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Beverages, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Open AccessConcept Paper
Rethinking Luxury for Segmentation and Brand Strategy: The Semiotic Square and Identity Prism Model for Fine Wines
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Positioning a fine wine is a complex marketing operation which tends to focus on product characteristics and tends to ignore the consumer–brand relationship. As for other luxury products, fine wine consumers are a heterogeneous group which can be broken down into clearly distinctive [...] Read more.
Positioning a fine wine is a complex marketing operation which tends to focus on product characteristics and tends to ignore the consumer–brand relationship. As for other luxury products, fine wine consumers are a heterogeneous group which can be broken down into clearly distinctive and often antithetical subgroups. This conceptual paper proposes a different approach to defining fine wine consumers and the brand–consumer interaction. The Aristotle-inspired semiotic square model and Kapferer’s brand identity prism were coupled to identify not only fine wine consumer groups but also with which brand characteristics they mainly interact. While the semiotic square model identifies 6 distinct groups of fine wine consumers—enthusiasts, experts, connoisseurs, drinker, novice, event goers—the brand identity prism recognizes 6 constructs—physique (material), personality, culture, relationship, reflection and self-image. Pairing the consumer’s semiotic square and the brand’s identity prism could help brands to bridge the gap between the actual consumer subgroups and the ideal target consumers to better understand their customer base, to correctly position their brand, and to create an inclusive marketing strategy. This article is the first to apply the semiotic square/brand identity prism model within the context of the fine wine industry, as most positioning literature tends to focus on involvement or on the label itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing and Management of Wine and Consumer Choice)
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Open AccessArticle
Shelf-Life Extension of Wood Apple Beverages Maintaining Consumption-Safe Parameters and Sensory Qualities
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
An investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of wood apple beverages by up to 50 days from its natural shelf life of 8–12 h. A wood apple beverage was prepared using freeze-dried wood apple powder. Four samples were developed by [...] Read more.
An investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of wood apple beverages by up to 50 days from its natural shelf life of 8–12 h. A wood apple beverage was prepared using freeze-dried wood apple powder. Four samples were developed by pasteurizing the beverage at 85 °C for 10 min and treatment with a combination of 50 ppm and 100 ppm of potassium metabisulphite, citric acid, ascorbic acid, and sodium benzoate. Replications and controls were properly maintained. The total soluble solids (°Brix), pH, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content, microbial growth and sensory attributes of the prepared juice samples were evaluated at an interval of 10 days over a storage period of 50 days. TSS was found to increase (16.30–18.25°Brix) with storage period, while pH (5.43–4.10), titratable acidity (0.67–0.08%), and ascorbic acid content (4.65–1.01 mg/100 mL) decreased with time. The microbiological analysis showed little or no growth for samples treated with a combination of 50 ppm potassium metabisulphite, citric acid, ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate up to 50 days. Consumer acceptability of the beverage was found to be satisfactory. Thus, shelf life of wood apple beverage was extended to 50 days satisfactorily, ensuring consumption-safe parameters and satisfactory sensory qualities. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Wine Aging Technologies
Received: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Wine aging is a desirable and valuable process, commonly used to improve wine quality, and traditionally carried out in oak wooden casks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of the Tactile Attributes of a Container on Mineral Water Perception
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study investigates the effect of container texture on people’s perception of four characteristics (i.e., freshness, pleasantness, level of carbonation, lightness) of mineral water (i.e., still or carbonated). Water was served in three commercial cups covered with a layer of sandpaper, satin, [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effect of container texture on people’s perception of four characteristics (i.e., freshness, pleasantness, level of carbonation, lightness) of mineral water (i.e., still or carbonated). Water was served in three commercial cups covered with a layer of sandpaper, satin, or the same material of the cup (plastic). The blindfolded participants were asked to evaluate the mineral water using visual analogue scales. The results showed that mineral water was perceived as fresher and more pleasant when contained in plastic cups than when it was contained in cups covered with sandpaper or satin. Moreover, mineral water was perceived as lighter when contained in plastic cups than when it was contained in cups covered with sandpaper. These results suggest that people’s perception of some characteristics of mineral water can be modulated by the texture of the container in which the liquid is served. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water)
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Open AccessArticle
Coconut Neera—A Vital Health Beverage from Coconut Palms: Harvesting, Processing and Quality Analysis
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Nature has made nutritive products in such a way that it cannot be manufactured in laboratories or in mills. Coconut Neera is the natural sap of the mature coconut palms rich with all essential nutrients, minerals and vitamins for human health. Harvesting of [...] Read more.
Nature has made nutritive products in such a way that it cannot be manufactured in laboratories or in mills. Coconut Neera is the natural sap of the mature coconut palms rich with all essential nutrients, minerals and vitamins for human health. Harvesting of Neera from the spadix of the palms without disturbing the physiology of the tree has a lot of potential at the industrial scale. However, the development of alcohol in the extracted sap during tapping by auto-fermentation has given a misnomer for Neera as “sweet toddy”. Hence, the commercial popularity of Neera as a health drink has diminished at a global level. Though several traditional techniques like the usage of calcium hydroxide (lime) and the application of the chiller device during harvesting Neera from spadix have been practiced for collecting non-fermented Neera, none of the techniques were found acceptable at the commercial level. The results of the present study demonstrate the harvesting and processing procedure standardized for the collection and storage of non-fermented Neera from palms by repeated field trials. The cumulative effect of the anti-fermentation solution (AFS) with the presence of the two preservatives—citric acid (5 mM) and potassium metabisulphite (2 mM)—by preventing fermentation from the level of harvesting to processing was confirmed. The zero content of alcohol in raw Neera indicates the AFS action. The proximate composition of primary constituents and the content of minerals, amino acids and vitamins present in Neera highlights its nutrient value as a health beverage. The higher content of minerals—sodium and potassium (15.2 mg and 100 mg), the elevated level of amino acids-cysteine (14 mg), tyrosine (7.11 mg), arginine (7 mg) and the presence of vitamin C (65 mg) and vitamin A as retinol (4.88 IU)—indicates the therapeutic importance of coconut Neera. The data of oral toxicity and the glycemic index further support the vital quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biocatalyst Potential of Cellulose-Degrading Microorganisms Isolated from Orange Juice Processing Waste
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Cellulases can be applied as macerating and peeling enzymes in the orange juice processing industry. In this work, indigenous cellulose-degrading microorganisms were isolated from orange juice processing waste through successive enrichment procedures using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the sole carbon source. A total [...] Read more.
Cellulases can be applied as macerating and peeling enzymes in the orange juice processing industry. In this work, indigenous cellulose-degrading microorganisms were isolated from orange juice processing waste through successive enrichment procedures using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the sole carbon source. A total of 24 microbial isolates were screened for their ability to grow in CMC liquid medium, resulting in the selection of seven isolates. The latter were further assessed by determining their endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase, exo-1,4-β-d-glucanase, and β-1,4-d-glucosidase activities, of which their respective activities were as high as 3.89, 10.67, and 10.69 U/mg protein. All cellulose-degraders selected belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, although to distinct operational taxonomic units related to P. xylanexedens, P. tundrae, and P. pabuli (operational taxonomic unit—OTU#1) and to P. wynnii, P. odorifer, and P. donghaensis (OTU#2) spectrum. Regarding the cellulase activities of the orange juice processing waste, endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activity (4.00 ± 0.11 U/g) was exerted only extracellularly, whereas exo-1,4-β-d-glucanase (2.60 ± 0.19 U/g) and β-1,4-d-glucosidase (5.69 ± 0.23 U/g) activities were exhibited both extracellularly and intracellularly. In conclusion, orange juice processing waste can be considered as a valuable source for the isolation of cellulose-degrading microbiota with potential uses in beverage industry, solid state fermentation and energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Sorghum Coffee–Lactose Stout Production and Its Physico-Chemical Characterization
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Sorghum (Safrari) was valorized into sorghum coffee-lactose stouts using Vernonia amygdalina as a bittering ingredient. These sorghum grains and subsequent sorghum pale malt were tested for their acceptability in the brewing field. Results obtained were the germinative capacity of 99.29 ± [...] Read more.
Sorghum (Safrari) was valorized into sorghum coffee-lactose stouts using Vernonia amygdalina as a bittering ingredient. These sorghum grains and subsequent sorghum pale malt were tested for their acceptability in the brewing field. Results obtained were the germinative capacity of 99.29 ± 0.58%, a germinative energy of 98.56 ± 1.79%, a thousand corns weight 48.08 ± 0.02 g for the grains, and a diastatic power of 187.44 ± 7.89 WK for sorghum malt. The worts and beers produced were characterized and were found suitable. Moreover, alcohol content in stout beers obtained was between 8.8% and 9.4% ABV. Sensory evaluation was implemented on beers using 30 panellists and the best combination was the one using 50% lactose (250 g) and 50% coffee (250 g) in 5 L of wort during wort boiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview on Biogenic Amines in Wine
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight compounds formed from precursor amino acids, mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The presence of these compounds is important in the food and beverage industry because, in high amounts, they can lead to negative effects on consumers. In [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight compounds formed from precursor amino acids, mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The presence of these compounds is important in the food and beverage industry because, in high amounts, they can lead to negative effects on consumers. In this review, we illustrate the critical aspects needed to control the formation of BAs during winemaking and their presence in the final product. Recent biotechnological approaches related to microorganisms and their ability to reduce BAs are illustrated. The current methods used for BA detection and quantification are also presented. These methods are very important to consider, as BAs can serve as markers for the quality assessment of products. The information presented here offers an overview useful for identifying specific parameters and conditions which should be controlled to minimise BA content in wine; knowledge about BAs in foods and beverages has been accumulating in recent years, not only to ensure and improve quality (since BAs have been used as an indicator of spoilage) but especially to guarantee consumer safety due to the potential toxic effects of BAs on humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Partial Replacement of Maltodextrin by Sweet Potato Flour (Ipomoea Batatas L. Lamarck) in the Development of a Shake Beverage
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Sweet potato flour contains low-glycemic complex carbohydrates and, when it is ingested, prevents insulin spikes and prolongs the feeling of satiety. The aim of this study was to elaborate and to verify the acceptability of the shake with the total or partial substitution [...] Read more.
Sweet potato flour contains low-glycemic complex carbohydrates and, when it is ingested, prevents insulin spikes and prolongs the feeling of satiety. The aim of this study was to elaborate and to verify the acceptability of the shake with the total or partial substitution of maltodextrin for sweet potato flour. To elaborate the shake beverage, we used a 22 factorial design, with three central points, thus generating seven formulations. For the taste, color, texture, appearance, acceptance and attitude of purchase properties, sensory tests were conducted using a nine-point hedonic scale and panelists (n = 50). The highest acceptability formulations, formulations 3 (10% sweet potato flour; 25% maltodextrin) and 7 (0% sweet potato flour; 25% maltodextrin), were submitted to pH, moisture, ash, protein, lipid, crude fiber and total carbohydrate analyses. The statistical difference between the formulations from the T test (p < 0.05) was verified for the moisture, ash and lipid parameters. Formulation 3 presented higher values of moisture (93.26 ± 0.57) and lipids (1.91 ± 0.01), and formulation 7 had higher values of ash (0.39 ± 0.01). The results of the sensorial and physicochemical analyses of the shake indicate that sweet potato flour shows potential for the elaboration of this drink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition Determination and Beverage Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Gallic and Protocatechuic Acids in Mango Juice Using a Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Electrochemical Sensor
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
A simple and sensitive reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode-based electrochemical sensor was used for the concomitant determination of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic (PA) acid. The prepared sensor showed a significant enhancement in synergetic electro-catalytic performance towards GA and PA oxidation. A [...] Read more.
A simple and sensitive reduced graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode-based electrochemical sensor was used for the concomitant determination of gallic acid (GA) and protocatechuic (PA) acid. The prepared sensor showed a significant enhancement in synergetic electro-catalytic performance towards GA and PA oxidation. A good resolution of the voltammetry peaks was obtained and a method of square wave voltammetry was developed for detection. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical techniques. The optimal experimental parameters were considered. GA and PA exhibited a linear increase in the peak currents with their concentrations in the range from 20 to 144 µmol·L−1 for GA and from 20 to 166 µmol·L−1 for PA, with limits of detection (S/N = 3) of 30.8 µmol·L−1 for GA and 10.2 µmol·L−1 for PA. The sensor applicability was simultaneously tested for the analytical determination of GA and PA in mango juice and exhibited a robust functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Juices: Technology, Chemistry, and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Techno-Functional Role of Exopolysaccharides in Cereal-Based, Yogurt-Like Beverages
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
This review describes the technical and functional role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) in cereal-based, yogurt-like beverages. Many microorganisms produce EPSs as a strategy for growing, adhering to solid surfaces, and surviving under adverse conditions. In several food and beverages, EPSs play technical and functional [...] Read more.
This review describes the technical and functional role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) in cereal-based, yogurt-like beverages. Many microorganisms produce EPSs as a strategy for growing, adhering to solid surfaces, and surviving under adverse conditions. In several food and beverages, EPSs play technical and functional roles. Therefore, EPSs can be isolated, purified, and added to the product, or appropriate bacteria can be employed as starter cultures to produce the EPSs in situ within the matrix. The exploitation of in situ production of EPSs is of particular interest to manufacturers of cereal-base beverages aiming to mimic dairy products. In this review, traditional and innovative or experimental cereal-based beverages, and in particular, yogurt-like beverages are described with a particular focus in lactic acid bacteria (LAB’s) EPS production. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the current knowledge of exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria, and their presence in cereal-based, yogurt-like beverages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Acceptability, Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Carrot-Cucumber Juice
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Fresh vegetables (carrot and cucumber) were juiced using a juice extractor. The extracted juice was then divided into five varying proportions: A (100% carrot juice), B (80% carrot, 20% cucumber), C (70% carrot, 30% cucumber), D (50% carrot, 50% cucumber) and E (100% [...] Read more.
Fresh vegetables (carrot and cucumber) were juiced using a juice extractor. The extracted juice was then divided into five varying proportions: A (100% carrot juice), B (80% carrot, 20% cucumber), C (70% carrot, 30% cucumber), D (50% carrot, 50% cucumber) and E (100% cucumber). The juice blends were then analyzed for proximate, mineral and vitamin compositions. The phytochemical and the antioxidant properties were also determined. The proximate composition result revealed very high moisture (82.03–83.85%), relatively low carbohydrate (5.23–10.57%) and very low crude protein (1.75–4.14%) contents. For the micronutrients, potassium (14.70–32.10 mg/100 mL) and vitamin C (14.48–24.48 mg/100 mL) were more predominant when compared to the other micronutrients that were determined. The pH was mildly acidic (5.90–6.21) and the Brix value ranged between 3.51 and 7%. The antioxidant result indicated that better bioactivity could be obtained from the blends than the individual juices. While there were no statistically significant differences in the sensory properties of the juices, the 100% carrot juice was rated higher in all the attributes evaluated. Therefore, it was concluded that a blend of carrot and cucumber at a 50:50 ratio offered comparable nutritional and better antioxidative quality when compared to other blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity Research and Bioactive Compounds in Beverages)
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Open AccessReview
Listeria monocytogenes in Milk: Occurrence and Recent Advances in Methods for Inactivation
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Milk is one of the most important food items consumed by humans worldwide. In addition to its nutritional importance, milk is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms, which may include pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). Traditional processing of milk for [...] Read more.
Milk is one of the most important food items consumed by humans worldwide. In addition to its nutritional importance, milk is an excellent culture medium for microorganisms, which may include pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). Traditional processing of milk for direct consumption is based on thermal treatments that efficiently eliminate pathogens, including pasteurization or sterilization. However, the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in milk as a consequence of failures in the pasteurization process or postpasteurization contamination is still a matter of concern. In recent years, consumer demand for minimally processed milk has increased due to the perception of better sensory and nutritional qualities of the products. This review deals with the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in milk in the last 10 years, including regulatory aspects, and recent advances in technologies for the inactivation of this pathogen in milk. The results from studies on nonthermal technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasounds, and ultraviolet irradiation, are discussed, considering their potential application in milk processing plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria in Beverages: Prevalence and Control)
Open AccessReview
Current Trends in Fully Automated On-Line Analytical Techniques for Beverage Analysis
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The determination of target analytes in complex matrices such as beverages requires a series of analytical steps to obtain a reliable analysis. This critical review presents the current trends in sample preparation techniques based on solid phase extraction miniaturization, automation and on-line coupling. [...] Read more.
The determination of target analytes in complex matrices such as beverages requires a series of analytical steps to obtain a reliable analysis. This critical review presents the current trends in sample preparation techniques based on solid phase extraction miniaturization, automation and on-line coupling. Techniques discussed include solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), in-tube solid-phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) and turbulent-flow chromatography (TFC). Advantages and limitations, as well as several of their main applications in beverage samples are discussed. Finally, fully automated on-line systems that involve extraction, chromatographic separation, and tandem mass spectrometry in one-step are introduced and critically reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Analytical Techniques for Beverage Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrothermal Carbonization of Brewery’s Spent Grains for the Production of Solid Biofuels
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
To make a beer there are four essential ingredients needed: water, malt, hops, and yeast. After brewing process, the main wastes are spent grains. These are often used as additions to fodders in animal husbandry. This study presents preliminary results of an investigation [...] Read more.
To make a beer there are four essential ingredients needed: water, malt, hops, and yeast. After brewing process, the main wastes are spent grains. These are often used as additions to fodders in animal husbandry. This study presents preliminary results of an investigation aiming to determine the feasibility of an alternative use of spent grains as a potential source of solid fuel. This source of energy could make breweries partly sustainable in terms of their energy supply. Such an approach may be feasible especially in large scale industrial breweries. This preliminary study presents encouraging results, showing improvements in terms of the fuel properties of the spent grain after its valorization through hydrothermal carbonization. Moreover, qualitative GC-MS analysis also indicates potential feasibility of the liquid byproduct of the hydrothermal carbonization of spent grain for biogas production. Results of proximate, ultimate, and DTG analyses show that hydrothermal carbonization of spent grain could improve its fuel properties and make it an especially suitable feedstock for fast pyrolysis and gasification. Improvement of HHV is also an improvement in terms of combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in the Beverage Sector)
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Open AccessReview
Consumption of Chlorogenic Acids through Coffee and Health Implications
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main antioxidant compounds in the Western diet, due to their high concentrations in coffee associated with the high consumption of the beverage. Until about 10 years ago, like many other phenolic compounds, CGA were thought to be poorly [...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main antioxidant compounds in the Western diet, due to their high concentrations in coffee associated with the high consumption of the beverage. Until about 10 years ago, like many other phenolic compounds, CGA were thought to be poorly absorbed in the human digestive system. Along the years, large amounts of information on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been unveiled, and today, it is known that, on average, about one third of the consumed CGA from coffee is absorbed in the human gastrointestinal tract, although large inter-individual variation exists. Considering results from in vitro animal and human studies, it is possible to conclude that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee CGA are responsible for, at least to a certain extent, the association between coffee consumption and lower incidence of various degenerative and non-degenerative diseases, in addition to higher longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of High Power Ultrasound for Oak Wood Barrel Regeneration: Impact on Wood Properties and Sanitation Effect
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the ability of high power ultrasound (HPU) to ensure oak barrel sterilization and wood structure preservation. Optimization was performed in terms of temperature and time and the impact of the HPU process on the porous material was also [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the ability of high power ultrasound (HPU) to ensure oak barrel sterilization and wood structure preservation. Optimization was performed in terms of temperature and time and the impact of the HPU process on the porous material was also characterized. In this research, several wood characteristics were considered, such as the specific surface area, hydrophobicity, oxygen desorption and spoilage microorganisms after treatment. The study showed that the microbial stabilization could be obtained with HPU 60 °C/6 min. The results obtained show that microorganisms are impacted up to a depth of 9 mm, with a Brettanomyces bruxellensis population < 1 log CFU/g. The operating parameters used during the HPU treatment can also impact on wood exchange surface and oxygen desorption kinetics indicating that tartrate is removed. Indeed, the total oxygen desorption rate was recovered after HPU treatment, close to a new oak barrel, and thus may indicate that there is no impact on the ultrastructure (vessel, pore size or rays). Finally, wood wettability can also be impacted, depending on the temperature and the duration of exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Beverages in 2018
Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pulsed Electric Field Extraction and Antioxidant Activity Determination of Moringa oleifera Dry Leaves: A Comparative Study with Other Extraction Techniques
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
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Abstract
The scope of this work was to determine the possibility of the application of the pulsed electric field (PEF) technique to the production of extracts from Moringa oleifera plant material (freeze-dried leaves). Various PEF conditions (pulse duration—PD; and pulse interval—PI) were tested. A [...] Read more.
The scope of this work was to determine the possibility of the application of the pulsed electric field (PEF) technique to the production of extracts from Moringa oleifera plant material (freeze-dried leaves). Various PEF conditions (pulse duration—PD; and pulse interval—PI) were tested. A field strength of 7 kV/cm was used. The total phenols in the extracts were evaluated by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Rancimat methods. The results were compared with those of the extracts obtained using other extraction techniques, namely microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extractions, simple boiling water extraction, and plain maceration with water (as the control). The highest extraction of total phenols was achieved by the PEF procedure using 40 min treatment at a PD of 20 msec and a PI of 100 μsec. Additionally, all methods for the determination of the antioxidant activity showed that the activity of the extracts was proportional to the total phenol content. Concerning the PEF procedure, a low pulse duration with a high pulse interval is proposed in order to achieve higher extraction efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulse Electric Field in Liquid Food Processing and Extraction)
Open AccessReview
Wine-Derived Phenolic Metabolites in the Digestive and Brain Function
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Wine, and specifically red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity comprising a particular combination of phenolic compounds which are directly associated with its health-promoting properties. Wine polyphenols could induce changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota that would affect the [...] Read more.
Wine, and specifically red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity comprising a particular combination of phenolic compounds which are directly associated with its health-promoting properties. Wine polyphenols could induce changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota that would affect the production of physiologically active phenolic metabolites modifying the content and phenolic profile at the systemic level. In addition, in the human population, it seems that different “metabotypes”, or patterns of metabolizing wine polyphenols, exist, which would be reflected in the different biological fluids (i.e., plasma, urine and feces) and tissues of the human body. Moreover, wine polyphenols might change the composition of oral microbiota by an antimicrobial action and/or by inhibition of the adhesion of pathogens to oral cells, thus contributing to the maintenance of oral health. In turn, polyphenols and/or its metabolites could have a direct action on brain function, by positively affecting signaling routes involved in stress-induced neuronal response, as well as by preventing neuroticism-like disorders (i.e., anxiety and depression) through anti-inflammatory and epigenetic mechanisms. All of this would condition the positive effects on health derived from moderate wine consumption. This paper reviews all these topics, which are directly related with the effects of wine polyphenols at both digestive and brain level. Further progresses expected in the coming years in these fields are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in Wine by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Metals in wine can originate from natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations have significant effects on wine proprieties as well in its conservation. In this work, direct and simultaneous determinations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in wine samples were carried out [...] Read more.
Metals in wine can originate from natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations have significant effects on wine proprieties as well in its conservation. In this work, direct and simultaneous determinations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in wine samples were carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry without any steps of previous pretreatment. The samples analyzed presented concentration levels from 4.64 to 69.3 µg L−1 of Zn, from 1.74 to 5.25 µg L−1 of Cd, from 4.57 to 17.9 µg L−1 of Pb and from 1.0 to 10.3 µg L−1 of Cu. Accuracy was evaluated with the standard addition method and recoveries ranged from 82.5 and 130.8% for Zn, from 85.7 to 107.0% for Cd, from 89.7 to 101.0% for Pb and from 81.4 to 105.9% for Cu. With the application of this method, it was possible to quantify the metals in a simple and easy way not requiring sample preparation or other approaches for the destruction of organic substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Analytical Techniques for Beverage Analysis)
Open AccessArticle
Improving Fermentation Rate during Use of Corn Grits in Beverage Alcohol Production
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Corn grits are commonly used adjuncts in the brewing industry in the United States, especially for lager beers. The major challenge of using a high amount of adjuncts in the brewing process is reduced levels of nutrients available to yeast during fermentation, which [...] Read more.
Corn grits are commonly used adjuncts in the brewing industry in the United States, especially for lager beers. The major challenge of using a high amount of adjuncts in the brewing process is reduced levels of nutrients available to yeast during fermentation, which negatively affects the growth and functioning of yeast, and results in sluggish fermentation. The problem is usually addressed by adding external nutrition. The objective of this work was to assess the suitability of corn components other than brewer’s grits to improve the fermentation rates. Water obtained after soaking of corn germ, a vital source of lipids and soluble proteins, was investigated as a source of nutrient during brewing of 40:60 (w/w) corn grits and malt mixture. Performance of water-soluble nutrients from germ of two corn verities, yellow dent corn and flint corn, was investigated. Germ soak water was added during corn grits slurry formation before mashing. The addition of germ water increased the free amino nitrogen levels by 37% and Zn concentrations by 3.6 times in the wort, which resulted in up to a 28% higher fermentation rate (between 48 to 72 h of fermentation) and shortened the fermentation time from 120 to 96 h. The use of water obtained from the soaking of flint corn germ resulted in a similar shortening of fermentation time. In another approach, nutrient-rich concentrated germ soak water was directly added into the wort, which also resulted in similar improvements in the fermentation rate as those from adding germ soak water during slurry formation. Due to leaching of micronutrients and soluble proteins, the oil concentrations in the germ increased by more than 30%, enhancing its economic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Fortification of Ground Roasted Coffees with Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Salts: Evaluation of Minerals Recovery in Filtered and Espresso Brews
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies are of great public health and socioeconomic importance. Food fortification has been widely used as a simple low-cost resource to increase mineral intake. Considering that coffee is the most consumed food product worldwide, in this study, C. arabica and C. canephora [...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiencies are of great public health and socioeconomic importance. Food fortification has been widely used as a simple low-cost resource to increase mineral intake. Considering that coffee is the most consumed food product worldwide, in this study, C. arabica and C. canephora seeds were roasted, ground, and fortified with three salts of iron, zinc, and calcium as part of the selection of appropriate mineral vehicles for fortification. After ranking the performance through a test by a trained tasters’ panel, only two salts for each mineral remained. Mineral recoveries were evaluated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in filtered (paper and nylon filters) and espresso brews. The best mean recoveries for each mineral in espresso brew prepared from fortified coffees were: 80.8% of iron as ferrous bisglycinate chelate, 75.4% of zinc as zinc lactate, and 72.1% of calcium as calcium lactate. These better ranked salts by the tasters’ panel. In filtered brews, mean recovery values of 51.1%, 47.6%, and 51.6% were obtained for the same mineral salts, respectively. No difference or very small differences were observed between species and types of filter. The results implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Migration of Bisphenol A from Can Coatings into Beverages at the End of Shelf Life Compared to Regulated Test Conditions
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Beverage cans are used for energy drinks, soft-drinks, sparkling waters, and beer. Bisphenol A is still part of the formulation of epoxy coatings of beverage cans. Due to concerns that bisphenol A acts as an endocrine-active substance, the migration of bisphenol A is [...] Read more.
Beverage cans are used for energy drinks, soft-drinks, sparkling waters, and beer. Bisphenol A is still part of the formulation of epoxy coatings of beverage cans. Due to concerns that bisphenol A acts as an endocrine-active substance, the migration of bisphenol A is restricted. Typically, the migration from beverage cans is tested at elevated temperatures into food simulants, like 20% ethanol in water. However, comparison tests of the migration of bisphenol A at the end of shelf life, with the migration into ethanolic food simulants, are not available in the scientific literature. The aim of the study was to determine the migration of the migration of bisphenol A into real beverages, compared to routine migration tests into the European official food simulant of 20% ethanol at 40 °C and 60 °C after storage for 10 days. As a result, bisphenol A-containing coatings show a considerably higher migration when tested at 60 °C in comparison to 40 °C. On the other hand, migration into energy drinks and coke, from the same coatings at the end of shelf life when stored at room temperature, was below the detection limit in either case. As expected, migration values of bisphenol A below the analytical detection limits were observed for any test conditions from the coating labeled bisphenol A-free. Spiking tests show that bisphenol A is stable in real beverages. Therefore, it can be concluded that the accelerated migration tests with 20% ethanol at the test conditions 10 d at 40 °C and 10 d at 60 °C significantly overestimate the real migration into beverages at the end of shelf life. This overestimation of the migration of bisphenol A is due to swelling of the epoxy can coating by the ethanolic food simulant. These findings were supported by migration modeling based on diffusion coefficients predicted for polyethylene terephthalate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Packaging 2019)
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Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant Properties of a Yogurt Beverage Enriched with Salal (Gaultheria shallon) Berries and Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) Pomace during Cold Storage
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract
Aqueous extracts (20% w/w) of dried berry fruits and skins were used as sources of phenolic compounds to fortify yogurt beverages. The total phenol and anthocyanin content of the reformulated yogurts were determined, and the antioxidant properties were compared to plain yogurt (C) [...] Read more.
Aqueous extracts (20% w/w) of dried berry fruits and skins were used as sources of phenolic compounds to fortify yogurt beverages. The total phenol and anthocyanin content of the reformulated yogurts were determined, and the antioxidant properties were compared to plain yogurt (C) during storage at 4 °C for a total period of four weeks. Yogurt beverages fortified with salal berry (SB) extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds (>69.9 μg GAE/mL) and anthocyanins (>19.12 mg C3G/L) compared to drinks supplemented with blackcurrant pomace (BC) extract (>50.13 μg GAE/mL and >10.80 mg C3G/L respectively). Storage affected the stability of anthocyanins, whereas total phenol content remained unaffected. Yogurts with SB displayed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by samples with BC, which is attributed to the radical scavenging effect of the bioactive compounds present with antioxidant properties. The antioxidant capacity of the yogurt beverages fortified with fruit extracts was maintained during cold storage. Findings of this study indicate that SB and BC pomace can be used as functional ingredients to increase the antioxidant potential of yogurt beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of a Cell-Based and Electrochemical Biosensor for the Rapid Detection of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Barrel Water Extracts
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Fungal metabolites such as haloanisoles (especially 2,4,6-tribromoanisole/ 2,4,6-TCA) are contaminants of cork and wood barrels, materials that are widely used in the wine industry. Thus, the accurate and timely detection of these substances is very important for this sector of beverage [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Fungal metabolites such as haloanisoles (especially 2,4,6-tribromoanisole/ 2,4,6-TCA) are contaminants of cork and wood barrels, materials that are widely used in the wine industry. Thus, the accurate and timely detection of these substances is very important for this sector of beverage industry. (2) Methods: Potentiometry was used for the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA)-based experimental approach, where changes in the electric properties of the Vero cells modified with anti-TCA antibodies were recorded in response to the presence of 2,4,6-TCA in different concentrations. Furthermore, a second electrochemical biosensor system based on the cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurement of a reaction taking place on a screen printed electrode was developed in parallel to the customized application and configuration of the cell-based system. (3) Results: The BERA cell-based biosensor was able to quantitatively differentiate among the lower 2,4,6-TCA concentrations (control, 0.25 and 1.25 ng/L) from spiked oak barrel water extracts in an entirely distinct and reproducible manner. In contrast, the CV method was not sensitive enough to differentiate between the samples. (4) Conclusions: The present study indicates that the BERA-based biosensor after further development and optimization could be used for the routine, high throughput detection of 2,4,6-TCA in oak barrel water extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Analytical Techniques for Beverage Analysis)
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