Special Issue "Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Creina Stockley

The Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond SA 5064, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61883136600

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Three decades after the term “French Paradox” was coined, scientific studies continue to explore the complex relationship between the consumption of wine and health. This Special Issue aims to provide deeper insight into the potentially bioactive components of grapes and wine, and the biological and chemical mechanisms involved in any positive impacts of wine on human health. The nutritional aspect of wine’s role, as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, as well as sociological outcomes of its consumption, are also considered.

Dr. Creina Stockley
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Grape Juice Consumption with or without High Fat Diet during Pregnancy Reduced the Weight Gain and Improved Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress Levels in Liver and Serum from Wistar Rats
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fat diet with or without grape juice during the pregnancy on gestational weight gain, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress in plasma and liver from Wistar rats. Forty-nine rats were divided into [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fat diet with or without grape juice during the pregnancy on gestational weight gain, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress in plasma and liver from Wistar rats. Forty-nine rats were divided into four groups: control diet group (CD), high fat diet (HFD), grape juice and control diet (PGJCD), and grape juice and high fat diet (PGJHFD). During the treatment the weight gain of the rats was tracked. They had free access to their respective diets during 42 days of treatment. After offspring weaning, the mother rats were euthanized and blood and liver were collected. The high fat diet increased the total cholesterol and triglycerides serum levels as well as carbonyl levels in the liver, however this diet reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and urea levels in serum. Grape juice consumption reduced gestational body weight gain. In liver, the juice consumption increased sulfhydryl levels and reduced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and TBARS level, in serum the consumption reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and TBARS. We can conclude that the consumption of a diet rich in fat can promotes harmful effects on health during pregnancy, however the consumption of grape juice seems to be an important alternative to prevent oxidative damages and to promote the improvement of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Wine-Derived Phenolic Metabolites in the Digestive and Brain Function
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Wine, and specifically red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity comprising a particular combination of phenolic compounds which are directly associated with its health-promoting properties. Wine polyphenols could induce changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota that would affect the [...] Read more.
Wine, and specifically red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity comprising a particular combination of phenolic compounds which are directly associated with its health-promoting properties. Wine polyphenols could induce changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota that would affect the production of physiologically active phenolic metabolites modifying the content and phenolic profile at the systemic level. In addition, in the human population, it seems that different “metabotypes”, or patterns of metabolizing wine polyphenols, exist, which would be reflected in the different biological fluids (i.e., plasma, urine and feces) and tissues of the human body. Moreover, wine polyphenols might change the composition of oral microbiota by an antimicrobial action and/or by inhibition of the adhesion of pathogens to oral cells, thus contributing to the maintenance of oral health. In turn, polyphenols and/or its metabolites could have a direct action on brain function, by positively affecting signaling routes involved in stress-induced neuronal response, as well as by preventing neuroticism-like disorders (i.e., anxiety and depression) through anti-inflammatory and epigenetic mechanisms. All of this would condition the positive effects on health derived from moderate wine consumption. This paper reviews all these topics, which are directly related with the effects of wine polyphenols at both digestive and brain level. Further progresses expected in the coming years in these fields are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Open AccessReview
Wine Polyphenols and Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Update on the Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Protective Effects
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are the most common age-related and predominantly idiopathic neurodegenerative disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Although these diseases differ in their clinical and neuropathological features, they also share some common aetiologies, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are the most common age-related and predominantly idiopathic neurodegenerative disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Although these diseases differ in their clinical and neuropathological features, they also share some common aetiologies, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo evidences suggest an inverse correlation between wine consumption and the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders. Wine benefits are, in large part, attributable to the intake of specific polyphenols, which mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the role that wine polyphenols play in delaying neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and we consider how their biological mechanisms at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects. Together, these data indicate that polyphenols present in wine may hold neuroprotective potential in delaying the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Wine in Modulating Inflammatory Processes: A Review
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Several epidemiological studies associated the consumption of wine with the reduction of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as for diabetes. These conditions are characterized by inflammatory mechanisms in addition to other biological mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation [...] Read more.
Several epidemiological studies associated the consumption of wine with the reduction of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as for diabetes. These conditions are characterized by inflammatory mechanisms in addition to other biological mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation is mediated by a plethora of biomarkers production and pathway activation. Since the health promoting properties of wine in different pathological conditions may include the reduction of inflammation, the aim of this paper was to collect and review the in vitro, in vivo, and human studies performed to evaluate the effects of wine on different models of inflammation. Although great variability in wine intake, period of consumption, and content of phenolic compounds was observed, data from both human and animal studies showed a positive modulation of inflammatory biomarkers (cytokines, coagulation parameters) and oxidative stress (mainly malondialdehyde) involved in cardiovascular function. In addition, some convincing evidence was obtained in different models suggesting a positive modulation of risk factors for gastric and intestinal inflammation. Contradictory results were obtained for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. To date, no significant paper has been published in the area of immune function. Integrating in vivo data and in vitro studies, the NF-κB pathway has been identified as a critical target for the protective properties of a moderate wine consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
Open AccessReview
Low-Alcohol Wine: A Narrative Review on Consumer Perception and Behaviour
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Abstract
Low- and reduced-alcohol beverages become increasingly popular in many countries with different factors driving a change in the beverage market. The aim of the current narrative review is (a) to provide an introduction on low-alcohol wine, and (b) to provide an overview of [...] Read more.
Low- and reduced-alcohol beverages become increasingly popular in many countries with different factors driving a change in the beverage market. The aim of the current narrative review is (a) to provide an introduction on low-alcohol wine, and (b) to provide an overview of the literature on research that investigated perception and behaviour related to low-alcohol wine consumption. Wines with reduced alcohol content can be an interesting product for a variety of stakeholders and may offer benefits for consumers while having the potential to reduce alcohol consumption and therefore contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm. Additional research and marketing efforts are needed to further increase awareness of the availability and quality of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
Open AccessReview
Minerality in Wine: Towards the Reality behind the Myths
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Tasting minerality in wine is highly fashionable, but it is unclear what this involves. The present review outlines published work concerning how minerality in wine is perceived and conceptualised by wine professionals and consumers. Studies investigating physico-chemical sources of perceived minerality in wine [...] Read more.
Tasting minerality in wine is highly fashionable, but it is unclear what this involves. The present review outlines published work concerning how minerality in wine is perceived and conceptualised by wine professionals and consumers. Studies investigating physico-chemical sources of perceived minerality in wine are reviewed also. Unusually, for a wine sensory descriptor, the term frequently is taken to imply a genesis: the sensation is the taste of minerals in the wine that were transported through the vine from the vineyard rocks and soils. Recent studies exploring tasters’ definitions of minerality in wine support this notion. However, there are reasons why this cannot be. First, minerals in wine are nutrient elements that are related distantly only to vineyard geological minerals. Second, mineral nutrients in wine normally have minuscule concentrations and generally lack flavour. Results of reviewed studies overall demonstrate marked variability in both wine professionals’ and wine consumers’ definitions and sensory-based judgments of minerality in wine, although there is some consensus in terms of the other wine attributes that associate with the term mineral. The main wine composition predictors of perceived minerality involve a complex combination of organic compounds dependent on grape ripeness and/or derived from wine fermentations and redox status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Components and Chemical Mechanisms for Health)
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