Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight compounds formed from precursor amino acids, mainly by microbial decarboxylation. The presence of these compounds is important in the food and beverage industry because, in high amounts, they can lead to negative effects on consumers. In this review, we illustrate the critical aspects needed to control the formation of BAs during winemaking and their presence in the final product. Recent biotechnological approaches related to microorganisms and their ability to reduce BAs are illustrated. The current methods used for BA detection and quantification are also presented. These methods are very important to consider, as BAs can serve as markers for the quality assessment of products. The information presented here offers an overview useful for identifying specific parameters and conditions which should be controlled to minimise BA content in wine; knowledge about BAs in foods and beverages has been accumulating in recent years, not only to ensure and improve quality (since BAs have been used as an indicator of spoilage) but especially to guarantee consumer safety due to the potential toxic effects of BAs on humans.
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