compared to natural [...] Read more.
The wood characteristics due to weather conditions change over time, particularly the color that reflects chemical changes. Natural ageing is usually a relatively slow process; therefore, artificial ageing plays an important role in assessing the performance by shortening the time compared to natural weathering conditions. The aim of this research is to evaluate the color and reflectance variation of wooden surfaces due to artificial weathering obtained through a solar box chamber simulating outdoor conditions and subsequent water leaching. With the increase of weathering times, untreated specimen surfaces darken, whereas treated specimens lighten, so as to tend to have a similar color or in any case to decrease the chromatic difference that was at the beginning of the weathering tests. The measured values of conductance are higher in the leaching water of untreated specimens and tend to decrease after the first cycles. The values of pH range between 4.00 and 4.52 in untreated and treated specimens. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that water leaching caused loss of materials from the specimens, mainly from those thermally treated. FTIR spectra exhibit signatures of polysaccharide materials as main compounds. Bands of lignin and extractives are also visible. Water leaching seems to remove degraded surface microparticles of wood. Full article
Proceedings
Technical and Economic Aspects of Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.) Maintenance in Urban Environments
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07910 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 109
Abstract
The Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.) is one of the most employed ornamental trees in towns with Mediterranean climates. For example, in the city of Rome, Pinus is the most common genus, with more than 51,000 trees. Due to numerous reasons, [...] Read more.
The Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.) is one of the most employed ornamental trees in towns with Mediterranean climates. For example, in the city of Rome, Pinus is the most common genus, with more than 51,000 trees. Due to numerous reasons, the maintenance of this species may constitute a serious issue for the owners. Pruning and felling are the most frequent management operations of trees in towns and this study analyzes the technical and economic features of these operations carried out in 14 work sites (with a total of 25 observed trees). The operations were carried out either with aerial platforms (19 trees) or ascending the crown by tree-climbing (six trees). The operations were sampled with time studies (12 trees for pruning and 13 for felling). Work time was measured from the beginning of operations to the transport of the residual biomass to the collection and loading point, using centesimal stopwatches and video recording. The total residual biomass was weighed or assessed. Total observation time amounted to 63.1 h. The evaluation of the costs of each work site considered the fixed and the variable costs and the costs for the labor force. A multiple linear regression modeling was adopted to predict the gross time of the operations. This paper can contribute to optimize tree maintenance methods in urban sites and to assess the potential residual wood biomass attainable from urban forestry maintenance. Full article
Proceedings
Evaluation of Wood Chipping Efficiency through Long-Term Monitoring
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08078 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 149
Abstract
A high volume of wood forest biomass is be available at the roadside when whole three (WT) harvesting systems are applied. Besides, salvage logging operations are favourable conditions to accumulate a large amount of low-quality biomass due to the recovery of damaged trees. [...] Read more.
A high volume of wood forest biomass is be available at the roadside when whole three (WT) harvesting systems are applied. Besides, salvage logging operations are favourable conditions to accumulate a large amount of low-quality biomass due to the recovery of damaged trees. In mountain regions, such as the Alps, the forest’s accessibility can be a significant constraint for the eco-efficiency of chipping operations. The present study aims at evaluating the efficiency of wood-chipping operations in mountain areas based on long-term monitoring. One chipper-truck was monitored over 1200 working hours using telemetry. Different efficiency parameters were collected: machine position, collected using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, and engine parameters, collected using the CAN Bus system based on J 1939. Efficiency parameters were used to compare different in-wood or landing configurations. The results show the influence of the different location of the chipping sites according to the road network. Chipping operations in space-constrained sites cause an increase in delay time and CO2 emissions. Full article
Proceedings
Correlation between the Spectrometric Parameters of Coniferous Seeds and the Molecular Indicators of Seedlings: Is It Possible to Apply It in Practice?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08084 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Coniferous seeds as an integral part of Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) are a fairly valuable product that is transported by trade operations over long distances. Seed quality determines the rate of reforestation. Improving quality indicators and increasing the competitiveness of forest seeds is [...] Read more.
Coniferous seeds as an integral part of Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) are a fairly valuable product that is transported by trade operations over long distances. Seed quality determines the rate of reforestation. Improving quality indicators and increasing the competitiveness of forest seeds is one of the promising directions of a few country’s forestry development strategy and an opportunity to integrate into global reforestation initiatives. Based on the direct interaction of biophysical studies of seed spectrometric parameters, implementation of their genotype in different environmental conditions, biometric studies of seedling growth and development and genetic conditioning of these components, it is possible to develop and test a comprehensive concept for obtaining FRM with high quality indicators. What practical application can be expected? First, it is possible to study genetic variability among the seeds of the studied species, using molecular DNA markers. This would help obtain a comprehensive and categorical classification of samples that illustrates the genetic similarity and relationship structure relative to the desired characteristics of seedlings and seeds with high viability rates. Genetic and spectrometric data could be further combined to build a consensus tree of genetic similarity. Second, algorithms could be developed for integrating these parameters in the FRM-Library database to synchronize the quality indicators of forest reproduction material, with information processing devices of optoelectronic graders and phenoseeders. Third, methods and algorithms could be developed for optimal selection of technology for coniferous seeds grading of different breeding values. These would be developed based on data extracted from the FRM-Library database for the production of forest reproductive material, considering various goals and frontier methods of contemporary forest landscape restoration. Full article
Proceedings
Could Fire Severity Promotes the Biosynthesis of Bioactive Compounds as a Strategy to Improve Plant Survival?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08083 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 150
Abstract
Fire has effects on diverse aspects of plant functioning and development, many of them linked to survival. However, the response of native vegetation to this disturbance possibly reveals a plant strategy to tolerate fire linked to the biosynthesis of compounds such as chlorophylls [...] Read more.
Fire has effects on diverse aspects of plant functioning and development, many of them linked to survival. However, the response of native vegetation to this disturbance possibly reveals a plant strategy to tolerate fire linked to the biosynthesis of compounds such as chlorophylls and secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fire severity could promote biochemical tolerance to fire by influencing the biosynthesis of chemical compounds. To test this, six woody species from the Chaco region were exposed to an experimental burn of medium severity at the end of fire season in the study area. In this burn, individual plots for each plant were established. Fire severity was estimated visually as the burnt biomass of each plant, which was considered as the percentage of the loss of aboveground biomass. Then, the biochemical plant response to fire was studied, through the changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids), and secondary metabolites (phenolic compounds and tannins). The metabolite quantification was carried out by using spectrophotometric methods. As a result, a strong correlation was found between the biosynthesis of metabolites in response to fire and the amount of burnt biomass during the experimental burns. This correlation could be considered as an indicator of the burnt plant response to stress. In our results, shrubby species showed both the higher amount of burnt biomass and the enhanced biosynthesis of compounds in the resprouts post-fire, which could be related to the capacity of these species to be established in disturbed environments. Our study provides new insights into the understanding of the plant strategies to fire tolerance and resilience in natural environments. Full article
Abstract
Early Detection of Bark Beetle Infestation by Drone-Based Monoterpene Detection
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08473 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The project PROTECTFOREST deals with the improvement of early bark beetle detection to allow a fast and effective response to initial infestation. The removal of trees in the early infestation stage can prohibit bark beetle population gradation and successive timber price decrease. [...] Read more.
The project PROTECTFOREST deals with the improvement of early bark beetle detection to allow a fast and effective response to initial infestation. The removal of trees in the early infestation stage can prohibit bark beetle population gradation and successive timber price decrease. A semi-conductor gas sensor array was tested in the lab and attached to a drone under artificial and real-life field conditions. The sensor array was able to differentiate between α-pinene amounts and between different temperatures under lab conditions. In the field, the sensor responded to a strong artificial α-pinene source. The real-life field trial showed preliminary results, as technical and environmental conditions did compromise proof of principle. Further research will evaluate the detection rate of infested trees with the new proposed sensor concept. Full article
Proceedings
Analysis of Dynamic Forest Structures Based on Hierarchical Features Extracted from Multi-Station LiDAR Scanning
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07871 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 104
Abstract
This study aims at searching for characteristic parameters of tree trunks to establish a volume model and dynamic analysis of volume based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). We collected three phases of data over 5 years from an artificial Liriodendron chinense forest. The [...] Read more.
This study aims at searching for characteristic parameters of tree trunks to establish a volume model and dynamic analysis of volume based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). We collected three phases of data over 5 years from an artificial Liriodendron chinense forest. The upper diameters of the tree stump and tree height data were obtained by using the multi-station scanning method. A novel hierarchical TLS point cloud feature named the height cumulative percentage (Hz%) was designed. The shape of the upper tree trunk extracted by the point cloud was equivalent to that of the analytical tree with inflection points at 25% and 50% of the height, and the dynamic volume change of the model, which was established by hierarchical features, was highly related to the volume change of the actual point cloud extraction. The obtained results reflected the fact that the Hz% value provided by multi-station scanning was closely related to the characteristic stumpage parameters and could be used to invert the dynamic forest structure. The volume model established based on point cloud hierarchical parameters in this study could be used to monitor the dynamic changes of forest volume and to provide a new reference for applying TLS point clouds for the dynamic monitoring of forest resources. Full article
Proceedings
Transport Cost Estimation Model of the Agroforestry Biomass in a Small-Scale Energy Chain
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07891 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 127
Abstract
The delivery of biomass products from the production place to the point of final use is of fundamental importance within the constitution of energy chains based on biomass use as renewable energy source. In fact, transport can be one of the most economically [...] Read more.
The delivery of biomass products from the production place to the point of final use is of fundamental importance within the constitution of energy chains based on biomass use as renewable energy source. In fact, transport can be one of the most economically expensive operations of the entire biomass energy production process. In this work, a geographic identification, through remote sensing and photo-interpretation, of the different biomass sources was used to estimate the potential available biomass for energy in a small-scale supply chain. The economic sustainability of transport costs was calculated for different types of biomass sources available close to a biomass power plant of a small-scale energy supply chain, in central Italy. The proposed analysis allows us to highlight and visualize on the map the areas of the territory characterized by greater economic sustainability in terms of lower transport costs of residual agroforestry biomass from the collection point to the final point identified with the biomass power plant. The higher transport cost was around € 40 Mg−1, compared to the lowest of € 12 Mg−1. Full article
Proceedings
A Survey on Rope-Based Ascending Techniques and Materials of Professional Arborists in Italy
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07881 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
The techniques funded for rope-based access to the tree canopy (the so-called tree climbing) have been spreading in recent years. A variety of practices, such as pruning, felling of trees, cabling, phytosanitary inspections, and others, can be carried out using these techniques, and [...] Read more.
The techniques funded for rope-based access to the tree canopy (the so-called tree climbing) have been spreading in recent years. A variety of practices, such as pruning, felling of trees, cabling, phytosanitary inspections, and others, can be carried out using these techniques, and the methods allow one to operate on trees placed in any location, proving extremely suitable for maintaining trees grown in an urban environment. In Italy, the number of arborists operating with a rope on trees is increasing significantly. They are usually highly specialized professionals, and they use specific techniques and materials. Despite the diffusion of these techniques in modern arboriculture, it is not easy to find sound ad updated information and data on them. In this work, based mainly on the answers obtained from a specific questionnaire addressed to 86 Italian professional climbers, some aspects of the applied techniques were reported. The paper shows data on professional training and formation, on the work organization, and on the utilized materials and equipment. In general, a large variety of situations are reported, a result probably linked to the fast growth of the sector in the past years. Full article
Proceedings
Adaptive Management in Relict Mediterranean Forests. Thinning Enhances Long-Term Growth but Short-Term Resilience to Drought in Abies pinsapo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07880 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Current climate change in the Mediterranean basin is associated to increasing frequency and intensity of droughts. This climate dryness entails a serious impact on drought-sensitive forests, several of them considered as hot spots of biodiversity. Adaptive management, as experimental thinning for stand structural [...] Read more.
Current climate change in the Mediterranean basin is associated to increasing frequency and intensity of droughts. This climate dryness entails a serious impact on drought-sensitive forests, several of them considered as hot spots of biodiversity. Adaptive management, as experimental thinning for stand structural diversity enhancement, may increase tree-level resources availability. However, the long-term stand-level effectiveness of this approach at sustaining forest ecosystem functioning remains uncertain. Here, we attempt to place experimental thinning in a climate change adaptation context, using as experimental system the drought-sensitive fir Abies pinsapo. We conducted a long-term study (2004–2019), focused on tree basal area increment (BAI) and quantified to what extent thinning treatments improved drought resistance, recovery and resilience to drought in the remaining trees. The results support a post-thinning (after 2004) BAI increase in thinned stands (+104% if 30% thinning of basal area was applied; +141% for 60% thinning) compared to controls (+21%). Short-term growth resilience, estimated for an extreme drought occurred after thinning (2005), yielded higher resilience for thinned stands, throughout improved resistance, but similar recovery than control. However, extreme droughts observed thereafter (for instance in 2012) do not support a long-term increase in resilience. Growth resilience, estimated for wetter-than-average years showed similar short-term enhanced resilience in thinned stand, while these differences dispelled afterward. Full article
Proceedings
Assessment of Leaf Litter Decomposition in a Pine and Beech Mixed Forest: Case Study in Northern Spain
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07779 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
The promotion of mixed forests represents an adaptation strategy in forest management to cope with climate change. The mixing of tree species with complementary ecological traits may modify forest functioning regarding productivity, stability, or resilience against disturbances. Litter decomposition is an important process [...] Read more.
The promotion of mixed forests represents an adaptation strategy in forest management to cope with climate change. The mixing of tree species with complementary ecological traits may modify forest functioning regarding productivity, stability, or resilience against disturbances. Litter decomposition is an important process for global carbon and nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, also affecting the functionality and sustainability of forests. Decomposition of mixed-leaf litters has become an active research area because it mimics the natural state of leaf litters in most forests. Thus, it is important to understand the factors controlling decomposition rates and nutrient cycles in mixed stands. In this study, we conducted a litter decomposition experiment in a Scots pine and European beech mixed forest in the province of Navarre (north of Spain). The effects of forest management (i.e., different thinning intensities), leaf litter types, and tree canopy on mass loss and chemical composition in such decomposing litter were analysed over a period of three years. Higher decomposition rates were observed in leaf litter mixtures, suggesting the existence of positive synergies between both pine and beech litter types. Moreover, a decomposition process was favoured under mixed-tree canopy patches. Regarding thinning treatments significant differences on decomposition rates disappeared at the end of the study period. Time influenced the nutrient concentration after the leaf litter incubation, with significant differences in the chemical composition between the different types of leaf litter. Higher Ca and Mg concentrations were found in beech litter types than in pine ones. An increase in certain nutrients throughout the decomposition process was observed due to immobilization by microorganisms (e.g., Mg in all leaf litter types, K only in beech leaves, P in thinned plots and under mixed canopy). Evaluating the overall response in mixed-leaf litters and the contribution of single species is necessary for understanding the litter decomposition and nutrient processes in mixed-forest ecosystems. Full article
Proceedings
Characterisation of Woody Necromass in Beech Forests with Different Anthropic Accessibility: The Case of La Rioja (Spain)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08111 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 163
Abstract
In this study, a comprehensive analysis of deadwood was conducted in four macro-areas located in two beech forests of public utility in Enciso (La Rioja, Spain). Dendrometric data, as well as qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deadwood, were collected and analysed with respect [...] Read more.
In this study, a comprehensive analysis of deadwood was conducted in four macro-areas located in two beech forests of public utility in Enciso (La Rioja, Spain). Dendrometric data, as well as qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deadwood, were collected and analysed with respect to the degree of accessibility to the forest to determine the effect of different levels of forest accessibility on deadwood volume and carbon stocks. All decomposition classes were present except the first, highlighting the development of natural degradation dynamics. Deadwood stored 6.9 t/ha of C in the easy accessibility class, 5.7 t/ha of C in the medium accessibility class and 2.2 t/ha of C in the difficult accessibility class. The average volume of deadwood and carbon stored calculated in this study were higher than the values reported in the Spanish and Italian national forest inventories, including one developed for Riojan beech forests. Deadwood volume was on average 22.5 m3/ha, showing an unequal distribution, with the lowest values found far from the access roads, despite forest accessibility generally being considered a factor that facilitates the human collection of deadwood. The distribution patterns of deadwood in beech forests of La Rioja, apparently counterintuitive, were due to a combination of different factors, including slope, cattle grazing, and weather conditions which might have favoured downward movement of the deadwood. Full article
Proceedings
Modifications of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics Induced by Heat Treatment: Case Study on Ayous Wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07874 - 11 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 175
Abstract
Wood is a material of biological origin of fundamental importance for artisan and industrial uses. In outdoor environments, it is very attractive, but easily subjected to degradation. A valid alternative to chemical preservatives is thermal modification. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Wood is a material of biological origin of fundamental importance for artisan and industrial uses. In outdoor environments, it is very attractive, but easily subjected to degradation. A valid alternative to chemical preservatives is thermal modification. The aim of this study is to evaluate ayous wood industrially subjected to thermal modification (215 °C) in order to emphasize the influence of heat treatment on selected physical and mechanical characteristics. As a result of the heat treatment, the physical and mechanical properties are generally reduced: the density in natural wood (TQ) was 379 kg/m3, in heat treated wood (TT) 319 kg/m3; the basic density in TQ was 327 kg/m3, in TT 299 kg/m3; the axial compression strength of TT was reduced by 18.1%; and the static bending strength of TT was reduced by 41.4% compared to untreated wood at 10% equilibrium moisture content (EMC). In addition, the samples, under the same environmental conditions in the laboratory, reached the equilibrium moisture content of 10% in TQ and 4% in TT. Full article
Proceedings
The Lessons of Scots Pine Forest Decline in Ukraine
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07990 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
The condition of Ukraine’s forests has deteriorated sharply since the 2009 drought. The area of Scots pine stands decline has increased 2.3 times. The purpose of the research is integrating published and own data on Scots pine forest decline with the contribution of [...] Read more.
The condition of Ukraine’s forests has deteriorated sharply since the 2009 drought. The area of Scots pine stands decline has increased 2.3 times. The purpose of the research is integrating published and own data on Scots pine forest decline with the contribution of bark beetles and pointing the ways for mitigating this process. The reference materials regarding the forest stands characteristics, forest health, weather, as well as the results of own field and laboratory research were the data sources. Ips acuminatus (Gyllenhal, 1827): Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae was the first bark beetle to infest weakened stands. The predominant development Scots pine decline in Polesie (Forest zone) is associated with a large proportion of pure pine stands of the same age, untimely thinning, and relatively slow drying of felling residues, in which the bark beetle has time to complete its development. The relative density of stocking by itself is a less important risk factor than its sudden decrease. The algorithm for prediction of bark beetles’ foci spread was developed. It will help to upgrade the accuracy of prediction, to evaluate the area of survey and control measures against insect pests. Recommendations for improving the forestry regulatory framework have been developed. Full article
Proceedings
Carbon Stock in Forest Stands of Ukrainian Eastern Forest-Steppe: Forest Monitoring Data
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07964 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 103
Abstract
In Ukraine, carbon stocks in forests are assessed by the gain-loss method since the national forest inventory is under development now. For the evaluation of main pools of oak and pine forest stands, typical for the Forest-steppe of Ukraine, the stock-difference method was [...] Read more.
In Ukraine, carbon stocks in forests are assessed by the gain-loss method since the national forest inventory is under development now. For the evaluation of main pools of oak and pine forest stands, typical for the Forest-steppe of Ukraine, the stock-difference method was used for the data of repeated observations on 18 intensive forest monitoring plots. The average carbon stock in the phytomass was 94.1 ± 19.8 tC·ha−1 and 93.4 ± 12.8 tC·ha−1, while in the deadwood, it was 8.8 ± 7.3 tC·ha−1 and 5.3 ± 4.3 tC·ha−1 for oak and pine forest stands, respectively. In terms of age classes, pine stands, due to their higher productivity, in general, had a higher carbon (C) stock in phytomass compared to oak. C stock changes in trees phytomass were the highest in younger stands, and they decreased with age, while in deadwood, they increased. At age 81–100 years, oak forest stands had higher carbon storage capacity than pine (total stock in main pools (phytomass, mortmass, and soils (30-cm layer)) was 191.7 tC·ha−1 for oak and 175.4 tC·ha−1 for pine stands). Trees phytomass carbon prevailed among other pools (50.3% in oak forests and 57.6% in pine). Full article
Proceedings
Modernized Forest Fire Risk Assessment Model Based on the Case Study of three Portuguese Municipalities Frequently Affected by Forest Fires
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07973 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 172
Abstract
The number of forest fires ignitions has decreased worldwide, thus observing increased levels of intensity and destruction, endangering urban areas and causing material damages and deaths (Portugal, 2017). Forest fire hazard mapping supported by the surveillance strategy targeted at very susceptible areas with [...] Read more.
The number of forest fires ignitions has decreased worldwide, thus observing increased levels of intensity and destruction, endangering urban areas and causing material damages and deaths (Portugal, 2017). Forest fire hazard mapping supported by the surveillance strategy targeted at very susceptible areas with high losses potential are the common tools of fire prevention. Each municipality creates its own Forest Fire Hazard Map, and so it is observed that along the administrative boundaries, discrepancies occur, even when identical types of land use are in place. The evolution of geographic information systems technology sustained by the open-source satellite imagery, along with the innovative Habitat Risk Assessment model of the InVEST software, allowed the creation of an easily applicable trans-administrative boundary fire hazard map, with frequent update capabilities and fully open source. This work considered three municipalities (Tomar, Ourém, and Ferreira do Zêzere) that annually observe various forest fire occurrences. Results enabled the creation of a homogeneous Forest Fire Risk Map, using landuse, slope, road access network, fire ignitions’ history, visualization basins, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as variables. All variables correlate with each other using different weights, in which the different classes of land use are considered as habitats and the remaining variables as fire hazard stressors. The results produce a coherent monthly updated Risk Map, which is an alternative to many risk assessment systems used worldwide. Full article
Proceedings
How the Virtual Thinning Can Help to Control the Changing of Genetic Structure in Scots Pine Stands?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08062 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
The work detailed here in the context of the above project sought to determine changes in the gene pool (at the DNA level) in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), under the influence of various kinds of forest-tending cuts. The [...] Read more.
The work detailed here in the context of the above project sought to determine changes in the gene pool (at the DNA level) in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), under the influence of various kinds of forest-tending cuts. The experimental area on which the research was focused is located in Poland’s Ostrów Mazowiecka Forest District. Genetic structure was specified using five nuclear SSR sequences and six chloroplast SSR loci, while the five thinning variants trialled were sanitation cutting, low thinning of 30% intensity, schematic thinning, selective thinning and destructive lumbering. The control variant was left untreated. It was virtual rather than real-life thinning that was pursued, using the ForestSimulator BWINPro program. Changes in the structure of the stand after a further 10 years were also simulated. The different thinning variants were shown to cause change in the gene pool and level of genetic diversity of trees in the study area. In terms of maintaining genetic variability in the stand, the least-favourable method proved to be thinning from below. Destructive selection cutting was in turn most beneficial in terms of the preservation of genetic structure, with the reduction in rare alleles being more limited than in any other analysed variant. It was with the selective thinning variant that the final number of trees, stand structure and level of genetic variation resembled the situation in the control most closely. This suggests that selective thinning provides for a rather accurate replication of processes occurring in nature. Full article
Proceedings
The Needles and Shoots Structure Variability of Polish Populations of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at a 50-Years-Old Provenance Experiment in Central Poland
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08187 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 165
Abstract
The analysis of population variability usually concerns the adaptability of trees to changing climatic conditions and their timber production possibilities. It is already known that several phenotypic and genotypic features determine the adaptation possibilities of a population and every population of a given [...] Read more.
The analysis of population variability usually concerns the adaptability of trees to changing climatic conditions and their timber production possibilities. It is already known that several phenotypic and genotypic features determine the adaptation possibilities of a population and every population of a given species may have different adaptability to climatic conditions. The assimilation apparatus is an important phenotypic feature that has a large impact on the functioning of tree organisms and their adaptability. Scots pine, which covers vast areas of Europe, is a very important species in the context of ecosystems’ sustainability preservation, especially in the era of global warming. Therefore, in our research, the inter-population and individual variability of morpho-anatomical features of shoots and needles were analyzed. Nine national origins of Scots pine (three populations each from northern, western, and central Poland), which are a part of a 50-year provenance experiment, were compared. Fragments of one-year-old shoots (5 cm long) with needles were collected from the top parts of tree crowns. An extensive analysis of the morphological parameters of the needles (length and width, density, dry mass) and the anatomical features of the shoots (thickness, the share of bark, wood, and pith) was performed. Our surveys showed that the differences between populations are much greater than between regions. The western pine populations, which have shown the highest volume of wood per ha, had the thickest shoots but the lowest dry mass. The northern populations, highly valued for the very good technical quality of wood, had thin shoots. Pine trees from central Poland had the highest density and dry mass of needles and the highest share of wood in shoots. Full article
Proceedings
Seed Production and Its Quality in Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) Seed Orchard Originated from the Białowieża Primeval Forest
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08165 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 191
Abstract
Climate changes, taking place in Poland, have a very negative impact on populations of many tree species. An example of a highly endangered and, at the same time, very valuable stock is the population of Norway spruce from the Białowieża Primeval Forest. One [...] Read more.
Climate changes, taking place in Poland, have a very negative impact on populations of many tree species. An example of a highly endangered and, at the same time, very valuable stock is the population of Norway spruce from the Białowieża Primeval Forest. One of the protection methods of a perishing population is to preserve its genetic pool in the form of seed orchards (ex situ method). The genetic material of spruce mother trees from the Białowieża Primeval Forest has been preserved in a seed orchard with an area of 9.74 ha, established in 1996 in the Bielsk Forest District (approximately 35 km west of the Białowieża Primeval Forest). In December 2017, cones from all growing grafted trees were collected on a sample plot of 50 clones. An extensive analysis of the health of cones, seed yield from cones, and the parameters of cones and seeds was carried out, and the relationship between seed quality and position in the cone was determined. The number of cones on the analyzed trees ranged from 29 to 1766, with the average equal to 405 cones per clone. The greatest threat limiting seed production were insects that damaged seeds in cones. No dieback of grafted trees, due to the activity of the European spruce bark beetle, was detected. The share of undamaged and lightly damaged cones amounted to about 88%. However, the average share of undamaged seeds was less than 50%. Our surveys showed that the approximately 25-year-old plantation is able to give satisfying economic result and assure the preservation of the genetic pool of Norway spruce from the population of the Białowieża Forest. Full article
Proceedings
Seasonal Variation in Wild Ungulate Abundance in a Hunting-Ban Beech Forest: A Case Study of Amiata Mountain, Central Italy
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07879 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Several studies have focused on the impact of ungulates on agricultural systems, but the magnitude of their antagonistic role in forest renovation dynamics has long been underestimated and is rarely considered. The abundance of ungulate species is susceptible to seasonal variations according to [...] Read more.
Several studies have focused on the impact of ungulates on agricultural systems, but the magnitude of their antagonistic role in forest renovation dynamics has long been underestimated and is rarely considered. The abundance of ungulate species is susceptible to seasonal variations according to their autecology, human management choices, and territorial planning. Therefore, the appropriate choice of counting period is crucial. In this case study, we used camera traps to assess the seasonal abundance variations of wild boar and roe deer in a 560-hectares hunting-ban beech forest (95.48%) in southern Tuscany managed for timber production. Camera-trapping sessions were performed in both early summer and autumn. The roe deer abundance index is higher in early summer, although statistically not significant, potentially affecting seedling survival. Inversely, wild boars significantly (F = 79.125; p = 0.001) increase their abundance at the local scale in autumn when probably, according to the ecology of fear, they shift their home range toward refuge areas temporary. In autumn, the high density of wild boars can reduce seed availability at the local scale. Further analyses assessing the correlation between seasonal wild ungulate abundance and forest regeneration rates are in progress, based on data recorded within and around three fenced sample plots. Full article
Proceedings
Occurrence and Activity of Roe Deer in Urban Forests of Warsaw
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07913 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Human presence or activities are perceived by animals as those associated with predation risk so activity and exploration patterns of animals should be shaped by indices of anthropogenic disturbances. The high level of human disturbances is noticed in big cities. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Human presence or activities are perceived by animals as those associated with predation risk so activity and exploration patterns of animals should be shaped by indices of anthropogenic disturbances. The high level of human disturbances is noticed in big cities. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of roe deer in Warsaw and its activity in the Warsaw urban forests. We used snow tracking on transect routes (winter seasons 2016, 2017, 2018; 115.1 km in total) to determine roe deer occurrence in four habitats: forests, open areas, parks, and built-up areas. The number of tracks was highest in forests (4.6 tracks/1 km/24 h), followed by open areas, built-up areas, and parks. We used camera traps to determine the activity of roe deer in selected urban forests. We collected 697 observations of roe deer in Warsaw forests in the years 2016–2019 (per 4826 trap-days in total). The peak of roe deer activity was noticed between 4:00 and 5:00 a.m. Animals were least active at 1:00–2:00 p.m. and between 11:00 p.m.–01:00 a.m. Our research showed that roe deer inhabiting the urban area avoided human presence by using well-covered habitats and being active in periods when humans’ disturbances’ level is lower. Full article
Abstract
Nutrient Sustainability in Swiss Wood Extraction
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07764 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 101
Abstract
Here, we present the approach to be implemented in the frame of a Swiss research project that recently started (July 2020). The overall aim is to protect the forest’s soil fertility and biodiversity. When choosing an extraction method, the nutrient storage of a [...] Read more.
Here, we present the approach to be implemented in the frame of a Swiss research project that recently started (July 2020). The overall aim is to protect the forest’s soil fertility and biodiversity. When choosing an extraction method, the nutrient storage of a respective forest stand should be considered in order to prevent the exploitation of the site-specific nutrient pool. This topic is timely because full-tree harvesting for energetic purposes has increased continuously in the last few years. In addition, summer logging in the foliage state is under discussion because climate change is increasingly reducing winter harvesting periods. We aim to determine the current nutrient pools of different Swiss forest sites by conducting comprehensive soil analyses considering pH value, exchangeable nutrient cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, Fe, and Zn), as well as the contents of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and carbon(org). Furthermore, nutrient fluxes such as weathering rate, deposition and soil leaching are considered. The resulting site-specific data are combined with expected nutrient removals over one rotation period, depending on tree species composition, forest stand development and extraction methods. In the frame of this project, two case studies will be implemented in beech woodland stands on sediments of the early and late Pleistocene, serving as a data basis to calculate nutrient balances and to formulate management recommendations. In the long-term, we aim to apply this method to Switzerland overall and develop software that allows an automatic calculation of site-specific nutrient balances in order to support future forest management planning and decision-making processes. Full article
Proceedings
An External Agribusiness Risk Analysis Using KBDI: A Case of Veldfires in the Northern Territory of Australia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08065 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
The 2019/20 Australian bushfires burned over 46 million acres of land, killed 34 people and left 3500 individuals homeless. Majority of deaths and buildings destroyed were in New South Wales, while the Northern Territory accounted for approximately 1/3 of the burned area. Many [...] Read more.
The 2019/20 Australian bushfires burned over 46 million acres of land, killed 34 people and left 3500 individuals homeless. Majority of deaths and buildings destroyed were in New South Wales, while the Northern Territory accounted for approximately 1/3 of the burned area. Many of the buildings that were lost were farm buildings, adding to the challenge of agricultural recovery that is already complex because of ash-covered farmland accompanied by historic levels of drought. The current research therefore aimed at characterising veldfire risk in the study area using Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI). A 39-year-long time series data was obtained from an online NASA database. Both homogeneity and stationarity tests were deployed using a non-parametric Pettitt’s and Dicky-Fuller tests respectively for data quality checks. Major results revealed a non-significant two-tailed Mann Kendall trend test with a p-value = 0.789 > 0.05 significance level. A suitable probability distribution was fitted to the annual KBDI time series where both Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Chi-square tests revealed Gamma (1) as a suitably fitted probability distribution. Return level computation from the Gamma (1) distribution using XLSTAT computer software resulted in a cumulative 40-year return period of moderate to high fire risk potential. With this low probability and 40-year-long return level, the study found the area less prone to fire risks detrimental to animal and crop production. More agribusiness investments can safely be executed in the Northern Territory without high risk aversion. Full article
Proceedings
FORTLS: An R Package for Processing TLS Data and Estimating Stand Variables in Forest Inventories
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08066 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) enables rapid, automatic, and detailed 3D representation of surfaces with an easily handled scanner device. TLS, therefore, shows great potential for use in Forest Inventories (FIs). However, the lack of well-established algorithms for TLS data processing hampers operational use [...] Read more.
Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) enables rapid, automatic, and detailed 3D representation of surfaces with an easily handled scanner device. TLS, therefore, shows great potential for use in Forest Inventories (FIs). However, the lack of well-established algorithms for TLS data processing hampers operational use of the scanner for FI purposes. Here, we present FORTLS, which is an R package specifically developed to automate TLS point cloud data processing for forestry purposes. The FORTLS package enables (i) detection of trees and estimation of their diameter at breast height (dbh), (ii) estimation of some stand variables (e.g., density, basal area, mean, and dominant height), (iii) computation of metrics related to important tree attributes estimated in FIs at stand level, and (iv) optimization of plot design for combining TLS data and field measured data. FORTLS can be used with single-scan TLS data, thus, improving data acquisition and shortening the processing time as well as increasing sample size in a cost-efficient manner. The package also includes several features for correcting occlusion problems in order to produce improved estimates of stand variables. These features of the FORTLS package will enable the operational use of TLS in FIs, in combination with inference techniques derived from model-based and model-assisted approaches. Full article
Abstract
Feasibility of Sustainable Management of Secondary Atlantic Forest: Recovery and Mortality Rates of Damaged Trees Two Years After Harvesting
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08484 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Subject to overexploitation in past centuries, the Atlantic Forest is now strictly protected, including a ban on timber harvesting. However, this strict protection is a very controversial issue. It resulted in a lack of willingness of landholders to conserve and possibly even expand [...] Read more.
Subject to overexploitation in past centuries, the Atlantic Forest is now strictly protected, including a ban on timber harvesting. However, this strict protection is a very controversial issue. It resulted in a lack of willingness of landholders to conserve and possibly even expand native forest areas. The lack of knowledge on impacts of potential timber-harvesting causes conflicts between conservation and management of the remnant Atlantic Forest. We believe that sustainable forest management, with reduced harvesting impact, has the potential to generate income for the landowners while sustaining important ecological services of the forest. Therefore, we assessed the harvesting impact of a conventional harvesting method (CM) and compared it to an alternative harvesting method (AM) in three different stands. We measured damage intensities of all remnant trees directly after harvesting and two years after harvesting. Tree damages were recorded in three different tree zones (crown, bole and leaning) and rated in three different intensity classes (minor, moderate and severe). Furthermore, we assessed the recovery and mortality rates of each damaged tree two years after harvesting. Improved AM harvesting reduced the impacts on trees with multiple damages, in particular to crown and bole damages combined. There is a strong relationship between steep terrains and crown damage. High mortality rates were related to stands with a high density of smaller trees and also to trees with leaning damage. Moreover, completely recovered trees were related to trees with light bole damage. Full article
Proceedings
Supply Potential and Annual Availability of Timber and Forest Biomass Resources for Energy Considering Inter-Prefectural Trade in Tohoku Region of Japan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08025 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
To promote sustainable timber and forest biomass utilization, this study estimated technically feasible and economically viable availability considering forest regenerations. This study focuses on five prefectures, namely, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Akita, and Yamagata, and considers the trade between these prefectures. The data used [...] Read more.
To promote sustainable timber and forest biomass utilization, this study estimated technically feasible and economically viable availability considering forest regenerations. This study focuses on five prefectures, namely, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Akita, and Yamagata, and considers the trade between these prefectures. The data used in this study include forest registration (tree species and site index) and GIS data (information on roads and subcompartment layers) from the prefectures for private and communal forests. Additionally, this study includes GIS data (subcompartment layers, including tree species) from the Forestry Agency of Japan for national forests as well as 10-m-grid digital elevation models (DEMs) from the Geographical Survey Institute. As a result, supply potentials of timber and forest biomass resources were estimated at 11,388,960 m3/year and 2,277,792 m3/year, respectively. Then, those availabilities were estimated at 1,631,624 m3/year and 326,325 m3/year. Therefore, the rate of availabilities to supply potentials was 14.3%. Since timber production, and wood chip usage from thinned woods and logging residues in 2018 were 4,667,000 m3/year and 889,600 m3/year, respectively, the rates of timber and forest biomass resource availabilities to those values were 35.0% and 36.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the demand was estimated at 951,740 m3/year from 100,000 m3/year with the generation capacity of 5 MW. The rate of forest biomass resource availability versus the demand was 34.2%. The rates were increased to 64.1% with an additional regeneration subsidy, 173.3% with the thinning subsidy, and 181.5% with both subsidies. Thus, the estimated availability with both subsidies met the demand sufficiently in this region. Full article
Proceedings
Forest Carbon in Climate Change Supermarket: Is India Prepared to Sail?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08081 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Several market-based instruments have been developed to facilitate effective mitigation of climate change through voluntary and regulatory measures. A number of such instruments are expected to hit the carbon markets with the take-off of the new global deal on climate change—The Paris Agreement, [...] Read more.
Several market-based instruments have been developed to facilitate effective mitigation of climate change through voluntary and regulatory measures. A number of such instruments are expected to hit the carbon markets with the take-off of the new global deal on climate change—The Paris Agreement, agreed in 2015 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), along with other planned and potential regional, national and sub-national regimes to address the problem of climate change. With the possibility of inter-linking the carbon market segments in times to come, we see a complex picture of the existing carbon markets turning into a future supermarket. India is a leading country in terms of registered clean development mechanism (CDM) projects in the afforestation and reforestation (AR) sector. We explore the potential of India becoming a leading party in forest-based carbon supermarkets. We triangulated existing literature, on-ground observations from two registered AR-CDM projects being implemented in Kashi and Mahoba forest divisions in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and expert interviews. We list the constraints and gaps in India’s readiness to identify and embrace the opportunity of being a top player in the upcoming climate change supermarket in the context of forest restoration. Full article
Proceedings
Simple Height and Volume Equations for on-the-Fly Estimation of Productivity in Hybrid Poplar (Populus × euroamericana) Plantations in the Duero Basin (Northwestern Spain)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08073 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Hybrid poplar plantations are becoming increasingly important as a source of income for farmers in the Duero Basin (northwestern Spain), as rural depopulations and aging prevent farmers from planting other labor-intensive crops. However, forest owners, usually elderly and without formal forestry backgrounds, lack [...] Read more.
Hybrid poplar plantations are becoming increasingly important as a source of income for farmers in the Duero Basin (northwestern Spain), as rural depopulations and aging prevent farmers from planting other labor-intensive crops. However, forest owners, usually elderly and without formal forestry backgrounds, lack simple tools to estimate the size and volume of their plantations by themselves. Therefore, farmers are usually forced to rely on the estimates made by the timber companies that are buying their trees. With the objective of providing a simple but empowering tool for these forest owners, simple equations based only on the diameter to estimate individual tree height and volume were developed for the region. To do so, growth in height, diameter, and volume were measured for 10 years (2009–2019) in 404 trees planted in three poplar plantations in Leon province (northern Spain). An average growth per tree of 1.66 cm year−1 in diameter, 1.52 m year−1 in height, and 0.03 m3 year−1 in volume was estimated, which translated into annual volume growth of 13.02 m3 ha−1 year−1. However, annual volume growth was different among plots due to their fertility, with two plots reaching maximum growth around 13 years of tree age and another at 15 years, encompassing the typical productivity range in plantations in this region. Such data allowed developing simple lineal, polynomic, and power equations to estimate height and volume explaining 76% to 97% of the observed variability. Such equations can be easily implemented in any cellphone with a calculator, allowing forest owners to accurately estimate their timber existences by using only a regular measuring tape to measure tree diameter. Full article
Proceedings
Amazonian Fire Events Disturbed the Global Carbon Cycle: A Study from 2019 Amazon Wildfire Using Google Earth Engine
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08033 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
An unprecedented number of wildfire events during 2019 throughout the Brazilian Amazon caught global attention, due to their massive extent and the associated loss in the Amazonian forest—an ecosystem on which the whole world depends. Such devastating wildfires in the Amazon has strongly [...] Read more.
An unprecedented number of wildfire events during 2019 throughout the Brazilian Amazon caught global attention, due to their massive extent and the associated loss in the Amazonian forest—an ecosystem on which the whole world depends. Such devastating wildfires in the Amazon has strongly hampered the global carbon cycle and significantly reduced forest productivity. In this study, we have quantified such loss of forest productivity in terms of gross primary productivity (GPP), applying a comparative approach using Google Earth Engine. A total of 12 wildfire spots have been identified based on the fire’s extension over the Brazilian Amazon, and we quantified the loss in productivity between 2018 and 2019. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP and MODIS burned area satellite imageries, with a revisit time of 8 days and 30 days, respectively, have been used for this study. We have observed that compared to 2018, the number of wildfire events increased during 2019. But such wildfire events did not hamper the natural annual trend of GPP of the Amazonian ecosystem. However, a significant drop in forest productivity in terms of GPP has been observed. Among all 11 observational sites were recorded with GPP loss, ranging from −18.88 gC m−2 yr−1 to −120.11 gC m−2 yr−1, except site number 3. Such drastic loss in GPP indicates that during 2019 fire events, all of these sites acted as carbon sources rather than carbon sink sites, which may hamper the global carbon cycle and terrestrial CO2 fluxes. Therefore, it is assumed that these findings will also fit for the other Amazonian wildfire sites, as well as for the tropical forest ecosystem as a whole. We hope this study will provide a significant contribution to global carbon cycle research, terrestrial ecosystem studies, sustainable forest management, and climate change in contemporary environmental sciences. Full article
Proceedings
Early Detection of Decline in Tree Health. Could the Pace of Stem Water Be an Effective Indicator?
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08112 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 119
Abstract
The health and vitality assessment of each single tree is one of the most important actions for an optimal urban forest management program. The development of new technology able to continuously monitor the tree vitality and underlying trends, could help reduce the frequency [...] Read more.
The health and vitality assessment of each single tree is one of the most important actions for an optimal urban forest management program. The development of new technology able to continuously monitor the tree vitality and underlying trends, could help reduce the frequency of the monitoring assessment and help overcome problems related to the rapid decline in tree health. Our aim was to test the suitability of point dendrometers in evaluating the tree vitality trend through high resolution stem cycle analyses. To achieve this objective, we installed point dendrometers on twelve Pinus radiata each currently in one of three defined vitality classes (alive, compromised, and dead) growing in an urban area. The stem cycle analysis approach was used to synchronize dendrometer signals with the stem water status and temperature. Our results showed that both, the trend of stem growth (GRO) and the time lag between the occurrence of the minimum temperature and the onset of the stem shrinkage, are all promising indicators of tree vitality in Pinus radiata. These parameters could be integrated in network systems able to send “early alerts” to experts. It could allow them to keep multiple trees under continuous monitor and control simultaneously, and reduce costs due to the reduced monitoring visits. Full article
Proceedings
Physico-Chemical Characterization of Soil in a Tropical Landscape Restored by a Vegetal Succession
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08071 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
The objective was to evaluate the physicochemical composition of soils and their relationship with successional vegetation. The study was conducted in the area of influence of fluvial volcanic muds in the central region of Colombia. The physical variables of texture, porosity, humidity, color, [...] Read more.
The objective was to evaluate the physicochemical composition of soils and their relationship with successional vegetation. The study was conducted in the area of influence of fluvial volcanic muds in the central region of Colombia. The physical variables of texture, porosity, humidity, color, apparent density, real density; and chemical variables of pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, major elements, minor elements, Al saturation, base saturation, Ca/Mg relation, (Ca+Mg)/K relation, and Mg/K relation were analyzed. A multivariate analysis between variables and descriptive of the soil–vegetation relationship was carried out. Physically, there was a negative correlation between apparent density with %porosity and real density with humidity content. The texture was classified as sandy loam and the structure as granular-crumbly type. Chemically, there was a negative correlation between pH, Mg/K relation, (Ca+Mg)/K relation, and Al saturation; a positive correlation between P, Mn, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mg, and base saturation. Furthermore, Na and K did not show any interaction relationship. The predominant plant species are distributed in the families Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Cyperaceae, and Poaceae. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil present conditions that allow the establishment and continuation of successional vegetation with a dominance of tree and shrub growth habit. Full article
Proceedings
Modelling of Elevated Temperature Performance of Adhesives Used in Cross Laminated Timber: An Application of ANSYS Mechanical 2020 R1 Structural Analysis Software
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07902 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 200
Abstract
There is difficulty in accurately modelling adhesive influence in structural performance of cross laminated timber (CLT), due to a lack of available knowledge on the heat performance of adhesives. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to evaluate the thermal and mechanical [...] Read more.
There is difficulty in accurately modelling adhesive influence in structural performance of cross laminated timber (CLT), due to a lack of available knowledge on the heat performance of adhesives. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to evaluate the thermal and mechanical properties of adhesives used in production of engineered wood products like CLT. The properties of the timber species and the adhesive types used in the simulation were derived from published literature and handbooks. ANSYS mechanical 2020 R1 was employed because it has a provision for inserting the thermal condition and the temperature of the system set to the required one for analysis. The simulations were conducted for temperatures 20, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 260 °C, within which Zelinka et al. conducted their experiments, which have been the basis for the current study. The main findings were, the adhesive layer had little influence on the thermal properties of CLT composite (solid wood had the same thermal properties as CLT), but had a significant effect on the structural properties of CLT composite, the stresses and strains of the simulated wood species reduced with increase in temperature, the adhesives strengths at room temperature were greater than for solid wood at the same temperature and finally, the stresses and strains of the simulated wood adhesives reduced with increase in temperature. It is also important to note that computations for temperature distribution from the char layer were lower than computed using heat transfer equation, and the simulated values from steady state model. All in all, the objectives of this research were met and more research in thermal structural modelling using ANSYS should be conducted in the future. Full article
Proceedings
Empowering Women on Bamboo Utilization and Conservation in the Lake Toba Catchment Area of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08026 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 120
Abstract
Indonesia is blessed with the wonderful and beautiful Lake Toba catchment area where diverse bamboo species grow and provide socio economic benefits to the Bataknese community indigenous to the region. The bamboo resource, however, hasn’t been sustainably managed due mainly to over-cutting while [...] Read more.
Indonesia is blessed with the wonderful and beautiful Lake Toba catchment area where diverse bamboo species grow and provide socio economic benefits to the Bataknese community indigenous to the region. The bamboo resource, however, hasn’t been sustainably managed due mainly to over-cutting while cultivation has been insignificant. This study aims to investigate the relevant interventions for achieving sustainable bamboo resource in this region. Data were derived from questionnaire surveys of 154 women and in-depth interviews with 65 respondents in Simalungun and Karo districts. In order to identify the cause of problem and strategies for sustainable management, a problem tree analysis was conducted. Findings of the study show that strengthening institutional framework, utilizing efficiently, enhancing initiatives on bamboo conservation and development, and promoting local stakeholders are identified as strategies for sustainable management. The basic notions are that achieving sustainable management is feasible only with stakeholders’ support, and local communities must be provided with decent incomes by efficient utilization. Furthermore, bamboo management must be supported by promoting gender equality and empower women related to their control over bamboo plantation and harvesting, market access and other decision-making opportunities on income and expenditure. The study recognizes that there is a strong relationship between decision making authority and women empowerment. Full article
Proceedings
Spatial-Temporal Analysis of the Forest Fragments Surrounding a Conservation Unit in the Southern Region of Brazil
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07876 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
In recent years, anthropogenic actions have intensified forest fragmentation, causing several damages to the landscape’s natural components, propagating the loss of biodiversity. This study aims to present an analysis of the forest fragments in a conservation unit located at southern of Brazil. The [...] Read more.
In recent years, anthropogenic actions have intensified forest fragmentation, causing several damages to the landscape’s natural components, propagating the loss of biodiversity. This study aims to present an analysis of the forest fragments in a conservation unit located at southern of Brazil. The evaluation was carried out for the years 1998, 2008, and 2018, by using landscape metrics and classification of remote sensing imagery of the Landsat satellite. The following metrics were analyzed: area and edge, shape, core area, and aggregation. The results indicated an increase of 16.88% in the total area of vegetation, and the percentage of fragments increased from 16.16% to 18.89%. The number of fragments decreased, resulting in an increase of the mean area in 5.4 ha. The percentage of vegetation under border effect changed from 40.2% to 37.1%. In 1998, the average nearest neighbor distance was 155.4 m, and in 2018, 149.7 m. However, this distance is still classified as a high degree of isolation, which hinders the movement of organisms and the dispersion of species. Thus, all the analyzed metrics indicated a decrease in the fragmentation, except for the edge density metric, in which its increase of 1.86 pointed to a lower degree of conservation during the analyzed period. A study of this nature is important as it provides subsidies for future researches and can contribute to action strategies to be adopted in the management plan of the area. Full article
Proceedings
Effect of Competition and Climatic Conditions on the Growth of Beech in the Mixed Pine Beech Stand: Lithuanian Case Study
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07961 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 92
Abstract
Climate change and warming will potentially have profound effects on forest growth and yield, especially for pure stands in the near future. Thus, increased attention has been paid to mixed stands, e.g., pine and beech mixtures. However, the interaction of tree species growing [...] Read more.
Climate change and warming will potentially have profound effects on forest growth and yield, especially for pure stands in the near future. Thus, increased attention has been paid to mixed stands, e.g., pine and beech mixtures. However, the interaction of tree species growing in mixtures still remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the interspecific and intraspecific competition to diameter, height, and crown width of pine and beech trees growing in mixtures, as well as to evaluate the impact of climatic indicators to the beech radial diameter increment. The data was collected in 2017 at the mixed mature pine beech double layer stand, located in the western part of Lithuania. The sample plot of 1.2 hectare was established and tree species, diameter at the breast height, tree height, height-to-crown base, height-to-crown width, and position were measured for all 836 trees. Additionally, a representative sample of radial diameter increments were estimated only for the beech trees by taking out core discs at the height of 1 m when the stand was partially cut. Competition analysis was based on the distance-dependent competition index, which was further based on crown parameters. Climatic effect was evaluated using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. We found almost no interspecific competition effect to diameter, height, or crown width for both tree species growing in the first layer. However, it had an effect on beeches growing in the second layer. The intraspecific competition effect was important for pine and beech trees, showing a negative effect for both of them. Our results show the possible coexistence of these tree species due to niche differentiation. An analysis of climatic indicators from 1991–2005 revealed that precipitation from February–May of the current vegetation year and mean temperatures from July to September expressed radial diameter increment effects for beech trees. Low temperatures during March and April, as well as high precipitation during January, had a negative effect on beech radial increments. From 2006–2016, the highest effect on radial diameter increments was the mean temperatures from July to September, as well as the precipitation in January of the current year. From 1991–2016, the highest effect on radial diameter increments was the temperature from July to September 1991–2016 and the precipitation in June 1991–2016. Generally, cool temperatures and higher precipitation in June had a positive effect on beech radial increments. Therefore, our results show a sensitivity to high temperatures and droughts during summer amid Lithuanian’s growth conditions. Full article
Proceedings
Prediction of Tree Age Distribution Based on Survival Analysis in Natural Forests: A Case Study of Preserved Permanent Plots in the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest, Northern Japan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08077 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
In forests, tree mortality is strongly determined by complex interactions between multiple biotic and abiotic factors, and the analysis of tree mortality is widely implemented in forest management. However, age-based tree mortality remains poorly evaluated quantitatively at the stand scale for unevenly aged [...] Read more.
In forests, tree mortality is strongly determined by complex interactions between multiple biotic and abiotic factors, and the analysis of tree mortality is widely implemented in forest management. However, age-based tree mortality remains poorly evaluated quantitatively at the stand scale for unevenly aged forests. The objective of this study was to predict the age distributions of living and dead trees based on survival analyses. We used a combination of tree-ring and census data from the two preserved permanent plots in the University of Tokyo Hokkaido Forest in pan-mixed and sub-boreal natural forests, Hokkaido, northern Japan, to derive site-specific survival models. All the living trees (diameter at breast height, ≥5 cm in 2009) were targeted to identify the tree ages using a RESISTOGRAPH, a semi-nondestructive device. Periodical tree age data with a 10-year age class were used during the observation periods of 2009–2019, and all the changes (i.e., death and new ingrowth) during the periods were recorded. We determined the time stabilities of the survival functions between periods in advance. The results show that the parametric survival analysis with the Weibull distribution successfully yielded the mortality rate, mortality probability, and survival probability in each plot. Finally, we predicted the future age class distributions of living and dead trees of each plot based on the survival analysis results and discussed their management implications. We recommend that the estimated mean lifetimes facilitate making decisions on the selection of harvesting trees in uneven forest management based on selective cutting. Full article
Proceedings
Sustainable Forest Management in Radiata Pine Plantations: A Case Study in Sardinia (Italy)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07958 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 110
Abstract
The study deals with the sustainability of management in radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) plantations of an area of Sardinia (Italy). Focusing on management strategies that foster a continuous forest cover and processes of natural regeneration, the aim was to evaluate [...] Read more.
The study deals with the sustainability of management in radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) plantations of an area of Sardinia (Italy). Focusing on management strategies that foster a continuous forest cover and processes of natural regeneration, the aim was to evaluate the benefits arising from different types of plantation management, balancing social, cultural, environmental and economic aspects. Systematic and selective thinning, as well as regeneration cutting, were carried out in test areas of 45-year-old plantations, and outcomes were compared by considering current forest dynamism, natural regeneration and technical and economic aspects. From an economic perspective, silvicultural management strategies were always positive, with differences depending on the type of intervention. The regeneration cutting, with the expected natural regeneration of radiata pine in the following years, ensures the best economic outcomes, allows for a continuous forest cover and favors the replacement of even-aged plantations, boosting biodiversity in forest stands (structure, species). Climate change, increasing pests and wildfires represent the biggest threats to the sustainability of plantations in Mediterranean areas, and sensitivity is higher in even-aged, homogeneous, monospecific tree stands. In the context of the study, turning forest plantations into more resilient and stable ecosystems can be effectively achieved by means of continuous-cover forest management strategies. Full article
Proceedings
Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Species in Amity University Campus Noida
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08075 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 388
Abstract
Urban green spaces, particularly trees, have great potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere and mitigate the impacts of climate change in cities. Large university campuses offer prominent space where such green spaces can be developed in order to offset the increasing greenhouse [...] Read more.
Urban green spaces, particularly trees, have great potential to sequester carbon from the atmosphere and mitigate the impacts of climate change in cities. Large university campuses offer prominent space where such green spaces can be developed in order to offset the increasing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as other benefits. Amity University, Noida, is spread over 60 acres with dense tree plantations in and around the campus. The present study is a sustainability initiative to inventory the tree species on the campus and assess their total carbon sequestration potential (CSP). The above- and below-ground biomasses were estimated using the non-destructive sampling method. Individual trees on the campus were measured for their height and diameter at breast height (DBH), and estimates of carbon storage were performed using allometric equations. There is a total of 45 different tree species on the campus with the total CSP equivalent to approximately 139.86 tons. The results also reveal that Ficus benjamina was the predominant species on the campus with CSP equivalent to 30.53 tons, followed by Alstonia scholaris with carbon storage of 16.38 tons. The study reports that the ratio of native to exotic species is 22:23 or almost 1:1. The present work highlights the role of urban forests or urban green spaces, not only as ornamental and aesthetic plantations but also in mitigating the impacts of climate change at a local level. Higher education institutes have an important role in expanding their green cover so as to act as local carbon sinks. Full article
Proceedings
Eucalypt Clonal Hybrid Influences the Carbon Amount of Below-Ground Biomass in Oxisol, Brazil
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07868 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 97
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there is an influence of different clonal hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla on the carbon concentration and amount in below-ground biomass in trees cultivated in Oxisol, Brazil. Stumps and roots of three different eucalypt hybrid [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there is an influence of different clonal hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla on the carbon concentration and amount in below-ground biomass in trees cultivated in Oxisol, Brazil. Stumps and roots of three different eucalypt hybrid clones, AEC 0144, AEC 0223, and VM01, were selected, weighed immediately after being removed from the ground, and sampled for carbon determination and moisture content at the laboratory. The Shapiro-Wilk and Bartlett tests were used to evaluate data distribution and the homogeneity of variances, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Scott-Knott test was used to evaluate the effects of specie/hybrid on the below-ground biomass (dry matter) and carbon amount per stump. The hybrid type of Eucalyptus urophylla does not influence the carbon concentration; however, there is a difference in below-ground biomass production and carbon amount with it being higher for Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus camaldulensis when compared to the species Eucalyptus urophylla and hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis. Full article
Proceedings
Effects of Microwave Drying on Moisture Content Depending on Wood Chip Size Distribution
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07765 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Pine, birch, and cotoneaster wood chips were segregated and exposed to microwave radiation. Moisture content was measured before and after microwave treatment, and the surface temperature of wood chip samples was recorded. The results showed that due to the selective nature of the [...] Read more.
Pine, birch, and cotoneaster wood chips were segregated and exposed to microwave radiation. Moisture content was measured before and after microwave treatment, and the surface temperature of wood chip samples was recorded. The results showed that due to the selective nature of the process, the duration of microwave radiation should be adjusted taking into account the size fraction of the examined material. Wood chips exposed to microwaves for more than 30 s heated up to over 100 °C. Finer wood chips were found to lose moisture more slowly. Full article
Proceedings
Training and Equipping Chainsaw Operators and Occupational Safety in Polish Forests
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08057 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Despite the introduction of an increasing number of multi-purpose machines, timber harvesting is still conducted in Polish forests mainly at the manual-machine level. The basic tool used in the process of felling, delimbing, and bucking is the petrol chainsaw. In order to ensure [...] Read more.
Despite the introduction of an increasing number of multi-purpose machines, timber harvesting is still conducted in Polish forests mainly at the manual-machine level. The basic tool used in the process of felling, delimbing, and bucking is the petrol chainsaw. In order to ensure safety at work, chainsaw operators are required to have adequate knowledge of the saw’s operation, how to work with it, as well as on the use of appropriate auxiliary equipment and personal protective measures. Polish regulations require that a logger starting work must complete appropriate training and obtain a license to harvest trees. The aim of this study was the assessment of trainings provided for chainsaw operators and identification of the potential hazards by logging operations. In order to assess the state of training of chainsaw operators and their occupational safety during logging, a survey was conducted. The survey covered 15 forest districts. Questionnaires were delivered to 354 chainsaw operators, of whom 209 completed and returned the forms. Most operators of chainsaws receive the necessary information on safety work by logging operation. However, a significant group of operators does not use personal protective equipment, which could be a potential cause of accidents. Full article
Proceedings
Management of Chipping Operations in Polish Forests
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08056 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
The aim of the research was to verify the impact of selected parameters on the efficiency and organization of chipper operations. The paper analyzes chipping operations in Polish forests with a focus on work site location, overnight chipper location, chipper workload per site, [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to verify the impact of selected parameters on the efficiency and organization of chipper operations. The paper analyzes chipping operations in Polish forests with a focus on work site location, overnight chipper location, chipper workload per site, fuel consumption, and work shift duration, as all of these factors may affect operating efficiency. The mean chipper travel distance between sites during a shift ranged from 4.74 km to 9.5 km (chippers moved on average every other day). The mean work shift duration was 12.4 h. At the end of a shift, the chippers traveled on average from 4.2 km to 6.3 km to an overnight location. At the beginning of a workday, the chippers were dispatched to sites at a distance of 2.5 km to 4.0 km. The average fuel consumption of the forwarder-mounted chippers was 16 L/h and that of the truck-mounted chipper was 7.7 L/h. It was found that the following actions have a decisive influence on the effectiveness of the operation of the chippers: determination of the size of individual tasks and the deployment of successive forest areas, indication of the proper location of the machine base, and the method of accessing the forest area. Full article
Proceedings
Long-Term Sensitivity Analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) through Uncertainty and Error Estimation from Plant Productivity and Biophysical Parameters
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07956 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is the most effective and well-acknowledged drought severity index that particularly determines the long-term drought conditions over the forest and other terrestrial ecosystems. However, the sensitivity of PDSI has not been explored yet based on productivity (i.e., Gross [...] Read more.
Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is the most effective and well-acknowledged drought severity index that particularly determines the long-term drought conditions over the forest and other terrestrial ecosystems. However, the sensitivity of PDSI has not been explored yet based on productivity (i.e., Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)), biophysical parameters (i.e., biomass—Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and greenness content—Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)), and absorbed solar radiation by plants (i.e., fraction of Absorbed Solar Radiation (fAPAR)) over a humid-subtropical forest ecosystem. In this study, the sensitivity of the PDSI was analyzed through uncertainty and error estimation modeling from long-term (2015–2019) MODIS GPP and reflectance data using Google Earth Engine (GEE) over a humid-subtropical forest region of Arunachal Pradesh, India. It was experimentally observed that EVI was the most sensitive parameter to the PDSI in long-run observation based on a low uncertainty (2.39–3.01%) and error (0.07–0.12) compared to the other parameters. Besides, EVI had a strong agreement with PDSI compared to GPP, NDVI, LAI, and fAPAR, where the Pearson’s r ranged from −0.87 to −0.63, except 2015. Hence, it is stated that EVI is the simple, effective, and most complementary indicator for assessing the PDSI over the forest regions of a tropical ecosystem. This study showed that EVI might be a promising tool for effectively evaluating long-term drought impacts on the forest ecosystem that indicates the actual water deficit-induced stress conditions. Full article
Proceedings
Disturbances to the Ground and to the Stand in Beech Forests Due to Thinning Treatments Performed by Different Levels of Mechanization
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08090 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 119
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the possible impacts on the forest soil and stand due to silvicultural treatment and forest operations in a beech high forest. Even aged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the Municipality of Cappadocia (L’Aquila) [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to assess the possible impacts on the forest soil and stand due to silvicultural treatment and forest operations in a beech high forest. Even aged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) in the Municipality of Cappadocia (L’Aquila) and in the Municipality of Vallepietra (Roma) were analyzed. The analysis of the soil and stand were performed in order to assess the effects attributable to applied silviculture and forest logging. Two different logging methodologies (in particular for the extraction) were applied: mules were used in the areas with greater slopes and with obstacles, while for the areas with better accessibility, mechanical means were used, in this case tractors. In detail, the main objective was to assess the disturbance on the ground and on the stand, generated by the two different levels of mechanization. In addition, it was also interesting to understand the possible effect on the soil and specifically on the partial uncovering where part of the tree canopy was removed. Only through an accurate cross-analysis of the studied parameters and indices could the anthropogenic impacts on the soil and stand due to forest operations be highlighted according to the different logging methodologies applied. The main results showed that the disturbances caused to the soil and stand were essentially caused in the bunching and extraction operations. The importance of avoiding or limiting the continuous passage of vehicles and animals on forest soil clearly emerges, especially in conditions of high soil moisture. It is also important to use correct technologies that are adequate for the specific environmental characteristics and the work plan. Finally, it can be said that there was no difference in the disturbance caused by the two logging methods when compared. Substantial differences in terms of improvement can be defined when comparing the findings of this study with other research studies. This can be done by applying a different type of mechanization with a different logging system. Full article
Proceedings
Comparing Accuracy of Three Remote Sensing Methods to Evaluate Soil Impact Related to Forest Operations
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07954 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 92
Abstract
Monitoring soil impacts related to forest operations is crucial to reach the sustainable forest management goal. On the other hand, field survey to assess such kind of impact is usually costly and time consuming. Therefore, the possibility of using remote and proximal sensing [...] Read more.
Monitoring soil impacts related to forest operations is crucial to reach the sustainable forest management goal. On the other hand, field survey to assess such kind of impact is usually costly and time consuming. Therefore, the possibility of using remote and proximal sensing technologies to analyze forest soil impacts could be very helpful for forest managers. According to this, the aim of the present work was the evaluation of reliability of three different remote sensing tools for the assessment of soil impacts related to forest operations. The study area consisted in an oak coppice located in the Municipality of Castel Giorgio (Terni District, Central Italy). The different tested technologies were Sentinel-2, Google Earth and an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with an RGB sensor. After forest utilization, images of the study area were obtained by the above-mentioned systems, and a photo-interpretation process allowed the identification of skid trails patterns produced by the operators during the extraction of timber. The three theoretical skid trails patterns were compared with the real one, obtained by field relief with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology. The obtained results showed that all these systems still need some improvements for an effective application in the Italian forest sector, concerning soil impacts evaluation after forest operations. Full article
Proceedings
Single Tree Stability Assessment in Beech High Forest and Factors that Could Induce Windbreak
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07953 - 01 Jan 1970
Viewed by 65
Abstract
Wind in Europe is the main disturbing factor and the greatest damaging agent of forest stands, causing three times the annual damage caused by fires each year. The amount of trees destroyed by wind annually in Europe is over 38 million cubic meters. [...] Read more.
Wind in Europe is the main disturbing factor and the greatest damaging agent of forest stands, causing three times the annual damage caused by fires each year. The amount of trees destroyed by wind annually in Europe is over 38 million cubic meters. Given the importance and extent of the phenomenon of wind crashes, this has been one of the main topics on which forestry scientists have focused over time, so much so that already in the mid-1990s of the last century there were more than 200 scientific papers on this topic. However, most of these studies focused on the prediction of possible wind damage, paying attention to the population level and not to a single tree; moreover, almost all of the studies were carried out on conifers. Studies concerning the single tree have been carried out above all in urban forestry, where the trees live in unfavorable contexts and are very distant from what could be their optimal living conditions found in forests. The aim of this research was to search for possible correlations between the tree conformation and the crashes caused by windy events. This was in order to assess the characteristics predisposing trees to crash, in such a way as to provide the forest engineer with useful information in choosing the trees to take priority in order to reduce the damage caused by windy events. In conjunction with the “Vaia windstorm”, which affected much of Northern Italy, another meteoric event also occurred which caused the crash of numerous individuals inside the beech forest located on the summit of Monte Amiata, in Tuscany. On this occasion, an attempt was made to investigate the possible existence of single-tree scale indicators relating to a greater susceptibility to crash, in beech forests of the same age treated to shelterwood system, under the same phytosanitary, edaphic and topographical conditions. The research methodology applied is the same as in other studies carried out on the subject, in such a way as to allow comparison between the results obtained. Various parameters were analyzed, in particular: maximum height, crown insertion height, castle height, height corresponding to the maximum crown width, crown volume and surface. The findings showed that the main variables that had a significant influence on wind crashes were: tree height, crown surface and volume. In particular, the standing trees were taller than those crashed and with a larger crown. Full article
Proceedings
Analysis of Operational Efficiencies and Costs for Extracting Thinned Woods in Small-Scale Forestry, Nasunogahara Area, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07861 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 88
Abstract
In this study, two operational methodologies to extract thinned woods were investigated in the Nasunogahara area, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Methodology one included manual extraction and light truck transportation. Methodology two included mini-forwarder forwarding and four-ton truck transportation. Furthermore, a newly introduced chipper was [...] Read more.
In this study, two operational methodologies to extract thinned woods were investigated in the Nasunogahara area, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Methodology one included manual extraction and light truck transportation. Methodology two included mini-forwarder forwarding and four-ton truck transportation. Furthermore, a newly introduced chipper was investigated. As a result, costs of manual extractions within 10 m and 20 m were JPY942/m3 and JPY1040/m3, respectively. On the other hand, the forwarding cost of the mini-forwarder was JPY499/m3, which was significantly lower than the cost of manual extractions. Transportation costs with light trucks and four-ton trucks were JPY7224/m3 and JPY1298/m3, respectively, with 28 km transportation distances. Chipping operation costs were JPY1036/m3 and JPY1160/m3 with three and two persons, respectively. Finally, the total costs of methodologies one and two from extraction within 20 m to chipping were estimated as JPY9300/m3 and JPY2833/m3, respectively, with 28 km transportation distances and three-person chipping operations (EUR1 = JPY126, as of 12 August 2020). Full article
Proceedings
Integrated Use of AHP and GIS Techniques for Generating Forest Fire Risk Map in Karacabey Flooded Forest
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08061 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Flooded forests are very important ecosystems that are rich in terms of their diverse flora and fauna. However, they are mostly degraded in many parts of the world, and the remaining fragmented areas are in a critical condition. Forest fires are one of [...] Read more.
Flooded forests are very important ecosystems that are rich in terms of their diverse flora and fauna. However, they are mostly degraded in many parts of the world, and the remaining fragmented areas are in a critical condition. Forest fires are one of the major environmental disasters that cause serious damage to forest ecosystems, and negatively affect the sustainability of forest resources. In order to minimize the potential effects of fires on forest ecosystems, forest fire risk maps should be generated, and thereby the necessary precautionary measures can be taken in these areas, according to fire risk levels. Geographical information system (GIS) techniques, integrated with multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, can be effectively used to develop risk maps for natural hazards, such as forest fires, winter storms, floods, etc. In this study, GIS techniques integrated with an AHP (analytic hierarchy process) method were used to generate a forest fire risk map. The study was implemented in the Karacabey flooded forest, located in the city of Bursa in Turkey. In the solution process, the forest fire risk was evaluated considering two major risk factors, including stand structures (tree species, crown closure, and tree stage) and topographic factors (slope and aspect). The vegetation factor under climate control was considered, instead of directly using data of climatic elements such as temperature and humidity. The results indicated that 25.28% of the forest area was of high fire risk, while 53.17% and 21.55% was of medium and low fire risk, respectively. It was found that the most effective criterion was tree species, followed by tree stage. This aspect had the least effective criterion on forest fire risk. It was revealed that GIS techniques integrated with MCDA methods can be used effectively to estimate forest fire risk zones. Full article
Proceedings
Connecting Indigenous and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in the Madidi National Park, Bolivia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07963 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Across the Amazon basin, indigenous communities harbor a deep understanding of their surrounding ecosystems. However, the extent to which humans depend on ecosystem services across different ethnic groups and spatial scales remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to understand the [...] Read more.
Across the Amazon basin, indigenous communities harbor a deep understanding of their surrounding ecosystems. However, the extent to which humans depend on ecosystem services across different ethnic groups and spatial scales remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of ecological processes in determining the human use of plants in the context of the Tacana people in Madidi National Park (Bolivia). Two different hypothesis are tested: (1) the availability of the species shapes their final use and (2) plant biodiversity influences how the forest is used. The data were compiled in a total of 44 plots (0.1 ha), measuring all woody plants with dbh ≥ 2.5 cm, within five different regions (both submontane and lowland tierra-firme forests). Results showed that (1) the species apparency plays a significant role in the selection of plants for its use and (2) the maximal use of a forest depends on intermediate levels of plant diversity. This study highlights the human capacity to adapt to specific environmental conditions based on the availability and/or biodiversity of the plant resources. Therefore, the integration of indigenous perception in conservation strategies is crucial as the ecology of the Amazonian forests is shaped by the long-lasting effects of its ancient and modern inhabitants. Full article
Proceedings
Broad-Leaved and Coniferous Forest Classification in Google Earth Engine Using Sentinel Imagery
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07888 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 112
Abstract
Forest structures knowledge is fundamental to understanding, managing, and preserving the biodiversity of forests. With the well-established need within the remote sensing community for better understanding of canopy structure, in this paper, the effectiveness of Sentinel-2 imagery for broad-leaved and coniferous forest classification [...] Read more.
Forest structures knowledge is fundamental to understanding, managing, and preserving the biodiversity of forests. With the well-established need within the remote sensing community for better understanding of canopy structure, in this paper, the effectiveness of Sentinel-2 imagery for broad-leaved and coniferous forest classification within the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform has been assessed. Here, we used Sentinel-2 image collection from the summer period over North Macedonia, when the canopy is fully developed. For the sample collection of the coniferous areas and the accuracy assessment of the classification, we used imagery from the spring period, when the broad-leaved forests are in the early green stage. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier has been used for discriminating forest cover groups, namely, broadleaved and coniferous forests. According to the results, more than 90% of the canopy in North Macedonia is broad-leaved, while less than 10% is conifers. The results in this study show that, with the use of GEE, Sentinel-2 data alone can be effectively used to obtain rapid and accurate mapping of main forest types (conifers-broadleaved) with a fine resolution. Full article
Proceedings
Linking Visual and Stress Wave Grading of Beech Wood from the Log to the Sawmill Product
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08450 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 154
Abstract
The quality potential and possibilities of using beech logs and sawn wood was investigated. Twenty-seven beech logs, with a mean diameter of 48 cm, were cut from 10 trees from a Hacquetio epipactidis-Fagetum site in SE Slovenia. The trees were pre-selected according to [...] Read more.
The quality potential and possibilities of using beech logs and sawn wood was investigated. Twenty-seven beech logs, with a mean diameter of 48 cm, were cut from 10 trees from a Hacquetio epipactidis-Fagetum site in SE Slovenia. The trees were pre-selected according to the national 5-level quality scale for forest stand evaluation, using two trees per class. Beech logs were classified according to the EN 1316-1 and sawn afterwards into unedged boards of 35 mm nominal thickness. Altogether, 250 boards were visually graded according to the rules of the European Organisation of the Sawmill Industry (EOS). Longitudinal vibration of logs and boards with the determination of stress wave velocity by MTG timber grader was additionally included into the quality assessment. In the case of logs, we confirmed significance of the relationship between visually assessed log quality and stress wave velocity. The stress wave velocity in logs was also related to the stress wave velocity in boards, where it varied considerably, especially for low-graded material. In the case of sawn wood, the relationship between sawn wood grade and stress wave velocity was insignificant. The research confirmed the possibility of presorting of logs, visually or non-destructively, for better classification and utilization of sawn timber. Full article
Abstract
Bark Characteristics of Scots Pine Logs
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08020 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 113
Abstract
The wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shows good properties as building and construction timber but also as furniture or pulp and paper, and thus, is one of the most commercially important European tree species. Scots pine are mostly harvested and [...] Read more.
The wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shows good properties as building and construction timber but also as furniture or pulp and paper, and thus, is one of the most commercially important European tree species. Scots pine are mostly harvested and processed with a high degree of mechanization. In Northeast Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Berlin), 36% of harvested Scots pine have a diameter at breast height (DBH) between 7 and 19.9 cm. As a typical industrial wood assortment, a large proportion of the resulting small-sized logs are used in the wood industry to produce boards. Although bark is considered a by-product or waste product of the industry, no actual study has quantified the bark thickness, bark volume, bark mass and bark damage of such Scots pine logs. Therefore, the bark characteristics from 50 logs from 10 different piles were analyzed. Bark volume was quantified using the water displacement method, bark mass by weighing, bark thickness with a precision caliper and bark damage by tape measurements. The diameters of the analyzed 150 log discs were normally distributed and the mean value was 12.9 cm. The results showed average bark damages from 12.0%, which were mostly caused during the felling and processing of logs with the harvester. No significant correlation was found between double bark thickness (mean: 3.0 mm) and the diameter; whereas fresh bark volume (mean: 5.6%) and dry bark mass (mean: 3.3%) were significantly affected by the diameter. As shown for spruce by other authors, bark characteristics may change over time and therefore, should be measured regularly. Moreover, it was shown that bark parameters are site dependent. Thus, quantifying bark characteristics for economically important tree species at both the local and national scale is of great relevance. More detailed analyzes are described by Berendt et al. (2021) [1]. Full article
Abstract
Establishment and Competition of Native Forest Species in Araucaria angustifolia Stands with Different Coverage Degrees in Misiones, Argentina
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07762 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 89
Abstract
Mixed plantations with native species are a viable tool to meet current wood production [...] Full article
Abstract
Constitutive Chemical Compounds in Different Tissues of Seven Pine Species and Their Relationship with Susceptibility to Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07767 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 83
Abstract
Pine wilt disease was detected in Galicia (North West of Spain) in 2010. Two-year-old seedlings of seven pine species were inoculated with B. xylophilus, and three different groups were stablished: non-susceptible (P. canariensis, P. taeda, P. halepensis, and [...] Read more.
Pine wilt disease was detected in Galicia (North West of Spain) in 2010. Two-year-old seedlings of seven pine species were inoculated with B. xylophilus, and three different groups were stablished: non-susceptible (P. canariensis, P. taeda, P. halepensis, and P. pinea); susceptible (P. pinaster, P. radiata), and highly-susceptible (P. sylvestris). We aimed to determine the interspecific variation of constitutive compounds levels, groups and species, and their relationships with nematode multiplication and mortality. Needles of the non-susceptible group had significantly less water and more nitrogen, potassium, iron, and starch than the others groups; the cortex and phloem of the non-susceptible group had more nitrogen, phosphorus, manganese, and starch, and less potassium, calcium, iron, total polyphenols, condensed tannins and liposoluble substances than the highly susceptible group. The xylem of the non-susceptible group had more N, P, Mg, Mn, total polyphenols, and starch than the other groups. Higher levels of constitutive N and/or starch in any tissue was related with less mortality and nematode multiplication; higher P in the three tissues was also correlated with less nematode multiplication. Moreover, liposoluble substances, soluble carbohydrates and condensed tannin concentration in the needles were negatively correlated with nematode multiplication. On the contrary, in the needles, water content and K were positively correlated with mortality and nematode invasion. Full article
Abstract
Mapping Forest Fire Risk in Mediterranean forests—A Case Study of SUD-Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region (SE, France)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08107 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Forests represent both valuable and vulnerable natural resources because of the various ecosystem services they provide and their sensitivity to climate change and fires. In the Mediterranean region, the depth of transformations in the rural land use, with mass abandonment of traditional activities [...] Read more.
Forests represent both valuable and vulnerable natural resources because of the various ecosystem services they provide and their sensitivity to climate change and fires. In the Mediterranean region, the depth of transformations in the rural land use, with mass abandonment of traditional activities (farming, livestock raising, and forest utilization) and an acceleration of urban sprawl, has affected the impact of fires on the territory and especially on the wildland–urban interface (WUI). The objective of the present study is to generate maps of forest fire risk in the region of SUD-Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (France), integrating natural factors (vegetation type, topography and meteorology conditions, etc.) and human factors related to the closeness to causative elements that can potentially be the ignition point of fires (transport and power infrastructures, settlements and scattered buildings, etc.). GIS spatial analysis was used to combine single influence factors in risk maps to display the total fire risk map. These maps could be especially helpful in land management and emergency planning to minimize the effects of forest fires. Full article
Proceedings
Provisioning Ecosystem Services of Rhododendron-Rich Forests in the Western Himalayas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08070 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Himalayan forests are an important component of the global biodiversity and play a crucial role in maintaining the ecosystem balance. The genera of Rhododendron belongs to the Ericaceae family and are found at an altitudinal range of 1500–3000 m in the Himalayan region. [...] Read more.
Himalayan forests are an important component of the global biodiversity and play a crucial role in maintaining the ecosystem balance. The genera of Rhododendron belongs to the Ericaceae family and are found at an altitudinal range of 1500–3000 m in the Himalayan region. It acts as an important keystone species in the Himalayan ecosystem with high ecological and medicinal value. The present study focuses on highlighting the provisioning ecosystem services offered by the Rhododendron species, which provides a variety of services to the locals and its extraction for commercial utilization provides many livelihood opportunities for the Himalayan native communities. However, due to the high demand for Rhododendron products and services there has been a rampant harvest of the species in the Himalayan region posing a risk to the Rhododendrons which are an important keystone species for maintaining the Himalayan ecosystem. Hence our research lies in the assessment of the provisioning ecosystem services of the Rhododendron species and provides various conservation strategies for its sustainable utilization in the Western Himalayas. Full article
Proceedings
Models to Estimate the Bark Volume for Larix sp. in Poland
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07915 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 89
Abstract
Bark constitutes one of the main residues and by-products of the timber harvest. Therefore, in order to conduct effective forest management, it is essential to estimate the possible amount of that product, which can be obtained during the harvest process. Our objective was [...] Read more.
Bark constitutes one of the main residues and by-products of the timber harvest. Therefore, in order to conduct effective forest management, it is essential to estimate the possible amount of that product, which can be obtained during the harvest process. Our objective was to develop a model to estimate bark volume and bark volume fraction (i.e., its share in the total volume of a tree). For the study, we choose larch (Larix sp.) which is a rare but valuable forest raw material in Poland. The research material was collected in northern (2 sites), central (1 site), and southern (2 sites) in Poland. In total, we obtained data from nearly 600 trees growing on oligo-, meso-, and eutrophic sites. We used the tree’s breast height diameter, height, and total volume as independent variables. Both analyzed bark parameters varied significantly with regard to location, site type, and age class. Bark volume is strongly and significantly dependent on the tree’s breast height diameter, height, and total volume. For bark volume fraction, this correlation is significant but very weak. The best results of bark volume estimation are achieved for the model with total tree volume as an independent variable. Because of the strong effect of location on bark volume estimates, it is recommended to elaborate locally-based models for this parameter determination. Full article
Proceedings
Regeneration of Belowground Properties and Nutrient Pools in Soil after Compaction: Response to the Reforestation with Native Tree Species in the Hyrcanian Forest
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08054 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 117
Abstract
The current study characterizes the regeneration in the floor layer and topsoil at a depth of 0–10 cm in the skid trails, dealing with the reforestation of four tree species (Fraxinus excelsior, FE; Prunus avium, PA; Acer cappadocicum, AC; [...] Read more.
The current study characterizes the regeneration in the floor layer and topsoil at a depth of 0–10 cm in the skid trails, dealing with the reforestation of four tree species (Fraxinus excelsior, FE; Prunus avium, PA; Acer cappadocicum, AC; and Quercus castaneifolia, QC) after clear-cutting in degraded forests, comparing to the undisturbed natural forest (Carpinus betulus-Parrotia persica; CB-PP). Results showed significant differences in litter layer properties among tree species, with the highest litter thickness, C (carbon), and C/N ratio under QC and AC, and the greatest litter N in CB-PP and FE. FE plantation resulted to enhance soil bulk density (1.14 g cm−3), total porosity (55.85%), macroporosity (37.72%), penetration resistance (1.43 MPa), soil moisture (33.4%), and aggregate stability (51.7%), compared to other tree plantations, whereas these values under the FE plantation were still lower than those of the CB-PP stand over a 30-year period after logging operation. Litterfall on soil surface under planted tree species (FE and PA in particular) can be considered as a primary food resource (i.e., soil C and soil organic matter) driving biological and microbial activities. Results of the current study can improve our knowledge to select suitable tree species to maintain soil quality and nutrients pool to deal with ecosystem restoration programs and reforestation in degraded forest areas. Full article
Proceedings
Comparative Morphology of the Leaf Epidermis in Four Species of Meliaceae L. Family
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08032 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Meliaceae is a family of woody species that is very useful for timber and ethnomedicine in Nigeria. However, there is scarce information on their taxonomic description, which is important in realizing their full potentials. Existing floristic studies on members of Meliaceae have revealed [...] Read more.
Meliaceae is a family of woody species that is very useful for timber and ethnomedicine in Nigeria. However, there is scarce information on their taxonomic description, which is important in realizing their full potentials. Existing floristic studies on members of Meliaceae have revealed overlap in key morphological characters like number of lateral nerves, shape, size and number of leaflets. Aside from the floral and fruit characters, the use of leaf epidermal characters has proven to be gene-dependent and as such provides stable and less expensive grouping compared to the molecular methods. This study investigated the leaf epidermal and petiole anatomical significance in four species of Melieceae; Azadiracta indica, Cederella odorata, Khaya sensegalensis and K. grandifoliola for taxa delimitation. The choice of leaf for this study is based on their regular availability unlike the flowers, which are seasonal. Plant materials of the species were collected from University of Ibadan, Forest Research Institute of Nigeria and National Center for Genetic Research and Biotechnology in south western Nigeria based on availability. Leaf samples were examined under the microscope for epidermal and petiole anatomical characteristics. Characters such as epidermal cell shape, epidermal cell wall pattern, trichome type and stomata abundance were differentiated in the four species. Petiole anatomical characteristics for delimiting the taxa include cuticle thickness, presence or absence of crystal, crystal type and vascular bundles arrangement. The analyzed characters produced two major clusters: cluster 1: Khaya senegalensis and Khaya grandifoliola; cluster 2: Azadiracta indica and Cederella odorata. Azadiracta indica and Cederella odorata are more closely related species than Khaya senegalensis and Khaya grandifoliola. The affinity of the studied characters is an evidence of their correlation and supports the relationship existing among the species. These characters support delimitation of the taxa even in fragment condition. Full article
Proceedings
Different Temperature and Humidity Responses to the Clear-Cut and the Gap in a Scots Pine Forest: A Study Case in Central Poland
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07998 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 109
Abstract
In recent decades, relatively few experimental studies have been carried out in which the micrometeorological conditions have been studied over different small clearings plots of the forest. As these conditions can significantly affect many processes in the ecosystem, two questions arise: (1) whether [...] Read more.
In recent decades, relatively few experimental studies have been carried out in which the micrometeorological conditions have been studied over different small clearings plots of the forest. As these conditions can significantly affect many processes in the ecosystem, two questions arise: (1) whether and how the microclimatic conditions differ in the clear-cut and the gap, and (2) how heterogeneous the distribution of these conditions is on these plots. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial variation of air temperature on the clear-cut and gap as well as to compare the distribution of thermal and humidity conditions in both areas. The research was carried out in central Poland on a clear-cut with a width of 60 m and on a gap of an ellipsoid shape (40 × 70 m). The measurements were carried out in two series: spring–summer, during the period when the height of the sun during the day conditioned the inflow of direct solar radiation to any surface (May–August 2006), and autumn, when direct radiation was limited by neighbouring stands (October–November 2006). Average values of air temperature on the gap in the spring–summer period differed in individual parts of 2.2 °C, while on the clear-cut by 1.0 °C. In the autumn, thermal diversity on both research plots was similar (average 0.8 °C). The thermal diversity within the research areas was particularly marked in the case of extreme air temperature values. We found the modest spatial diversification of humidity parameters: vapour pressure, relative humidity, and humidity deficit. The particularly large diversification of relativity humidity and vapour pressure deficit occurred during the spring–summer period in the context of heat waves. The least beneficial thermal and humidity conditions for growing plants occurred in the north-eastern (NE) parts of the clear-cut and gap, which is why it is necessary to take particular note of these locations when undertaking silviculture. Full article
Proceedings
Structural Diversity of Tree Stems of Elephant Camp Natural Forest in Omo Forest Reserve
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08087 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Tree size diversity is an indicator of biodiversity values of a forest. Microsite conditions of a forest determine the survival and growth of trees. However, the contribution of variable habitats to tree size hierarchy and segregation is poorly understood. Tree size variation in [...] Read more.
Tree size diversity is an indicator of biodiversity values of a forest. Microsite conditions of a forest determine the survival and growth of trees. However, the contribution of variable habitats to tree size hierarchy and segregation is poorly understood. Tree size variation in a population is caused by different competition mechanisms. Therefore, the size distribution and spatial pattern of trees can identify the process governing resource utilisation in the forest. The objective of the study was to investigate the tree stem structural diversity in the Elephant Camp natural forest in the Omo Forest Reserve. Three and four 0.09 ha sample plots were established in Riparian (RF) and Old-growth forests (OF) in the Elephant Camp natural forest, respectively. The tree stems (Dbh ≥ 5cm) were identified to the species level and enumerated within each plot, and the stem density was computed. The diameter at breast height (Dbh) was measured with diameter tape. Species diversity was assessed using Shannon–Weiner (H’) and Simpson indices (1-D’), while size inequality was assessed using the Gini coefficient (GC), coefficient of variation (CV), H’ and I-D’. The performance of single two- and three-parameter Weibull models was evaluated using Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K-S) chi-square (χ2), root-mean-square error (RMSE), bias and the coefficient of determination (R2). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 27 and 24 tree species were identified in RF and OF, respectively. The stem density of RF was significantly higher than that of OF. The values of species diversity (H’, 1-D’) and evenness (E’) were higher in OF than in RF, while richness (Margalef and number of species) was higher in RF than in OF. The Dbh was 38.30 ± 21.4 and 42.87 ± 19.2 cm in Riparian and Old-growth forests, respectively. Size-density distributions of both forests were positively skewed and expressed exponential pattern. The forest types of the Elephant Camp natural forest comprise the same size-density frequency shape but a different proportion of tree sizes and structural diversities. Full article
Proceedings
3D-Simulation of Wood Stacks to Analyze the Influence of Log Properties on Stack Volume
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08063 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 137
Abstract
The quantification of the solid wood content in a wood stack has been an object of investigation since the 18th century. Particularly, the log parameters exert a considerable influence on the volume of the stack, such as (1) the log midpoint diameter, (2) [...] Read more.
The quantification of the solid wood content in a wood stack has been an object of investigation since the 18th century. Particularly, the log parameters exert a considerable influence on the volume of the stack, such as (1) the log midpoint diameter, (2) average bark thickness, (3) crookedness, and (4) log taper. Although many of these parameters have already been studied and some are already considered in many countries when measuring wood stacks, their influence has not been analyzed individually so far since a broad statistical database is needed and the data collection is very costly. Consequently, a 3D-simulation model was developed based on a cross-platform game engine. This model generates virtual wood stacks based on a data set of logs which are defined by the user. The simulation of a stack can be done in a few seconds only and each stack generated can be visualized once all iterations are done. The simulation results are the stacked cubic volume, solid wood cubic volume, and the respective conversion factors. The model, fed with both real data and user-defined data, allows for a detailed analysis of the effect of each parameter on the results, as the user can vary their values discretionary. To obtain the first results from real data, 1000 logs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were measured. The first simulations based on these data show reliable results and it is possible to quantify the influence of the proportion of crooked wood in a pile on the stack volume and the conversion factor. In addition, the results are highly in line with the real trials that have already been performed in parallel. A further scientific evaluation and statistical analysis will be done in a second study phase. However, the model already provides a reasonable tool that is easy to apply for the forest and wood industry in order to make the most accurate estimate possible of the solid wood content in a wood pile. Full article
Proceedings
Impact of Air Pollution on Scots Pine Stands Growing in Poland on the Basis of Dendrochronological Analysis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07999 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 119
Abstract
Air pollution and climate change are two key factors comprising the global change threat to forest health and sustainability. The intensive development of industry in the second half of the 20th century brought significant changes in the level of pollutants emitted into the [...] Read more.
Air pollution and climate change are two key factors comprising the global change threat to forest health and sustainability. The intensive development of industry in the second half of the 20th century brought significant changes in the level of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere in Poland. Dry and wet deposition of toxic pollutants (mainly SO2, NOx, and NH3), continuing over more than 40 years, has caused serious damage to forest stands. One of the ways for describing the effect of industrial emissions on forests is tree-rings (dendrochronological) analysis, which has been used in our research. We present a brief description of the studies on the impact of air pollution on the growth of forests growing in the most polluted areas of Poland. The main aim is to evaluate Scots pine stand degradation caused by the pollutants emitted from one of biggest polluters of the environment in Poland for over 25 years (1966–1990). We found that pollutant emission caused disturbances of incremental dynamics and long-term strong reduction of growth. Scots pine growing in the vicinity of the nitrogen fertilizer factory showed a dramatic growth reduction after the beginning of the pollution period. Significant decrease in growth was observed for the majority of investigated trees (75%) to the end of the 1990s. The zone of destruction extends primarily in easterly and southern directions, from the pollution source, associated with the prevailing winds of the region. At the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend stopped and the wider tree-rings could be observed. This situation was related to a radical reduction in ammonia emissions and an improvement in environmental conditions. However, the growth of damaged trees due to the weakened health condition is lower than the growth of Scots pine on the reference plot and trees are more sensitive to stressful climatic conditions, especially to drought. Full article
Proceedings
Quantifying Tree Cover Loss in Urban Forests within Nairobi City Metropolitan Area from Earth Observation Data
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07952 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 225
Abstract
Urban forests contribute significantly to the ecological integrity of urban areas and the quality of life of urban dwellers through air quality control, energy conservation, improving urban hydrology, and regulation of land surface temperatures (LST). However, urban forests are under threat due to [...] Read more.
Urban forests contribute significantly to the ecological integrity of urban areas and the quality of life of urban dwellers through air quality control, energy conservation, improving urban hydrology, and regulation of land surface temperatures (LST). However, urban forests are under threat due to human activities, natural calamities, and bioinvasion continually decimating forest cover. Few studies have used fine-scaled Earth observation data to understand the dynamics of tree cover loss in urban forests and the sustainability of such forests in the face of increasing urban population. The aim of this work was to quantify the spatial and temporal changes in urban forest characteristics and to assess the potential drivers of such changes. We used data on tree cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land cover change to quantify tree cover loss and changes in vegetation health in urban forests within the Nairobi metropolitan area in Kenya. We also used land cover data to visualize the potential link between tree cover loss and changes in land use characteristics. From approximately 6600 hectares (ha) of forest land, 720 ha have been lost between 2000 and 2019, representing about 11% loss in 20 years. In six of the urban forests, the trend of loss was positive, indicating a continuing disturbance of urban forests around Nairobi. Conversely, there was a negative trend in the annual mean NDVI values for each of the forests, indicating a potential deterioration of the vegetation health in the forests. A preliminary, visual inspection of high-resolution imagery in sample areas of tree cover loss showed that the main drivers of loss are the conversion of forest lands to residential areas and farmlands, implementation of big infrastructure projects that pass through the forests, and extraction of timber and other resources to support urban developments. The outcome of this study reveals the value of Earth observation data in monitoring urban forest resources. Full article
Proceedings
What Can Native Trees Provide in Revegetating Tropical Degraded Land? An Experience of Man-Made Dipterocarp Forest in Indonesia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08069 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
The benefits of revegetation provided by the successful growth of planted vegetations. This paper described a successful initiative on the revegetation of tropical degraded land using native trees. More than 250 hectares of intact landscape in Gunung Dahu, West Java—Indonesia have been successfully [...] Read more.
The benefits of revegetation provided by the successful growth of planted vegetations. This paper described a successful initiative on the revegetation of tropical degraded land using native trees. More than 250 hectares of intact landscape in Gunung Dahu, West Java—Indonesia have been successfully revegetated using 32 Dipterocarp species. The success of this 20-years-old revegetated landscape was revealed by timber volume, natural regeneration, soil characteristics, ectomycorrhiza occurrence, and ecotourism potential. The results showed that the average diameter and height were varied from 12–43 cm and 10–23 m; diameter mean annual increment were at 0.6–2.1 cm year1; standing stock per hectares were at 10–220.84 m3 ha−1. The variations might be caused by different planted species, spacing distance, and planting technique. The natural regeneration success was observed by the offspring’s occurrence from six Shorea species and supported by mycorrhiza fruiting bodies predominantly by the genus Rusula. Planted trees also improved the availability of organic materials to the soils, as described by the good total soil porosity (51.06–52.32%) and infiltration rate (120–15,533 mm hour−1) at the site. The landscape also provided springs with continuous water supply and allowed tourists to experience the serenity of the tropical forest. Hence, revegetation using a native tree is prospective and proven to deliver a wider benefit in the ecological, economic, and social aspect. Full article
Proceedings
The Value of Recreational Ecosystem Services in India
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08030 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Forest ecosystem services have played a vital role in human well-being. Particularly, recreational ecosystem services are creating physical and mental well-being for human beings. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to estimate the economic value of recreational ecosystem services provides by [...] Read more.
Forest ecosystem services have played a vital role in human well-being. Particularly, recreational ecosystem services are creating physical and mental well-being for human beings. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to estimate the economic value of recreational ecosystem services provides by recreational sites such as Nandi Hills and Nagarhole National Park based on the individual travel cost method in Karnataka, India. This study has used a random sampling method for 300 tourist visitors to recreational sites. The present study has also estimated the consumer surplus of the visitors. The results of the study have found that (i) economic value of two creational sites has been estimated at US $323.05 million, (ii) the consumer surplus has been estimated for Nandi Hills at US $7.45 and Nagarhole National Park at US $3.16. The main implication of the study is to design the entry fees for the recreational site and sustainable utilization of recreational ecosystem services for the present and future generations. Full article
Abstract
A Survey of Potential Insect Vectors of Mountain Pine Proliferation Decline Phytoplasma in Curonian Spit, Lithuania
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07977 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 112
Abstract
Mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) is a coniferous native to the highlands of central Europe. Our previous study revealed that mountain pine proliferation decline (MPPD) disease in the Curonian Spit of Lithuania is caused by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’-related strain (16SrXXI-A). [...] Read more.
Mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) is a coniferous native to the highlands of central Europe. Our previous study revealed that mountain pine proliferation decline (MPPD) disease in the Curonian Spit of Lithuania is caused by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’-related strain (16SrXXI-A). However, the insect vector of MPPD has not been identified. In this study, we conducted a survey to determine potential insect vectors of MPPD phytoplasma for three consecutive years (2016–2019). More than 1000 insect samples were collected from four locations in the Curonian Spit. These insects were identified as belonging to six families and ten genera. The presence of phytoplasma in insect samples was examined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using phytoplasma-specific primers (P1A/16S-SR and R16F2n/R16R2n). Phytoplasmas were detected in Cinara (Cinara) pini (Scots pine aphid), Cinara (Cinara) piniphila and Cinara (Schizolachnus) pineti (waxy grey pine needle aphid) insect samples. Subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis showed that the PCR-RFLP profile of these positive insect samples was consistent with that of the MPPD of diseased pine trees. These results suggest that C. (C.) pini, C. (C.) piniphila and C. (S.) pineti may be potential insect vectors of MPPD phytoplasma. The findings from this survey will provide useful information for the management of MPPD disease. Full article
Abstract
Coniferous Cones as a Forestry Waste Biomass—A Source of Antioxidants
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07766 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 83
Abstract
The cones of conifers are a waste biomass, potentially be utilized for a variety of purposes, including the extraction of bioactive materials, particularly antioxidant polyphenols. In the present work we conducted a comparative analysis of the antioxidant content of selected taxa that are [...] Read more.
The cones of conifers are a waste biomass, potentially be utilized for a variety of purposes, including the extraction of bioactive materials, particularly antioxidant polyphenols. In the present work we conducted a comparative analysis of the antioxidant content of selected taxa that are either common in Hungary or that have not yet been investigated in any great detail (Cedrus atlantica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus mugo, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus wallichiana, Tsuga Canadensis, Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Taxodium distichum, Thuja occidentalis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Thuja orientalis, Cryptomeria Japonica, Cunninghamia lanceolata). A comparison of different maturation stages (green, mature, and opened cones) was carried out for the assigned taxa. Folin-Ciocâlteu total phenol content, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to assess the antioxidant contents. Total antioxidant power was determined by a scoring system that combined the three assay results. For each taxon the overall best results were found for green cones, followed by mature, and opened cones. Taxa with the highest scores were Tsuga Canadensis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Cryptomeria Japonica, Thuja orientalis and Picea abies. High-performance liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric profiling of the polyphenols was completed for selected samples. Results provide a basis for future bioactivity testing of these samples. The research was supported by the ÚNKP-20-5-12 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund and by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Full article
Abstract
A Decision Support System for Sustainable Forest Management and Ecosystem Service Provisioning at the Enterprise Scale
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08051 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Forest management is becoming increasingly complex due to increasing demands in ecosystem service provisioning and future climate change impacts. For a sustainable forest management, scientifically well-founded decision support is therefore urgently required. Within the project SessFor, a decision support system for strategic planning [...] Read more.
Forest management is becoming increasingly complex due to increasing demands in ecosystem service provisioning and future climate change impacts. For a sustainable forest management, scientifically well-founded decision support is therefore urgently required. Within the project SessFor, a decision support system for strategic planning at the forest enterprise level is being developed, based on the climate sensitive forest model SwissStandSim and initialized from forest inventory data. The system is currently applied to the forest enterprise Wagenrain (440 ha), located in the Swiss Plateau region. Indicators for biodiversity and ecosystem service provisioning (timber production, recreation value and carbon sequestration) are calculated for different management strategies and evaluated using a multi-criteria decision analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate the suitability of the system to evaluate ecosystem service provisioning under different management strategies and to identify the best management strategy, based on criteria defined by the forest manager. Furthermore, results show how the system can be used to assess developments for time-scales of 50–100 years under different climate change scenarios. In the ongoing project, the system will be applied to other case study regions, including mountain forests, which are of key importance in Switzerland and other alpine areas. Full article
Abstract
Migration and Multiplication of Pathogenic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Isolates of Diverse Geographic Origins
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07774 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 92
Abstract
Unfavorable pine wilt disease expansion predictions require a rapid advance in genetic breeding against the causative agent of this disease, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The main strategy for breeding more resistant trees to B. xylophilus, is the use of highly virulent isolates in [...] Read more.
Unfavorable pine wilt disease expansion predictions require a rapid advance in genetic breeding against the causative agent of this disease, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The main strategy for breeding more resistant trees to B. xylophilus, is the use of highly virulent isolates in inoculation experiments. Different inoculation assays were conducted on Botrytis cinerea cultures, in addition to P. pinaster and P. radiata branch sections and seedlings. Seven virulent isolates of different geographic origin (The Japanese nematode isolates S10 and Ka4, the Portuguese Pt72CH and Pt72T, the Spanish SpSA1 and SpPO1, and the American USA745.) were used in the experiments. The main aim of this work is to investigate differences among the seven isolates. The experiments determined that the studied isolates are significantly different. On fungal culture, the isolate from the USA showed the highest multiplication rate. Both seedling inoculation and branch sections experiments pointed to the Portuguese isolate Pt52T and the Spanish SpPo1 as the most virulent to P. pinaster. Conversely, higher numbers of the Pt72CH isolate passed through P. pinaster branch sections. The most virulent isolate for P. radiata was the Japanese S10, though it only showed significant differences in mortality when compared to the Spanish SpSA1. These results suggest that B. xylophilus have differential host specificities. The supplementary material depicts the methodology used in the inoculation assays, as well as shows figures of the most relevant results. Full article
Proceedings
Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Two-Age Bambusa tuldoides Briquettes
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07869 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 107
Abstract
The use of natural resources as an energy source is a well-studied alternative to fossil fuels. Some studies present bamboo as promising biomass for energy generation, and its transformation into briquettes can be a way to take advantage of its production residues. This [...] Read more.
The use of natural resources as an energy source is a well-studied alternative to fossil fuels. Some studies present bamboo as promising biomass for energy generation, and its transformation into briquettes can be a way to take advantage of its production residues. This study’s objective was to determine the physical and chemical properties of two bamboo ages (two and seven years old) of Bambusa vulgaris species to evaluate biomass quality and its briquettes for energy generation. Regarding the higher heating value, there was no difference between treatments means values, which were 17.8 and 18.2 MJ kg−1 for two and seven years old, respectively, and these values were slightly below those found in the literature for Bambusa spp. The mechanical durability was of low quality for both treatments at the testing conditions, so they are not recommended for briquette production. The proximate analysis results were quite near the literature and reinforce bamboo’s positive qualities for biofuel usage. Full article
Proceedings
Interlocking Modular Insulation Panels Manufactured with Mediterranean Pinewood and Cork
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08072 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 181
Abstract
Economic profitability of harvested softwood in Southwestern Europe is limited for low quality logs. Some social and environmental consequences of low incomes of rural activities are rural depopulation and accumulation of biomass in unmanaged forests. The energy efficiency of buildings could be improved [...] Read more.
Economic profitability of harvested softwood in Southwestern Europe is limited for low quality logs. Some social and environmental consequences of low incomes of rural activities are rural depopulation and accumulation of biomass in unmanaged forests. The energy efficiency of buildings could be improved as construction material employing local bioresources that are currently used to manufacture products of low added value. Here, the IMIP project (Innovative Eco-Construction System Based on Interlocking Modular Insulation Wood & Cork-Based Panels) aimed to support the change towards a low carbon economy using bioproducts (pinewood and cork) for smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth with a special focus on the public construction sector is presented. The main objective of the IMIP project is to design, validate and implement an innovative ecological construction system based on natural biological materials to improve energy efficiency in public buildings from the construction, use and demolition phases. The project also develops a tool to professionals from the construction sector (architects and engineers) and researchers to assess the carbon footprint of buildings. The products of the project have the ambition to improve the economic, social and environmental situation of rural areas of Southwestern Europe. Full article
Proceedings
Spatial Scenarios of Land-Use/Cover Change for the Management and Conservation of Paramos and Andean Forests in Boyacá, Colombia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08023 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 167
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of land-use change, the factors associated with these changes, and potential transformations of paramos and Andean forests through the modeling of land-use change scenarios in the department of Boyacá, Colombia. Throughout the classification [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify the dynamics of land-use change, the factors associated with these changes, and potential transformations of paramos and Andean forests through the modeling of land-use change scenarios in the department of Boyacá, Colombia. Throughout the classification of satellite images, we assessed land-use change during two time periods: 1998 to 2010 and 2010 to 2018. Seven transition sub-models were analyzed and associated with 36 explanatory variables. Three future scenarios of land-use change were projected for the years 2030 and 2050: trend, agricultural expansion, and conservation scenarios. We found a gradual reduction in paramos and Andean forests with an increase in secondary vegetation. The most relevant variables explaining land-use change were elevation, distance to roads, and distance to protected areas. The scenario with the greatest impact on paramos and Andean forests was agricultural expansion, in which 29% and 41% of forests would be lost by 2030 and 2050 and in which 44% and 59% of paramos would be lost by the same years. Forests and paramos in the central eastern area showed critical losses and highly fragmented distributions in all scenarios; hence, we recommend focusing conservation efforts in these areas. Full article
Proceedings
Invertebrate Community of Scots Pine Coarse Woody Debris in the Southwestern Pyrenees under Different Thinning Intensities and Tree Species
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07951 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 106
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The forest in the Southwestern Pyrenees Mountains (Northern Spain) is mainly composed of pure Pinus sylvestris L. or a mix of P. sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica L. The most common forest management technique to harvest pine is the application of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The forest in the Southwestern Pyrenees Mountains (Northern Spain) is mainly composed of pure Pinus sylvestris L. or a mix of P. sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica L. The most common forest management technique to harvest pine is the application of forest thinning with different intensities. It promotes a change in the forest composition and structure. Taking into consideration this region as a site specific research about this topic, we aimed to understand the CWD invertebrate composition response to different thinning intensities and canopy type of these tree species. Materials and Methods: CWD samples were collected belonging to intermediate and advanced decay classes, approximately 10 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. Using a design of three thinning intensities (0%, 20%, and 40% of basal area removed), with three replications per treatment (nine plots in total), four samples were taken per plot (two per canopy type) to reach 36 samples in total. Meso- and macrofauna were extracted from CWD samples with Berlese–Tullgren funnels, and individuals were counted and identified. Results: Most of the taxonomic groups belonged to mesofauna, mainly to Acari and Collembola orders. On the other hand, the macrofauna represented a minimum percentage of the community composition. Our results indicated that although thinning intensities did not significantly affect the invertebrate community, canopy type and CWD water content influenced significantly. It is imperative to consider in forest management the responses of canopy type and thinning intensities in CWD water content, this disturbance could also slow down the organic matter decomposition process in the soil, thus affecting in the long term the natural cycle of nutrients. Full article
Proceedings
New Data on Host Range and Geographical Distribution of Dothistroma Needle Blight in Ukraine
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08086 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Serious pine needle disease, Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini was detected in Ukraine in the period 2004–2005. The aim of this study was to identify the Dothistroma species present on new hosts in Ukraine using different molecular [...] Read more.
Serious pine needle disease, Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini was detected in Ukraine in the period 2004–2005. The aim of this study was to identify the Dothistroma species present on new hosts in Ukraine using different molecular techniques to increase our understanding of the local distribution of these pathogens. The occurrence and distribution of DNB were studied between the years 2014 and 2018, and 480 needle samples were collected from 16 different regions in 96 localities—the presence of DNB was confirmed in 62 of them. The host range of DNB consisted of eight pine species, including three subspecies and two spruce species, among them Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana and P. sylvestris were the most frequent hosts. Results showed that both D. septosporum and D. pini were present on P. nigra subsp. pallasiana on the same trees and even in the same needles. Moreover, D. septosporum was found first in Ukraine on Pinus ponderosa Douglas, Pinus banksiana Lamb and Pinus contorta Douglas in the arboretum as well as Picea pungens Engelm and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. The suitability for the disease in the different forest types and the intensity of the disease are discussed. Full article
Proceedings
Accuracy of Photo-Optical Measurement of Wood Piles
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08192 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The accurate estimation of timber volume is of the utmost importance. For industrial timber, the volume is often estimated as stacked cubic meters. In addition to manual measurements, volume estimation is possible with photo-optical systems. Over 100 piles of industrial timber of broadleaved [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of timber volume is of the utmost importance. For industrial timber, the volume is often estimated as stacked cubic meters. In addition to manual measurements, volume estimation is possible with photo-optical systems. Over 100 piles of industrial timber of broadleaved tree species were analyzed. In the study, a standard manual measurement method for the estimation of wood pile volumes was compared with a smartphone based photo-optical application for the determination of woodpile volume. Mean gross volume of the piles was approximately 56 m3 and mean width of piles was 9.43 m. A strong correlation was found between the manual measurements and the photo-optical measurement. However, volume estimation of large volume piles seems to perform better in comparison to piles with small volumes. Further research is needed to determine the effects of variables such as log quality or quality of pile on volume estimation accuracy. Full article
Proceedings
Taxonomic Value of Leaf Epidermal Markers in Discriminating Some Medicinal Tree Species of Apocynaceae Juss
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07982 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 99
Abstract
Apocynaceae is a useful family comprising trees notable for different medicinal remedies. Consequent to their importance vis-à-vis scarcity in the forest, they are being sold in various Nigerian markets by herb sellers mostly in sterile and fragmentary forms. Hence, the medicinal plants are [...] Read more.
Apocynaceae is a useful family comprising trees notable for different medicinal remedies. Consequent to their importance vis-à-vis scarcity in the forest, they are being sold in various Nigerian markets by herb sellers mostly in sterile and fragmentary forms. Hence, the medicinal plants are subjected to adulteration and substitution. Frequently, identification of the plants by users is basically with the aid of floristic markers, which are not readily available for such purpose. It, therefore, becomes pertinent to carry out the taxonomic revision of these trees to provide additional markers that will contribute to their effective identification for correct use. Various documentations have been made on members of apocynaceae and are properly placed on their respective taxa using epidermal traits. However, such information is scarce for Alstonia boonei, Holarrhena floribunda, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Thevetia nerifolia, and Vocanga africana. This study therefore aimed at providing epidermal taxonomic markers that could be employed in delimiting the species as an alternative when the fruit or floral parts are wanting. Leaf epidermises of five (5) species of apocynaceae representing 5 genera were studied under a Biological microscope with a camera attachment. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. The epidermal cell was penta or hexagonal in A. boonei and V. africana. The stomatal length varied from 20.88 µm (R. vomitoria) to 25.92 µm (T. nerifolia) and 18.96 µm (R. vomitoria) to 29.28 µm (V. africana) on the abaxial and adaxial layers respectively. All the epidermal characters on the adaxial layer were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the species. Anticlinal walls were sinuated in H. floribunda and T. nerifolia while in R. vomitoria, it was straight to wavy. V. africana and A. boonei anticlinal walls were straight. This study represents the first account of epidermal characterization of the members of apocynaceae in Nigeria and is of taxonomic importance in setting boundaries among the species. Full article
Proceedings
Using Thermal Neutron Imaging in Forest Products Research
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08082 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 151
Abstract
Neutron imaging is a nondestructive evaluation technique with enhanced hydrogen sensitivity that allows researchers to monitor water content and transport in materials. In lignocellulosic research, this technique has typically been used to measure changes in moisture content, water transport and even local changes [...] Read more.
Neutron imaging is a nondestructive evaluation technique with enhanced hydrogen sensitivity that allows researchers to monitor water content and transport in materials. In lignocellulosic research, this technique has typically been used to measure changes in moisture content, water transport and even local changes in the density of wood. Yet, studies looking into the combined effects of moisture-uptake, chemical modifications and thermal degradation are still lacking. This is perhaps due to the inherent limited availability of these instruments and their lesser spatial resolution compared to X-ray imaging. While recent advances in detector technology and neutron production have led to continued improvements in both instrument availability and spatial resolution, the technique remains underutilized in forest products research. Here, we used thermal neutron imaging to measure differences in the attenuation of the neutron beam due to acetylation in both solid wood samples and wood−plastic composite samples, as well as a thermally degraded wood sample. Our results show that moisture plays a key role in the contrast. Moreover, we showed that the attenuation coefficient is particularly sensitive to changes in density and/or local hydrogen content caused by thermal degradation of the wood polymers. Full article
Abstract
Direct Assessment of Biomass Productivity in Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) with the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). Case of Study in NE Part of Romania (Preliminary Results)
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08485 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Short rotation forestry (SRF) provides an important supply of biomass for investors in this area. In the NE (North-East) part of Romania at the present time are installed over 800 Ha of this kind of crops. The SRF enjoys the support through environmental [...] Read more.
Short rotation forestry (SRF) provides an important supply of biomass for investors in this area. In the NE (North-East) part of Romania at the present time are installed over 800 Ha of this kind of crops. The SRF enjoys the support through environmental policies, in relation to climate change and the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. A precise estimate of biomass production is necessary for the sustainable planning of forest resources and for the exchange of energy in ecosystems. The use of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in estimating the production of above ground wood biomass (AGWB) of short rotation forestry (SRF) brings an important technological leap among indirect (non-destructive) methods. TLS technology is justified when destructive methods become difficult to implement, and allometric equations do not provide accurate information. The main purpose of the research is to estimate the biomass productivity on tree parts in short rotation forestry with TLS technology. Measuring the hybrid poplars crops by TLS may have the following consequences: (1) Higher accuracy of the estimate of biomass production in the SRF; (2) cost and time effective measurements over the biomass of tree parts; (3) new and validated allometric equations for SRF in NE Romania; (4) solid instrument for industry to estimate biomass. TLS technology gives accurate estimates for DBH, tree height and location, as much as the volume on segments, commercial volume or crown volume can be determined. The accuracy of these values depends on the original scan data and their co-registration. The research will contribute to the development of knowledge in the field of hybrid crops. Full article
Proceedings
First Report on Infection of Eucalyptus pellita Seeds by Ralstonia solanacearum
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07904 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Bacterial wilt is one of major threats to eucalyptus plantations which may cause significant losses. Until now, study about bacterial wilt on Eucalyptus pellita in Indonesia has been very limited, especially about the presence of the pathogen on or in the seeds. This [...] Read more.
Bacterial wilt is one of major threats to eucalyptus plantations which may cause significant losses. Until now, study about bacterial wilt on Eucalyptus pellita in Indonesia has been very limited, especially about the presence of the pathogen on or in the seeds. This study aims to provide evidence of the existence of the R. solanacearum bacterium on or in E. pellita seeds. Detection of seed-borne bacteria is determined by several approaches such as (i) direct detection using universal and selective media in the laboratory, (ii) the nursery test, and (iii) species-specific molecular detection. The results of our study indicate that R. solanacearum can be detected from eucalyptus seeds using universal and selective media in the laboratory, nursery test, and molecular-based detection using the Enrichment PCR method. The bacterial inoculum is also proven to exist both on the surface of and inside the eucalyptus seeds. This is the first report that R. solanacearum is a seed-borne pathogen in E. pellita seeds. Previous studies in different agricultural systems show that the effective method used to control the pathogen is through seed treatments using biological, physical, and chemical approaches. Full article
Proceedings
Classifying Tree Species in Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08035 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Information on forest composition, specifically tree types and their distribution, aids in timber stock calculation and can help to better understand the biodiversity in a particular region. Automatic satellite imagery analysis can significantly accelerate the process of tree type classification, which is traditionally [...] Read more.
Information on forest composition, specifically tree types and their distribution, aids in timber stock calculation and can help to better understand the biodiversity in a particular region. Automatic satellite imagery analysis can significantly accelerate the process of tree type classification, which is traditionally carried out by ground-based observation. Although computer vision methods have proven their efficiency in remote sensing tasks, specific challenges arise in forestry applications. In this paper, we aim to improve tree species classification based on a neural network approach. We consider four species commonly found in Russian boreal forests: birch, aspen, pine, and spruce. We use imagery from the Sentinel-2 satellite, which has multiple bands (in the visible and infrared spectra) and a spatial resolution of up to 10 meters. Additionally, the short revisit time and free access policy make Sentinel-2 imagery a valuable data source for the purpose of forest classification. In computer vision terms, we define the problem of tree type classification as one of semantic segmentation, assigning a particular tree type to each pixel of the image. The forest inventory data contain tree type composition, but do not describe their spatial distribution within each individual stand. Therefore, some pixels can be assigned a wrong label if we consider each stand to be homogeneously populated by its dominant species. This calls for the use of a weakly supervised learning approach. To solve this problem, we use a deep convolutional neural network with a tailored loss function. We test the proposed models by creating a dataset of images for Leningrad Oblast of Russia. In our study, we demonstrate how to modify the training strategy, such that it can outperform basic per pixel neural network approaches. Full article
Proceedings
Role of Phytopathogenic Fungi in Forest Plant Breeding–Development of DNA-Based Quick Tests for Quality Assurance in Forest Plant Production
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07898 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 101
Abstract
The production of healthy seed and plant material is a fundamental prerequisite for the establishment of ecologically stable and economically productive forest stands. As in the past, forest plant production is nevertheless threatened by harmful biotic factors, with new, invasive species playing an [...] Read more.
The production of healthy seed and plant material is a fundamental prerequisite for the establishment of ecologically stable and economically productive forest stands. As in the past, forest plant production is nevertheless threatened by harmful biotic factors, with new, invasive species playing an increasingly significant role as a result of climate change and globalization. DNA-based methods have significantly accelerated the detection of plant pathogens, but are still time-consuming, costly, and require extensive equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The LAMP reaction is performed as a one-step assay at constant temperature and can be evaluated visually. The ongoing project “TreeLAMP” has led to the establishment of an LAMP assay for Rhabdocline pseudotsugae, one of the most important needle pathogens of Douglas fir. To date, 32 sets of LAMP primers have been derived from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and tested. The results show clear differences between the primer sets both in terms of reaction rate and concentration of amplified products. Following extensive work targeting the optimization of the LAMP reaction, a method is now available that enables the reliable detection of R. pseudotsugae at a constant temperature (65 °C) and after a reaction time of 1.5 h. The detection limit is currently 0.02 pg/µL of R. pseudotsugae DNA. The current focus of the project is the optimization of DNA extraction. In addition to conventional DNA kits, methods that are specially adapted to the detection procedure are also under investigation. These will allow DNA extraction to occur faster and without any great technical effort. Full article
Proceedings
Impact of Climate Change on Forest Management: Białowieża Primeval Forest Case Study
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07882 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 78
Abstract
Ecosystems of the Białowieża Primeval Forest are characterized by a high degree of naturalness and biodiversity. Changes in species and age structure in the long-term period resulted from both natural processes and human impact (indirectly and directly). The assessment of changes and knowledge [...] Read more.
Ecosystems of the Białowieża Primeval Forest are characterized by a high degree of naturalness and biodiversity. Changes in species and age structure in the long-term period resulted from both natural processes and human impact (indirectly and directly). The assessment of changes and knowledge about the current state allows to decide what protective measures should be taken to improve the condition of forest ecosystems. One can also evaluate the processes taking place and their direction, and therefore also assess the need for any actions. In the conducted research, the changes occurring in forest ecosystems with particular emphasis on spruce were assessed. An almost 100-year process of evolution of the species share in stands was analyzed up to 2015 using historical forest management and present spatial information data. Habitat data were used to assess the suitable and unsuitable conditions for spruce dominance. In addition, long-term development model was used for forecasting of the share of this species using data from beginning of 2015. Those results were compared with data from more than 500 sample plots measured in 2016–2018, just after bark beetle (Ips typographus) outbreak in 2015. Spruce has doubled, from 12% to 25%, its share of the Bialowieża Forests area in the first half of 20th century and was stable for the second half. The development model run just before the outbreak suggested stable decrease of spruce share in the horizon of 2065 down to 23%. The habitat model from 2015 was suggesting that spruce suitable sites covered only 12% of the area and only 50% of that area being dominated by spruce; the residue growing in unfavorable habitat conditions. The recent outbreak, with no management control, has dwindled spruce share down below 9%, showing habitual model results being better than the development model scenario. Full article
Proceedings
Abundance of Viscum in Central Poland: Results from a Large-Scale Mistletoe Inventory
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07883 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 76
Abstract
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is a semi-parasitic plant, and in moderate abundance, it does not pose a lethal threat to a tree. However, recent droughts have made a heavy impact on forests, and in recent years, mistletoe began to appear on a [...] Read more.
Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) is a semi-parasitic plant, and in moderate abundance, it does not pose a lethal threat to a tree. However, recent droughts have made a heavy impact on forests, and in recent years, mistletoe began to appear on a larger scale in regions and in places where it has never been a threat before. The main purpose of this research is to carry out a large-scale mistletoe inventory in central Poland for assessing the number of mistletoe on individual trees and in the stands, as well as to test a new inventory method adapted to Polish conditions. It is based on random sample plots, each consisting of 15 trees on which the impact of mistletoe is assessed. On every sample plot, the mistletoe occurrence, location in the crown, estimate of the percentage within the crown, and the number of mistletoe on a tree are assessed. In addition, for further analysis, information about stands (forest habitat type, site index) as well as measured trees (age, diameter, Kraft class, crown length, loss of assimilation apparatus, crown type) levels is recorded. Research undertaken in Kozienice Forest (100 km south from Warsaw) took into account 100 sample plots on which 1500 trees were assessed. Preliminary results show that 16% of trees are infected by mistletoe, more than 25% of which are infected heavily by more than 6 specimens. Full article
Proceedings
Potential of Trichoderma spp. and Pinus sylvestris Bark Extracts as Biocontrol Agents against Fungal Pathogens Residing in the Botryosphaeriales
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07960 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 161
Abstract
Botryosphaeriales represent a diverse order of fungal pathogens of various woody plant species. In Serbia, these fungi are important pathogens of forest, ornamental, and fruit trees causing die-back, cankers, leaf blights, fruit, and root rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Botryosphaeriales represent a diverse order of fungal pathogens of various woody plant species. In Serbia, these fungi are important pathogens of forest, ornamental, and fruit trees causing die-back, cankers, leaf blights, fruit, and root rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Pinus sylvestris bark extracts and Trichoderma spp. against Botryosphaeria dothidea, Dothiorella sarmentorum, and Neofusicoccum parvum (Ascomycota, Botryosphaeriales) isolated from Picea abies, Thuja occidentalis, and Prunus laurocerasus trees planted in urban areas in Serbia. Bark extracts were prepared in water solution at two temperatures (80 and 120 °C). The extracts were tested using two concentrations (20% and 30%). Moreover, two Trichoderma isolates obtained from P. sylvestris bark were tested against Botryosphaeriales and their antagonistic potential was estimated in vitro using a confrontation test. Mycelial growth of B. dothidea and D. sarmentorum was significantly inhibited in the presence of bark extracts, while N. parvum showed no growth inhibition. Botryosphaeria dothidea growth was inhibited by 35 to 39% in the case of 20% extracts and by 39 to 44% in the case of 30% extracts. The growth inhibition of D. sarmentorum was between 48% and 56% in the case of 20% extracts and between 53% and 60% in the case of 30% extracts. The two Trichoderma isolates showed antifungal activity against the selected pathogens. An isolate BKG 4 showed the highest inhibition level, and it inhibited the growth of B. dothidea, D. sarmentorum, and N. parvum by 85%, 75%, and 62%, respectively. Preliminary results suggest that both P. sylvestris bark extracts and Trichoderma spp. could be used as biocontrol agents against B. dothidea, D. sarmentorum, and N. parvum, and this should be a further studied. Full article
Proceedings
Selected Physical Parameters and Daily Volume of Silver Birch Sap Collected from the Cardinal Directions of the Tree Trunk
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07966 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 101
Abstract
The collection, sale, and processing of non-wood forest products are becoming a significant factor in stimulating regional development and improving the economic situation, especially of poor rural communities. The fashion for a healthy lifestyle is also conducive to the growth of interest in [...] Read more.
The collection, sale, and processing of non-wood forest products are becoming a significant factor in stimulating regional development and improving the economic situation, especially of poor rural communities. The fashion for a healthy lifestyle is also conducive to the growth of interest in such goods. Among them, birch sap is indicated as one of the most promising non-wood forest resources of central Europe, with very wide possibilities of its practical use, e.g., in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The potential increase in birch sap commercial use prompts research on both the principles of its collection and the impact of various factors on its quality. In this presentation, we decided to investigate how the daily volume and selected sap parameters change depending on the location of the holes in relation to the cardinal directions. The research was conducted in April 2018, in the eastern part of Poland, in a stand with a dominant share of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) at the age of approximately 100 years, in a fresh broadleaved forest habitat. On each of the six selected trees, four holes were drilled at a height of 1 m, positioned according to the cardinal directions (N-E-S-W). Sap was collected twice, one week apart, always after 24 h of leak. In each case, the daily volume of the obtained sap was determined, and then the selected properties of the sap were tested: electrolytic conductivity (proving, among others, the content of pro-health minerals), refractometric index (proving the approximate content of sugar), pH, and the percent of dry matter. As a result of the research, it was found that the location of boreholes in the tree trunk in relation to the cardinal directions (N-E-S-W) does not affect the efficiency of the birch sap leak intensity or other tested physical sap properties: refraction, pH value, and percentage of dry matter. However, a slight effect on the electrolytic conductivity was found. Therefore, it can be summarized that the cardinal directions do not affect the usefulness of the sap for the production of birch syrup, but may affect a nutritional value. Full article
Proceedings
Carbon Footprint of Thermal Energy Production from Poplar Short-Rotation Coppice Plantations
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07908 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 77
Abstract
The use of agroforestry biomass represents a relevant aspect in the world debate on the issue of reducing climate-altering gases in the atmosphere. One of the possible sources of wood biomass production is represented by poplar SRC plantations. In the present work, the [...] Read more.
The use of agroforestry biomass represents a relevant aspect in the world debate on the issue of reducing climate-altering gases in the atmosphere. One of the possible sources of wood biomass production is represented by poplar SRC plantations. In the present work, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the entire supply chain of four different cutting shifts (2, 3, 4, and 5 years) have been evaluated according to the IPCC method. In relation to the rotation cycle, four biomass harvesting systems were considered with a different level of mechanization. It was considered that the biomass produced by the plantations was used in a biomass plant for heating a public building. The environmental impact of 1 GJ of heat energy produced by the various forest rotation plants was assessed considering the entire life cycle, from the field stage to the thermal energy production. The results were compared with the production of the same quantity of thermal energy using a diesel boiler. The comparison between the two systems has shown that the production and use of biomass to generate thermal energy can reduce the Global Warming Potential by more than 70% compared to the use of fossil fuels. Full article
Abstract
Validation of Catenary-based Methods for Cable Road Layout Planning
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07775 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 75
Abstract
Cable-based technologies have been a backbone for harvesting on steep slopes. Computing the layout of a single cable road requires considering the standards of structural design, aiming to (1) guarantee structural safety, and (2) provide the required serviceability. Currently applied analysis methods, such [...] Read more.
Cable-based technologies have been a backbone for harvesting on steep slopes. Computing the layout of a single cable road requires considering the standards of structural design, aiming to (1) guarantee structural safety, and (2) provide the required serviceability. Currently applied analysis methods, such as the Pestal method, are unprecise. Alternatively, methods based on the catenary, such as Zweifel or Irvine, are better suited to analyze and predict load path and occurring forces for skylines anchored fix on both ends. However, studies that validate those catenary analyses (concurrently load path and forces) are rare and were not carried out under realistic heavy load conditions. Therefore, the aim of the project was to validate the catenary analyses under realistic, heavy load conditions for cable roads with multiple spans. In two case studies in Switzerland, the deflection in every span as well as the skyline tensile force at the anchor were measured for different load configurations and compared with theoretical computations of Zweifel and Pestal. The approach of Zweifel maps the mechanical properties realistic. However, as proven by our measurements, it slightly overestimated the deflection and the skyline tensile forces because the friction on the supports was neglected (between skyline and saddle). The deflections calculated with the Pestal formulas were significantly larger than the measured values, in particular with heavy load and in large spans. Our measurement studies confirmed that the mechanical properties of a cable road can be described adequately with the algorithm by Zweifel. However, it should be further developed with the inclusion of effects like the friction to improve the efficiency, safety and cost-performance ratio in cable road planning. Full article
Abstract
A QGIS Based Workflow for Optimized Cable Road Layout Planning
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07768 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 63
Abstract
Cable-based technologies have been a backbone for harvesting on steep slopes. The planning of a cable road is a complex task. It essentially comprises the definition of the start and end points of a cable road, as well as the intermediate supports. It [...] Read more.
Cable-based technologies have been a backbone for harvesting on steep slopes. The planning of a cable road is a complex task. It essentially comprises the definition of the start and end points of a cable road, as well as the intermediate supports. It must be ensured that the permissible forces (in particular, skyline tensile forces) are not exceeded, that there is a sufficient clearance between the load path and the ground, that suitable anchor trees are found, and that at the same time the number of intermediate supports is minimized as far as possible. On the other hand, for ergonomic and silvicultural reasons (work safety, damages to the forest), the skyline should be as high as possible. In practice, the search for a solution is often iterative; especially with long lines, several attempts may be necessary until a good line is found. The presented QGIS (free and open-source cross-platform desktop geographic information system) plugin searches automatically for the optimal cable road layout, so the planning process can be considerably simplified and obtained solutions are more cost-efficient. The plugin is designed for Central European conditions and assumes a standing skyline (fixed anchored skyline at both ends). For the calculation of the mechanical properties of the skyline, a close to catenary method is used (Zweifel 1960). When testing the feasibility of the cable line, care is taken that (1) the maximum permissible stresses in the skyline are not exceeded, (2) there is a minimum distance between the load path and the ground, and (3) when using a gravitational system, there is a minimum inclination in the load path. The newly developed method calculates the load path curve and the forces occurring in it more accurately than other tools available on the market. We further present a method to identify potential support and anchor trees directly from remote sensing data, which we aim to integrate in a further plugin. This ensures that there are effectively trees at the proposed intermediate positions and that the solution can be implemented in practice. Full article
Abstract
Effect of Genotypes on Micropropagation of Terminalia arjuna—An Important Medicinal Tree
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07778 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 67
Abstract
Terminalia arjuna is an important tree of medicinal and sericulture industry, commonly known as Arjun. Its bark, rich in secondary metabolites, makes this plant highly valuable in the medicine industry to treat cardiovascular disease. It is also used as a feeder plant for [...] Read more.
Terminalia arjuna is an important tree of medicinal and sericulture industry, commonly known as Arjun. Its bark, rich in secondary metabolites, makes this plant highly valuable in the medicine industry to treat cardiovascular disease. It is also used as a feeder plant for tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta). Over-exploitation due to the high demand in medicine, low seed germination, and limitations of conventional methods of propagation push this plant towards being endangered. To conserve the germplasm of such tree species and meet the requirements of the medicinal industry, some non-conventional propagation methods, like micropropagation, have been developed. The present work highlights the effect of genotypes on the tissue culture of T. arjuna. For this objective, nodal explants were collected from three genotypes (G-1, G-2 and G-3) of T. arjuna situated at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. In vitro shoot proliferation was achieved on modified MS medium enriched with BAP + additives. Genotype-1 showed maximum bud break response (100%), followed by G-3 (93.33%) and G-2 (86.66%). Further multiplication of these shoots on modified MS medium containing BAP + NAA + additives gave 11.38 ± 0.26 (G-1), 9.44 ± 0.21 (G-2) and 10.22 ± 0.32 (G-3) shoots. In vitro rooting was done by pulse treatment with IBA for 10 min prior to transfer to hormone-free half-strength MS medium containing 0.1% activated charcoal. Maximum in vitro rooting was obtained in G-1 (80%), followed by G-3 (71.11%) and G-2 (68.88%). In the present study, it was observed that optimum growth in all three genotypes requires different doses of Plant Growth Regulator. Thus, by identifying and multiplying the best-performing genotypes, the gap between the demand and supply of such medicinal plants can be fulfilled. Full article
Proceedings
Forest Management Criteria for Manilkara huberi (Ducke) A. Chev. (Sapotaceae) in Upland Forests of Central Amazon Based on Dendrochronological Study
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-07870 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 99
Abstract
This work used the Growth-Oriented Logging model to determine species-specific forest management criteria according to the growth model. The objective of this work was to define specific forest management criteria for the species Manilkara huberi (Ducke) A. Chev., using a Dendrochronology study by [...] Read more.
This work used the Growth-Oriented Logging model to determine species-specific forest management criteria according to the growth model. The objective of this work was to define specific forest management criteria for the species Manilkara huberi (Ducke) A. Chev., using a Dendrochronology study by high frequency densitometry. The study was carried out in a forest management area, in Central Amazonia. The studied species forms annual growth rings depending on the seasonal rainfall. The annual growth rings were defined by high frequency densitometry, measuring the density variations in the wood, from the marrow to the bark. With the time series of the annual growth ring thickness obtained, it was possible to determine the forest management criteria for the studied species. The minimum logging diameter (MLD) obtained was approximately 63.4 cm, and its cutting cycles were estimated at 47 years, with an age of 297 ± 13.8 years. The estimated volume, equivalent to MLD, is 6.97 m3. With the study of Dendrochronology, it was possible to define the criteria for the specific forest management of the studied species, making it possible to apply this technique to tropical species with the same characteristics. Full article
Proceedings
Tendencies of Fire Development in the Forests of Ukraine
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08064 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Preservation and increase of forest area are necessary conditions for the biosphere functioning. Forest ecosystems in most parts of the world are affected by fires. According to the latest data, the forest fire situation has become complicated in Ukraine, and this issue requires [...] Read more.
Preservation and increase of forest area are necessary conditions for the biosphere functioning. Forest ecosystems in most parts of the world are affected by fires. According to the latest data, the forest fire situation has become complicated in Ukraine, and this issue requires ongoing investigation. The aim of the study was to analyse the dynamics of wildfires in Ukrainian forests over recent decades and to assess the complex indicator of wildfire occurrence in various forest management zones and administrative regions. The average annual complex indicator of fire occurrence, in terms of wildfire number and burned area, was studied in detail in the forests of various administrative regions and forest management zones in Ukraine from 1998 to 2017. The results show that fire occurrence in both the number and area of fires can vary significantly in various forest management zones. There is a very noticeable difference in these indicators in some administrative regions within a particular forest management zone. The data show that the number of forest fires depends not only on the natural and climatic conditions of such regions, but also on anthropogenic factors. Full article
Proceedings
A Proposal for a Hybrid Model Based on the Weibull Growth Equation in the Adjustment of Growth Curves applied to Pine Forest Species in Northern Mexico
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08036 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 227
Abstract
In this work, we present a hybrid methodology based on ADA, applied to the simulation of pine species from northern Mexico. From algebraic transformations and certain premises, we were able to reduce the parameter space of the Weibull growth function from three parameters [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a hybrid methodology based on ADA, applied to the simulation of pine species from northern Mexico. From algebraic transformations and certain premises, we were able to reduce the parameter space of the Weibull growth function from three parameters to just one, the maximum diameter of the individual at the end of growth. From the point of view of complexity, we have a decrease in computational cost, because now we have only one parameter to estimate, and from a practical point of view, it is an easy parameter to obtain, even in the field. To present the quality of the method, we used the mean absolute percentage error and the quantile regression to visually present the quality of the fit. Then we compare this proposed methodology with the GADA versions for the Chapman–Richards and Hossfeld models. The results presented for the study area, to avoid generalizations, show that the proposed hybrid method was more accurate in the estimates. Full article
Proceedings
Comparative Analysis of Microbial Communities in Adult Trees and Seedlings of Douglas fir
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08085 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The composition and complex interaction of microorganisms in forest trees are still unknown. However, current studies on cultivated plants indicate that the microbiome can have a significant influence on plant development, vitality, and susceptibility to pathogens. In the project “TreeLAMP”, the composition of [...] Read more.
The composition and complex interaction of microorganisms in forest trees are still unknown. However, current studies on cultivated plants indicate that the microbiome can have a significant influence on plant development, vitality, and susceptibility to pathogens. In the project “TreeLAMP”, the composition of the microbial community of ten adult trees and nine seedlings of Douglas-fir was characterized in an exploratory study using sequence-based methods. Approximately 9.5 million fungal sequences (ITS1) and approx. 4.3 million bacterial sequences (16S rRNA gene) were generated over all samples by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In the first step, the quality of the sequence data was checked and sequences with low quality were filtered with dada2. The taxonomic classification was carried out with the program kaiju (database NCBI nr+euk). For the characterization of the fungal community, between 13,817 and 410,464 sequences per sample were analyzed. In total 83 fungal species were identified. However, on average 0.5% of the sequences could not be classified and 48.1% could not be determined to species level. In the bacterial community, with 899 to 11,807 sequences significantly less DNA was detected per sample. But in comparison 79.4% of the sequences could be determined to species level, 15.2% of the sequences were assigned to at most a genus, and 5.3% could not be classified. In total 142 bacterial species were identified. In summary, the composition of the fungal and bacterial species community differs, as expected, between adult trees and seedlings. However, differences were also observed within the group of adult trees and seedlings, whereby the bacterial community was generally more heterogeneous than the fungal community. Full article
Abstract
Growth and Silvicultural Potentiality of Lomatia hirsuta Forests from Stump Shoots in the Valley of El Manso/Patagonia/Argentina
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 3(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECF2020-08053 - 13 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels is a pioneer tree species that regenerates mostly after fire and is more frequently found as a secondary species in Patagonian forests dominated by Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi. However, in the El Manso Valley, Province of Río [...] Read more.
Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels is a pioneer tree species that regenerates mostly after fire and is more frequently found as a secondary species in Patagonian forests dominated by Austrocedrus chilensis and Nothofagus dombeyi. However, in the El Manso Valley, Province of Río Negro in Western Argentina, L. hirsuta forms pure stands, originated from stump shoots. The wood is very attractive for its colourful appearance and beautiful grain, suitable for fine furniture. Nevertheless, these forests are not managed for timber production, they are mostly thinned for grazing, and the wood is mainly used as firewood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility to improve quality wood production in stands through silvicultural interventions in a sustainable way. Samples have been carried out in dense stands of different ages and in one less dense stand with the traditional use for pastures. We evaluated the state and quality of the trees, and their growth has been studied by means of trunk analysis. The results indicate that there is a significant potential to improve the production of quality wood in dense stands through thinning oriented to crop trees. This should start in young stands, because in older stands, good form and sound trees are already considerably reduced. It also became apparent that forest management is necessary to stabilize these nearly unattended forests, which in old stands are very vulnerable to damages caused by wind and wet snow. In such stands, the extraction of trees could be combined with the planting of seed trees, with the expectation to improve the quality and vigour of the trees at maturity. Full article
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