Special Issue "Brewing and Craft Beer"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Luis F. Guido

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food chemistry; food analysis; food control; food quality; analytical chemistry; brewing chemistry; malting chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Beer is a beverage with more than eight thousand years of history, and the process of brewing has not changed so much over the centuries. However, important technical advances have allowed us to produce beer in a more sophisticated and efficient way. The proliferation of specialty hop varieties has been behind the popularity of craft beers seen in the last few years around the world. Craft brewers interpret historic beer with unique styles. Craft beers are undergoing an unprecedented period of growth, and more than 150 beer styles are currently recognized.

This Special Issue, “Brewing and Craft Beer”, is aimed at giving the floor to the craft brewers who wish to share their findings, as well as to academic and industrial researchers. Coverage includes a selection of original research and current review articles related to the whole process, from cereal to beer, with particular emphasis on:

  • Raw materials
  • Key beer ingredients
  • Specialty hops
  • Malting technology
  • Brewing technology
  • Brewing yeast and fermentation
  • Aroma and flavor
  • Beer quality
  • Innovative technologies
  • Efficient breweries

Prof. Luis F. Guido
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • malt
  • hops
  • yeast
  • malting
  • brewing
  • fermentation
  • beer styles
  • efficiency

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Why Craft Brewers Should Be Advised to Use Bottle Refermentation to Improve Late-Hopped Beer Stability
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
The aromatic complexity of craft beers, together with some particular practices (use of small vessels, dry hopping, etc.), can cause more oxidation associated with pre-maturated colloidal instability, Madeira off-flavors, bitterness decrease, and aroma loss. As bottle refermentation is widely used in Belgian craft [...] Read more.
The aromatic complexity of craft beers, together with some particular practices (use of small vessels, dry hopping, etc.), can cause more oxidation associated with pre-maturated colloidal instability, Madeira off-flavors, bitterness decrease, and aroma loss. As bottle refermentation is widely used in Belgian craft beers, the aim of the present work is to assess how this practice might impact their flavor. In fresh beers, key flavors were evidenced by four complementary techniques: short-chain fatty acids determination, esters analysis, XAD-2 extract olfactometry, and overall sensory analysis. In almost all of the fresh beers, isovaleric acid was the sole fatty acid found above its sensory threshold. Selected samples were further analyzed through natural aging at 20 °C. The presence of yeast in the bottle minimized the trans-2-nonenal released from Schiff bases and proved less deleterious than suggested by previous studies with regard to fatty acid release and ester decrease through aging. Furthermore, according to the yeast species selected, some interesting terpenols and phenols were produced from glucosides during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Craft Beer as a Means of Economic Development: An Economic Impact Analysis of the Michigan Value Chain
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
While many studies have suggested the beer value chain might be a vehicle for economic growth, few have estimated the economic impacts of craft beer to a geographic region. As such, this study uses modified input/output analysis to identify the economic contributions of [...] Read more.
While many studies have suggested the beer value chain might be a vehicle for economic growth, few have estimated the economic impacts of craft beer to a geographic region. As such, this study uses modified input/output analysis to identify the economic contributions of instate beer production to the Michigan economy. We find that the beer value chain generated nearly $500 million in Gross State Product in 2016, contributing nearly $1 billion as well as 9738 jobs in total aggregate economic contributions. The results suggest that state governments might generate economic growth by creating a business climate that is conducive to the growth of the instate beer value chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Artificial Neural Network Models to Assess Beer Acceptability Based on Sensory Properties Using a Robotic Pourer: A Comparative Model Approach to Achieve an Artificial Intelligence System
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become popular for optimization and prediction of parameters in foods, beverages, agriculture and medicine. For brewing, they have been explored to develop rapid methods to assess product quality and acceptability. Different beers (N = 17) were analyzed [...] Read more.
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become popular for optimization and prediction of parameters in foods, beverages, agriculture and medicine. For brewing, they have been explored to develop rapid methods to assess product quality and acceptability. Different beers (N = 17) were analyzed in triplicates using a robotic pourer, RoboBEER (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), to assess 15 color and foam-related parameters using computer-vision. Those samples were tested using sensory analysis for acceptability of carbonation mouthfeel, bitterness, flavor and overall liking with 30 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale. ANN models were developed using 17 different training algorithms with 15 color and foam-related parameters as inputs and liking of four descriptors obtained from consumers as targets. Each algorithm was tested using five, seven and ten neurons and compared to select the best model based on correlation coefficients, slope and performance (mean squared error (MSE). Bayesian Regularization algorithm with seven neurons presented the best correlation (R = 0.98) and highest performance (MSE = 0.03) with no overfitting. These models may be used as a cost-effective method for fast-screening of beers during processing to assess acceptability more efficiently. The use of RoboBEER, computer-vision algorithms and ANN will allow the implementation of an artificial intelligence system for the brewing industry to assess its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Sorghum Coffee–Lactose Stout Production and Its Physico-Chemical Characterization
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Sorghum (Safrari) was valorized into sorghum coffee-lactose stouts using Vernonia amygdalina as a bittering ingredient. These sorghum grains and subsequent sorghum pale malt were tested for their acceptability in the brewing field. Results obtained were the germinative capacity of 99.29 ± [...] Read more.
Sorghum (Safrari) was valorized into sorghum coffee-lactose stouts using Vernonia amygdalina as a bittering ingredient. These sorghum grains and subsequent sorghum pale malt were tested for their acceptability in the brewing field. Results obtained were the germinative capacity of 99.29 ± 0.58%, a germinative energy of 98.56 ± 1.79%, a thousand corns weight 48.08 ± 0.02 g for the grains, and a diastatic power of 187.44 ± 7.89 WK for sorghum malt. The worts and beers produced were characterized and were found suitable. Moreover, alcohol content in stout beers obtained was between 8.8% and 9.4% ABV. Sensory evaluation was implemented on beers using 30 panellists and the best combination was the one using 50% lactose (250 g) and 50% coffee (250 g) in 5 L of wort during wort boiling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Fermentation Rate during Use of Corn Grits in Beverage Alcohol Production
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Corn grits are commonly used adjuncts in the brewing industry in the United States, especially for lager beers. The major challenge of using a high amount of adjuncts in the brewing process is reduced levels of nutrients available to yeast during fermentation, which [...] Read more.
Corn grits are commonly used adjuncts in the brewing industry in the United States, especially for lager beers. The major challenge of using a high amount of adjuncts in the brewing process is reduced levels of nutrients available to yeast during fermentation, which negatively affects the growth and functioning of yeast, and results in sluggish fermentation. The problem is usually addressed by adding external nutrition. The objective of this work was to assess the suitability of corn components other than brewer’s grits to improve the fermentation rates. Water obtained after soaking of corn germ, a vital source of lipids and soluble proteins, was investigated as a source of nutrient during brewing of 40:60 (w/w) corn grits and malt mixture. Performance of water-soluble nutrients from germ of two corn verities, yellow dent corn and flint corn, was investigated. Germ soak water was added during corn grits slurry formation before mashing. The addition of germ water increased the free amino nitrogen levels by 37% and Zn concentrations by 3.6 times in the wort, which resulted in up to a 28% higher fermentation rate (between 48 to 72 h of fermentation) and shortened the fermentation time from 120 to 96 h. The use of water obtained from the soaking of flint corn germ resulted in a similar shortening of fermentation time. In another approach, nutrient-rich concentrated germ soak water was directly added into the wort, which also resulted in similar improvements in the fermentation rate as those from adding germ soak water during slurry formation. Due to leaching of micronutrients and soluble proteins, the oil concentrations in the germ increased by more than 30%, enhancing its economic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Profile, Consumer Preference and Chemical Composition of Craft Beers from Brazil
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040106
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Craft beers are known for their distinct flavor, brew, and regional distribution. They are made using top-fermenting (ale) yeast, bottom-fermenting (lager) yeast, or through spontaneous fermentation. Craft beers are consumed and produced in Brazil in large quantities. However, they present a high level [...] Read more.
Craft beers are known for their distinct flavor, brew, and regional distribution. They are made using top-fermenting (ale) yeast, bottom-fermenting (lager) yeast, or through spontaneous fermentation. Craft beers are consumed and produced in Brazil in large quantities. However, they present a high level of polyphenols, which affects consumer preference as they may yield a taste of bitterness to beers. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between polyphenols and bitterness as well as the composition of the main styles of craft beers and consumer preference for them. Six different styles were analyzed according to their polyphenol content, bitterness, chemical composition, sensory profile, and preference. For preference, a panel of 62 untrained assessors was used. For sensory profile, quantitative descriptive analysis was performed using expert assessors (n = 8). The most preferred style was classic American pilsner, and the least preferred was standard American lager. The most preferred style showed less bitterness (9.52) and lower polyphenol content (0.61 mg EAG/mL), total solids (6.75 °Brix), and turbidity (7.27 NTU). This beer also exhibited reduced sensory notes of malty, fruity, smoked, hoppy, and phenolic but a higher perception of floral, sweet, and yeast notes; the bitterness attribute had a reduced perception. This study advances the understanding and complexity of the sensory profile of different styles of craft beers from Southern Brazil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Soundwaves on Foamability Properties and Sensory of Beers with a Machine Learning Modeling Approach
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The use of ultrasounds has been implemented to increase yeast viability, de-foaming, and cavitation in foods and beverages. However, the application of low frequency audible sound to decrease bubble size and improve foamability has not been explored. In this study, three treatments using [...] Read more.
The use of ultrasounds has been implemented to increase yeast viability, de-foaming, and cavitation in foods and beverages. However, the application of low frequency audible sound to decrease bubble size and improve foamability has not been explored. In this study, three treatments using India Pale Ale beers were tested, which include (1) a control, (2) the application of audible sound during fermentation, and (3) the application of audible sound during natural carbonation. Five different audible frequencies (20 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, 55 Hz, and 75 Hz) were applied daily for one minute each (starting from the lowest frequency) during fermentation (11 days, treatment 2) and carbonation (22 days, treatment 3). Samples were measured in triplicates using the RoboBEER to assess color and foam-related parameters. A trained panel (n = 10) evaluated the intensity of sensory descriptors. Results showed that samples with sonication treatment had significant differences in the number of small bubbles, alcohol, and viscosity compared to the control. Furthermore, except for foam texture, foam height, and viscosity, there were non-significant differences in the intensity of any sensory descriptor, according to the rating from the trained sensory panel. The use of soundwaves is a potential treatment for brewing to improve beer quality by increasing the number of small bubbles and foamability without disrupting yeast or modifying the aroma and flavor profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Dry and Wet Milling of Barley Malt and Its Influence on Granulometry and Wort Composition
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Beer is a fermented drink produced from a wort comprised of barley malt, hops, and water in combination with activity from the yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces. The beverage is consumed around the world and has a global market controlled by [...] Read more.
Beer is a fermented drink produced from a wort comprised of barley malt, hops, and water in combination with activity from the yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces. The beverage is consumed around the world and has a global market controlled by several multinational companies. However, in recent years, it has been possible to note an increase in the number of microbreweries and homebrewers, necessitating additional research both to develop and increase competitiveness of this market sector as well as to improve product quality and promote the reduction of production costs. The process of milling barley malt is often not considered relevant to these goals; however, this operation is influential with regard to, for example, mashing yield, the concentration of polyphenols in beer, and the quality of wort clarification. Therefore, this work evaluates the wet (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% moisture content) and dry barley malt milling process as well as analyzes particle size distribution and the mean diameter of particles. The milled grains were submitted to a mashing process to evaluate how particle size contributes to the conversion of starch to sugars and the availability of polyphenols on sweet wort. The results indicate the best milling conditions to obtain a good mashing yield while preserving as much malt husk as possible to facilitate wort clarification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Computer Vision Method in Beer Quality Evaluation—A Review
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Beers are differentiated mainly according to their visual appearance and their fermentation process. The main quality characteristics of beer are appearance, aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel. Important visual attributes of beer are foam appearance (volume and persistence), as well as the color and clarity. [...] Read more.
Beers are differentiated mainly according to their visual appearance and their fermentation process. The main quality characteristics of beer are appearance, aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel. Important visual attributes of beer are foam appearance (volume and persistence), as well as the color and clarity. To replace manual inspection, automatic, objective, rapid and repeatable external quality inspection systems, such as computer vision, are becoming very important and necessary. Computer vision is a non-contact optical technique, suitable for the non-destructive evaluation of the food product quality. Currently, the main application of computer vision occurs in automated inspection and measurement, allowing manufacturers to keep control of product quality. This paper presents an overview of the applications and the latest achievements of the computer vision methods in determining the external quality attributes of beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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