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Beverages, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Biogenic Amines Determination in “Plant Milks”
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
“Plant milks” are water-based beverages, such as, extracts from cereals, pseudo-cereals, oil seeds, legumes or fruits. Plant milk consumption is rising in European and North American markets due to problems related to cow milk allergies, intolerances, but also because of vegan diets and [...] Read more.
“Plant milks” are water-based beverages, such as, extracts from cereals, pseudo-cereals, oil seeds, legumes or fruits. Plant milk consumption is rising in European and North American markets due to problems related to cow milk allergies, intolerances, but also because of vegan diets and sensitivity to environmental issues. There is no specific regulation for these beverages, therefore their composition can vary considerably, even in the same category. The aim of this study is to characterize the main categories of cereal and pseudo-cereal milks on the market by studying the profile of 8 biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, tyramine) through a RP-HPLC/FD method with a pre-column derivatization. Biogenic amines are ubiquitous compounds, produced by the decarboxylation of the respective amino acids and they have been proposed as quality and safety markers of different foods and beverages. In the analyzed samples, the total biogenic amines content ranged from a minimum of 1.92 mg/L, to a maximum of 9.27 mg/L. The main biogenic amine found in the samples was histamine. The results show a low content of biogenic amines in all types of analyzed products. This ensures the quality and safety of cereal and pseudo-cereal milk samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition Determination and Beverage Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Why Craft Brewers Should Be Advised to Use Bottle Refermentation to Improve Late-Hopped Beer Stability
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
The aromatic complexity of craft beers, together with some particular practices (use of small vessels, dry hopping, etc.), can cause more oxidation associated with pre-maturated colloidal instability, Madeira off-flavors, bitterness decrease, and aroma loss. As bottle refermentation is widely used in Belgian craft [...] Read more.
The aromatic complexity of craft beers, together with some particular practices (use of small vessels, dry hopping, etc.), can cause more oxidation associated with pre-maturated colloidal instability, Madeira off-flavors, bitterness decrease, and aroma loss. As bottle refermentation is widely used in Belgian craft beers, the aim of the present work is to assess how this practice might impact their flavor. In fresh beers, key flavors were evidenced by four complementary techniques: short-chain fatty acids determination, esters analysis, XAD-2 extract olfactometry, and overall sensory analysis. In almost all of the fresh beers, isovaleric acid was the sole fatty acid found above its sensory threshold. Selected samples were further analyzed through natural aging at 20 °C. The presence of yeast in the bottle minimized the trans-2-nonenal released from Schiff bases and proved less deleterious than suggested by previous studies with regard to fatty acid release and ester decrease through aging. Furthermore, according to the yeast species selected, some interesting terpenols and phenols were produced from glucosides during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessReview
Computer Vision Method in Beer Quality Evaluation—A Review
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Beers are differentiated mainly according to their visual appearance and their fermentation process. The main quality characteristics of beer are appearance, aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel. Important visual attributes of beer are foam appearance (volume and persistence), as well as the color and clarity. [...] Read more.
Beers are differentiated mainly according to their visual appearance and their fermentation process. The main quality characteristics of beer are appearance, aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel. Important visual attributes of beer are foam appearance (volume and persistence), as well as the color and clarity. To replace manual inspection, automatic, objective, rapid and repeatable external quality inspection systems, such as computer vision, are becoming very important and necessary. Computer vision is a non-contact optical technique, suitable for the non-destructive evaluation of the food product quality. Currently, the main application of computer vision occurs in automated inspection and measurement, allowing manufacturers to keep control of product quality. This paper presents an overview of the applications and the latest achievements of the computer vision methods in determining the external quality attributes of beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessReview
Caffeine Consumption through Coffee: Content in the Beverage, Metabolism, Health Benefits and Risks
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during [...] Read more.
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during the brew’s preparation. After consumption, caffeine is almost completely absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver by phase I (cytochrome P450) enzymes, mainly CYP1A2, which appears to be polymorphically distributed in human populations. Paraxanthine is the major caffeine metabolite in plasma, while methylated xanthines and methyluric acids are the main metabolites excreted in urine. In addition to stimulating the central nervous system, caffeine exerts positive effects in the body, often in association with other substances, contributing to prevention of several chronic diseases. The potential adverse effects of caffeine have also been extensively studied in animal species and in humans. These aspects will be approached in the present review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessReview
Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in Coffee: Threads and Solutions—A Mini-Review
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread bioactive extrolite from secondary metabolism of fungi which presence in foods like coffee is of public health concern, particularly for heavy drinkers. Coffee is one of the most consumed and appreciated non-alcoholic beverage in the world. Its [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread bioactive extrolite from secondary metabolism of fungi which presence in foods like coffee is of public health concern, particularly for heavy drinkers. Coffee is one of the most consumed and appreciated non-alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production from the plantation to the coffee cup involves several steps that would determine the final concentration of OTA in the beverage. This review gives an overview of OTA contamination in roasted coffee beans in different countries and mitigation strategies for OTA reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Craft Beer as a Means of Economic Development: An Economic Impact Analysis of the Michigan Value Chain
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
While many studies have suggested the beer value chain might be a vehicle for economic growth, few have estimated the economic impacts of craft beer to a geographic region. As such, this study uses modified input/output analysis to identify the economic contributions of [...] Read more.
While many studies have suggested the beer value chain might be a vehicle for economic growth, few have estimated the economic impacts of craft beer to a geographic region. As such, this study uses modified input/output analysis to identify the economic contributions of instate beer production to the Michigan economy. We find that the beer value chain generated nearly $500 million in Gross State Product in 2016, contributing nearly $1 billion as well as 9738 jobs in total aggregate economic contributions. The results suggest that state governments might generate economic growth by creating a business climate that is conducive to the growth of the instate beer value chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle
Kavalactones and Flavokavins Profiles Contribute to Quality Assessment of Kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst.), the Traditional Beverage of the Pacific
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Kava (Piper methysticum) is increasingly traded internationally and there is need for a rapid method to analyze kava raw material before export. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to develop a simple and robust protocol for high throughput simultaneous [...] Read more.
Kava (Piper methysticum) is increasingly traded internationally and there is need for a rapid method to analyze kava raw material before export. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to develop a simple and robust protocol for high throughput simultaneous quantification of kavalactones (KLs) and flavokavins (FKs) in kava and (ii) to assess its potential for quality control. Methysticin; dihydromethysticin; kavain; desmethoxyyangonin; dihydrokavain; yangonin; and flavokavin A, B and C were quantified using HPTLC in acetonic extracts of 174 kava varieties. UHPLC analysis was conducted on a subset of six varieties representing the genetic variation of the species. The genetically distinct groups of nobles, two-day and wichmannii varieties were clearly differentiated and multivariate analyses of UHPLC and HPTLC data were congruent. Noble varieties have significantly low FKs/KLs (0.13) and high kavain/flavokavin B (K/FKB = 7.31). Two-day and wichmannii varieties are characterized by high FKs/KLs (0.36, 0.21) and low K/FKB (1.5, 1.7). A high-throughput HPTLC protocol was developed with a total analytical time of 50 min for 20 samples and only 10 mL of mobile phase. The use of acetone, sonication and two different detection wavelengths improves the accuracy compared to previous HPLC studies and confirms that kava varieties exhibit distinct chemotypes clearly differentiated by their FKs/KLs profiles. These results will strengthen the use of Codex Alimentarius regional standards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Artificial Neural Network Models to Assess Beer Acceptability Based on Sensory Properties Using a Robotic Pourer: A Comparative Model Approach to Achieve an Artificial Intelligence System
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become popular for optimization and prediction of parameters in foods, beverages, agriculture and medicine. For brewing, they have been explored to develop rapid methods to assess product quality and acceptability. Different beers (N = 17) were analyzed [...] Read more.
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become popular for optimization and prediction of parameters in foods, beverages, agriculture and medicine. For brewing, they have been explored to develop rapid methods to assess product quality and acceptability. Different beers (N = 17) were analyzed in triplicates using a robotic pourer, RoboBEER (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia), to assess 15 color and foam-related parameters using computer-vision. Those samples were tested using sensory analysis for acceptability of carbonation mouthfeel, bitterness, flavor and overall liking with 30 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale. ANN models were developed using 17 different training algorithms with 15 color and foam-related parameters as inputs and liking of four descriptors obtained from consumers as targets. Each algorithm was tested using five, seven and ten neurons and compared to select the best model based on correlation coefficients, slope and performance (mean squared error (MSE). Bayesian Regularization algorithm with seven neurons presented the best correlation (R = 0.98) and highest performance (MSE = 0.03) with no overfitting. These models may be used as a cost-effective method for fast-screening of beers during processing to assess acceptability more efficiently. The use of RoboBEER, computer-vision algorithms and ANN will allow the implementation of an artificial intelligence system for the brewing industry to assess its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessCommunication
Effect of Asparaginase Enzyme in the Reduction of Asparagine in Green Coffee
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in Nordic countries. Its composition has substances considered to have high value for human health, such as chlorogenic and phenolic acids. However, the roasting of coffee can form substances such as acrylamide that [...] Read more.
Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world, especially in Nordic countries. Its composition has substances considered to have high value for human health, such as chlorogenic and phenolic acids. However, the roasting of coffee can form substances such as acrylamide that are considered toxic and carcinogenic, depending on the time and the heat of roasting. However, there are some ways of reducing acrylamide formation during the processing of coffee beans. The reduction of its precursor asparagine is one of these ways. This can be achieved by the treatment of beans with the enzyme asparaginase. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of applying asparaginase (Acrylaway™) and evaluate the reduction of the amount of asparagine in Coffea arabica and C. canephora beans. The results showed the effectiveness of the enzyme in the reduction of free asparagine in green coffee beans of both species (C. arabica and C. canephora). Steam pretreatment was effective for the two species but required different times (30 min for C. arabica and 45 min for C. canephora). This can be attributed to the different chemical compositions found in the two species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Utilization of Cooking-Type ‘Saba’ Banana in the Development of Ready-to-Drink Juice with Improved Quality and Nutritional Properties
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
The ‘Saba’ banana cultivar is one of the most abundantly grown fruit crops in the Philippines. However, large postharvest losses were posed due to the rapid deterioration and challenges in marketing. This study was conducted to develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) beverage using the [...] Read more.
The ‘Saba’ banana cultivar is one of the most abundantly grown fruit crops in the Philippines. However, large postharvest losses were posed due to the rapid deterioration and challenges in marketing. This study was conducted to develop a ready-to-drink (RTD) beverage using the cooking-type banana cultivar [Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) ‘Saba’]. The pulp was subjected to treatment with α-amylase and pectinase enzyme concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 1.00% to facilitate juice extraction. The effect of α-amylase and pectinase enzyme combinations on juice yield, color and clarity was determined. The highest juice yield (69.83%) and clarity (72.56% by transmittance at 660 nm) were achieved using 1.00% α-amylase: 1.00% pectinase and 0.5% α-amylase: 1.00% pectinase enzyme treatments, respectively. The juice treated with 0.5% α-amylase: 1.00% pectinase was used in the formulation of the RTD beverage. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of the product were analyzed. The developed RTD ‘Saba’ juice with acceptable sensory characteristics had 11.45 cP viscosity, 0.33% titratable acidity, 5.38% protein, 1660 ppm potassium, 40 ppm sodium and 460 ppm calcium. Results showed that the cooking-type banana cultivar ‘Saba’ can be utilized in the development of the RTD beverage with enhanced sensory and nutritional quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Terroir Tourism: Experiences in Organic Vineyards
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
This article considers key determinants of terroir tourism in the context of organic vineyards in Oregon, US. Emerging from anthropology, climatology, ecology, geography and wine tourism, terroir tourism has been recently recognized to have potential for developing tourism in Oregon. However, research has [...] Read more.
This article considers key determinants of terroir tourism in the context of organic vineyards in Oregon, US. Emerging from anthropology, climatology, ecology, geography and wine tourism, terroir tourism has been recently recognized to have potential for developing tourism in Oregon. However, research has sought to determine terroir tourism and its characteristics, differentiating it from wine tourism. This case of Oregon will investigate a wine territory through the examination of organic vineyards. The relative importance of terroir within the organic vineyard destinations of Oregon is examined. Determining the characteristics of terroir tourism from a review on terroir and the experience economy 4E framework on wine tourism develops the case into organic vineyards with terroir tourism characteristics. Ultimately, an attempt to further develop wine tourism destinations based on their unique terroir esthetic experiences, and the potential for terroir tourism within the experience economy, is developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Tourism )
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Studies on the Use of Reactive Distillation in the Production of Beverage Spirits
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Distilled alcoholic beverages have been produced through fermentation and distillation for centuries but have not purposefully involved a chemical reaction to produce a flavoring. Introducing a microorganism to produce butyric acid along with the typical yeast ethanol fermentation sets up a reactive distillation [...] Read more.
Distilled alcoholic beverages have been produced through fermentation and distillation for centuries but have not purposefully involved a chemical reaction to produce a flavoring. Introducing a microorganism to produce butyric acid along with the typical yeast ethanol fermentation sets up a reactive distillation system to flavor a spirit with ethyl butyrate and butyric acid. The ternary interactions of water, ethanol, and butyric acid allow all three to vaporize in the stripping distillation, thus they are concentrated in the low wines and give a large excess of ethanol compared to butyric acid for better reaction completion. The stripping distillation has also been modeled on Aspen Plus® V9 software (by Aspen Technology, Inc. Bedford, MA, USA) and coincides well with a test stripping distillation at the bench scale. Amberlyst® 15 wet catalyst was added to a subsequent distillation, resulting in the production of the desired ethyl butyrate in the distillate, measured by gas chromatography. Primary sensory evaluation has determined that this process has a profound effect on the smell of the spirit with the main flavor being similar to fruity bubble gum. The current results will provide a pathway for creating spirits with a desired flavor on demand without acquiring a heavy capital cost if a beverage distillation column is already purchased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distilled Beverages: Science and Technology Across the Supply Chain)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Juicing Methods on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Characteristics of the Purple Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica)—Preliminary Findings on Juice and Pomace
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Prickly Pear (PP) is often overlooked due to its’ short shelf-life. Juicing may improve marketability but often affects quality, thereby warranting investigation. Purple PP (whole (WF) and flesh (FF)) was juiced using blenders; stick (SB) and jug (JB); and juicers; commercial (CJ) and [...] Read more.
Prickly Pear (PP) is often overlooked due to its’ short shelf-life. Juicing may improve marketability but often affects quality, thereby warranting investigation. Purple PP (whole (WF) and flesh (FF)) was juiced using blenders; stick (SB) and jug (JB); and juicers; commercial (CJ) and cold-pressed (CP). Juices and methanolic (70%) pomace extracts were analysed for; bioactives; Total Phenolic (TPC; µgGAE/mL), Flavonoid (TFC; µgCE/mL) and Betalain Content (TBC; mg/100 g; Betacyanin; BE; Betaxanthin; IE); and antioxidant characteristics; DPPH, FRAP (µMTE) and vitamin C (mgAAE/mL). Juicing techniques had effects on phytochemicals in; juice: TPC (WF/FF; p = 0.022–0.025), TFC (FF; p = 0.034), Betacyanin (WF/FF; p = 0.029–0.026), FRAP (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.024) and Vitamin C (WF/FF; p = 0.015–0.016); and pomace: TPC (WF/FF; p = 0.015), TBC (FF; p = 0.034), Betacyanin (FF; p = 0.047), Betaxanthin (FF; p = 0.017), DPPH (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.024), FRAP (WF/FF; p = 0.015–0.023) and Vitamin C (WF/FF; p = 0.016–0.022). Processing-style (blend/juice) affected; TPC, DPPH and FRAP in juice and pomace. Overall, fruit-preparation (WF/FF) had minimal effects. Additionally, correlations existed between; juice TFC and TBC (p = 0.001; τ = −0.044); TBC and vitamin C (p = 0.001; τ = −0.637); pomace TPC and DPPH (p = 0.003; τ = 0.440), TPC and vitamin C (p = 0.011; τ = 0.440); and TFC and FRAP (p = 0.001; τ = 0.519). The best methods overall for juice were SB (FRAP), JB (TPC, TBC), CJ (TFC) and CP (DPPH, VitC); and for pomace extracts; SB(FRAP), JB (TPC, VitC), CJ(TFC), and CP (TBC, DPPH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessArticle
Coffee Drinking and Emotions: Are There Key Sensory Drivers for Emotions?
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
In the past couple of decades the coffee market has exploded, and to remain competitive, it is important to identify the key drivers for consumer acceptance of coffee. This study expanded on the previous emotion study on a population of coffee drinkers in [...] Read more.
In the past couple of decades the coffee market has exploded, and to remain competitive, it is important to identify the key drivers for consumer acceptance of coffee. This study expanded on the previous emotion study on a population of coffee drinkers in Manhattan, Kansas, USA and focused on identifying the sensory drivers of emotional responses elicited during the coffee drinking experience (CDE). A trained coffee panel performed a descriptive analysis of six coffee samples and identified the key sensory attributes that discriminated each coffee. Utilizing Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), the descriptive data were then mapped with the emotion data to identify sensory drivers for eliciting the emotional responses. The sensory characteristics of dark roast coffee (roast–aroma and flavor, burnt–aroma and flavor, bitter, and body) might elicit positive-high energy feelings for this population of coffee users. Tobacco (flavor) and cocoa (aroma) may also be responsible for positive emotions (content, good, and pleasant). Citrus and acidity seemed to be negative sensory drivers as they induced the feeling of off-balance. Sensory descriptive data could be useful to describe emotion profiles elicited by coffee drinking, which could help the coffee industry create coffee products for different segments of coffee drinkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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