Special Issue "Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Koushik Adhikari

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sensory analysis; consumer behavior; food product development; food chemistry; sensometrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coffee, along with tea, are the two most consumed caffeinated beverages in the world. Coffee is primarily known as a morning drink that people consume to start their day. The popular belief that coffee provides energy to start your day is steeped in the fact that it contains a fair amount of caffeine. Lately, coffee has gained more popularity than ever as a social drink, the world over, mainly because of host of chain and non-chain coffee shops that provide gourmet and specialty coffee drinks.

The objective of this Special Issue is to publish original research and review articles on the various as aspects of coffee. The main aspect that this issue will try to address is the phenolic compounds and other antioxidants present in coffee and their health implications, if any. The effects of various stages in coffee processing on composition and aroma generation is another area that this Special Issue will also try to address. Finally, this issue would like to provide readers with information on the impact of processing on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of coffee.     

Dr. Koushik Adhikari
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessCommunication
Effect of Asparaginase Enzyme in the Reduction of Asparagine in Green Coffee
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in Nordic countries. Its composition has substances considered to have high value for human health, such as chlorogenic and phenolic acids. However, the roasting of coffee can form substances such as acrylamide that [...] Read more.
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in Nordic countries. Its composition has substances considered to have high value for human health, such as chlorogenic and phenolic acids. However, the roasting of coffee can form substances such as acrylamide that are considered toxic and carcinogenic, depending on the time and the heat of roasting. However, there are some ways of reducing acrylamide formation during the processing of coffee beans. The reduction of its precursor asparagine is one of these ways. This can be achieved by the treatment of beans with the enzyme asparaginase. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of applying asparaginase (Acrylaway™) and evaluate the reduction of the amount of asparagine in Coffea arabica and C. canephora beans. The results showed the effectiveness of the enzyme in the reduction of free asparagine in green coffee beans of both species (C. arabica and C. canephora). Steam pretreatment was effective for the two species but required different times (30 min for C. arabica and 45 min for C. canephora). This can be attributed to the different chemical compositions found in the two species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee Drinking and Emotions: Are There Key Sensory Drivers for Emotions?
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
In the past couple of decades the coffee market has exploded, and to remain competitive, it is important to identify the key drivers for consumer acceptance of coffee. This study expanded on the previous emotion study on a population of coffee drinkers in [...] Read more.
In the past couple of decades the coffee market has exploded, and to remain competitive, it is important to identify the key drivers for consumer acceptance of coffee. This study expanded on the previous emotion study on a population of coffee drinkers in Manhattan, Kansas, USA and focused on identifying the sensory drivers of emotional responses elicited during the coffee drinking experience (CDE). A trained coffee panel performed a descriptive analysis of six coffee samples and identified the key sensory attributes that discriminated each coffee. Utilizing Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), the descriptive data were then mapped with the emotion data to identify sensory drivers for eliciting the emotional responses. The sensory characteristics of dark roast coffee (roast–aroma and flavor, burnt–aroma and flavor, bitter, and body) might elicit positive-high energy feelings for this population of coffee users. Tobacco (flavor) and cocoa (aroma) may also be responsible for positive emotions (content, good, and pleasant). Citrus and acidity seemed to be negative sensory drivers as they induced the feeling of off-balance. Sensory descriptive data could be useful to describe emotion profiles elicited by coffee drinking, which could help the coffee industry create coffee products for different segments of coffee drinkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Fortification of Ground Roasted Coffees with Iron, Zinc, and Calcium Salts: Evaluation of Minerals Recovery in Filtered and Espresso Brews
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Micronutrient deficiencies are of great public health and socioeconomic importance. Food fortification has been widely used as a simple low-cost resource to increase mineral intake. Considering that coffee is the most consumed food product worldwide, in this study, C. arabica and C. canephora [...] Read more.
Micronutrient deficiencies are of great public health and socioeconomic importance. Food fortification has been widely used as a simple low-cost resource to increase mineral intake. Considering that coffee is the most consumed food product worldwide, in this study, C. arabica and C. canephora seeds were roasted, ground, and fortified with three salts of iron, zinc, and calcium as part of the selection of appropriate mineral vehicles for fortification. After ranking the performance through a test by a trained tasters’ panel, only two salts for each mineral remained. Mineral recoveries were evaluated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in filtered (paper and nylon filters) and espresso brews. The best mean recoveries for each mineral in espresso brew prepared from fortified coffees were: 80.8% of iron as ferrous bisglycinate chelate, 75.4% of zinc as zinc lactate, and 72.1% of calcium as calcium lactate. These better ranked salts by the tasters’ panel. In filtered brews, mean recovery values of 51.1%, 47.6%, and 51.6% were obtained for the same mineral salts, respectively. No difference or very small differences were observed between species and types of filter. The results implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessCommunication
Bioactive Constituents in Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Their Effect on the Risk of Depression—A Comparative Constituent Analysis Study
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Coffee, a popular beverage throughout the world, has been shown to have numerous beneficial health effects, including reducing the risk of developing depression. This effect has only been shown with the consumption of caffeinated coffee and not decaffeinated coffee or caffeine alone and [...] Read more.
Coffee, a popular beverage throughout the world, has been shown to have numerous beneficial health effects, including reducing the risk of developing depression. This effect has only been shown with the consumption of caffeinated coffee and not decaffeinated coffee or caffeine alone and one of many hypotheses attributes this to the loss of key constituents during the decaffeination process. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any of the key bioactive coffee constituents with known anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are lost during the decaffeination process. The analysis of nine caffeinated and nine decaffeinated samples of various brands and batches of commonly consumed coffee in Australia using HPLC analysis found that, with the exception of caffeine, there were no significant differences in the quantity of other key bioactive coffee constituents in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. These results suggest that there may be an alternative explanation for the observed inverse correlation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the risk of developing depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
Open AccessArticle
Consumer’s Attitude Regarding Soluble Coffee Enriched with Antioxidants
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Brazil is the second largest coffee consumer in the world. The development of new products related to healthy eating is one of the demands to maintain this scenario. This research aimed to investigate the role of socio-demographic, cognitive and behavioral characteristics on the [...] Read more.
Brazil is the second largest coffee consumer in the world. The development of new products related to healthy eating is one of the demands to maintain this scenario. This research aimed to investigate the role of socio-demographic, cognitive and behavioral characteristics on the acceptance of functional foods by coffee consumers. A questionnaire developed and applied in Belgium was previously translated and validated for application with Brazilian consumers. The habits of coffee consumption, knowledge and interest were investigated regarding functional soluble coffee enriched with antioxidants. The self-administered study was performed with 270 consumers. Acceptance was measured by two items: “Functional foods are all right for me as long as they taste good” and “Functional foods are all right for me even if they taste worse than their conventional counterpart foods”, obtaining a mean score of 4.03 and 2.79 (scale 1: totally disagree and 5: totally agree), respectively. The acceptance of functional foods increased with age, schooling, income, belief in the health benefits and knowledge about functional foods for both items. There was no significant correlation between price and acceptance. With regards to a functional soluble coffee product, the sensory quality was more determinant for its acceptance than price. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effects of Storage Temperature on the Aroma of Whole Bean Arabica Coffee Evaluated by Coffee Consumers and HS-SPME-GC-MS
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Although from a food safety point, coffee is considered a shelf-stable product, changes in volatiles over time due to out-gassing and chemical reactions lead to perceivable differences in coffee aroma and “freshness”. Previous studies have looked at the impact of storage conditions on [...] Read more.
Although from a food safety point, coffee is considered a shelf-stable product, changes in volatiles over time due to out-gassing and chemical reactions lead to perceivable differences in coffee aroma and “freshness”. Previous studies have looked at the impact of storage conditions on ground or brewed coffee. This study seeks to answer the question of how coffee consumers perceive the smell of coffee grounds of whole beans that have been stored under different conditions: freezer vs. room temperature for 9 weeks compared to a newly roasted control (stored for 1 day). Green beans from the same production lot were roasted to two different levels to also evaluate the impact of roast level on aroma changes. Using projective mapping (PM) followed by ultra-flash profiling (UFP), 48 coffee consumers evaluated, using only smell, 6 different freshly ground coffee samples presented in blind duplicates. In parallel, the profiles of 48 previously reported important coffee volatiles were measured by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) to relate chemical changes to perceivable sensory aroma changes. Overall, consumer product maps mimicked the instrumental measurements in that the lighter roast coffees showed smaller changes due to storage conditions compared to the dark roast samples. Consumers also perceived the frozen dark roast samples to be more similar to the newly roasted control than the samples stored at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Caffeine Consumption through Coffee: Content in the Beverage, Metabolism, Health Benefits and Risks
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during [...] Read more.
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during the brew’s preparation. After consumption, caffeine is almost completely absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver by phase I (cytochrome P450) enzymes, mainly CYP1A2, which appears to be polymorphically distributed in human populations. Paraxanthine is the major caffeine metabolite in plasma, while methylated xanthines and methyluric acids are the main metabolites excreted in urine. In addition to stimulating the central nervous system, caffeine exerts positive effects in the body, often in association with other substances, contributing to prevention of several chronic diseases. The potential adverse effects of caffeine have also been extensively studied in animal species and in humans. These aspects will be approached in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessReview
Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Coffee: Threads and Solutions—A Mini-Review
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread bioactive extrolite from secondary metabolism of fungi which presence in foods like coffee is of public health concern, particularly for heavy drinkers. Coffee is one of the most consumed and appreciated non-alcoholic beverage in the world. Its [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread bioactive extrolite from secondary metabolism of fungi which presence in foods like coffee is of public health concern, particularly for heavy drinkers. Coffee is one of the most consumed and appreciated non-alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production from the plantation to the coffee cup involves several steps that would determine the final concentration of OTA in the beverage. This review gives an overview of OTA contamination in roasted coffee beans in different countries and mitigation strategies for OTA reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessReview
Consumption of Chlorogenic Acids through Coffee and Health Implications
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main antioxidant compounds in the Western diet, due to their high concentrations in coffee associated with the high consumption of the beverage. Until about 10 years ago, like many other phenolic compounds, CGA were thought to be poorly [...] Read more.
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are the main antioxidant compounds in the Western diet, due to their high concentrations in coffee associated with the high consumption of the beverage. Until about 10 years ago, like many other phenolic compounds, CGA were thought to be poorly absorbed in the human digestive system. Along the years, large amounts of information on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been unveiled, and today, it is known that, on average, about one third of the consumed CGA from coffee is absorbed in the human gastrointestinal tract, although large inter-individual variation exists. Considering results from in vitro animal and human studies, it is possible to conclude that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee CGA are responsible for, at least to a certain extent, the association between coffee consumption and lower incidence of various degenerative and non-degenerative diseases, in addition to higher longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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