Special Issue "Wine Aging Technologies"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. María Del Alamo-Sanza

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ignacio Nevares

Department of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine aging is a desirable and valuable process, commonly used to improve wine quality, and traditionally carried out in oak wooden casks. The correct use of oak barrels and the ever-increasing demand for barrels in the different production areas of the world has led to a constant search for technological alternatives to reproduce the chemical and physical processes undergone by wines during their stay in barrels.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish a compilation of original research and revision works that cover different aspects of the ageing processes of wine in casks and other alternative systems that reproduce, with different technologies, the transformations that take place in the barrel.

Important aspects to be addressed are:

  • the type of technological solutions that exist for wine aging
  • the impact of these new technologies on the final product
  • comparison of the effect of emerging and traditional technologies on the wine aged
  • differentiation of wines undergoing different systems to avoid fraud
  • characterization of the new materials used in barrel production
  • accelerated aging of wines with wood and oxygen

Original and review papers dealing with all aspects of wine aging or aging technologies are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Beverages.

Prof. Dr. María del Alamo-Sanza
Prof. Dr. Ignacio Nevares
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Open AccessReview
New Strategies to Improve Sensorial Quality of White Wines by Wood Contact
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ageing wine is a common practice used in winemaking, since the quality and sensory profile increase due to the extractable compounds coming from wood, by means of barrels or chips. The quantitative and qualitative compounds of the wood depend on the species, its [...] Read more.
Ageing wine is a common practice used in winemaking, since the quality and sensory profile increase due to the extractable compounds coming from wood, by means of barrels or chips. The quantitative and qualitative compounds of the wood depend on the species, its origins and the treatments applied in cooperages. Traditionally, oak wood species are most often used in cooperage, specifically Quercus alba (Q. alba), Known as American oak and Quercus robur (Q. robur) and Quercus petraea (Q. petraea), both known as French oak. Although this stage is very common for red wines, its use is still restricted in the case of white wines. However, this topic is particularly interesting, since due to the sensorial benefits of wood contact, the option for ageing white wines in barrels or chips could be chosen by winemakers. This review compiles the novel strategies applied to white wines by means of wood contact in recent years with the aim to increase wine quality and sensorial features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Different Woods in Cooperage for Oenology: A Review
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contact of wine with wood during fermentation and ageing produces significant changes in its chemical composition and organoleptic properties, modifying its final quality. Wines acquire complex aromas from the wood, improve their colour stability, flavour, and clarification, and extend their storage period. New [...] Read more.
Contact of wine with wood during fermentation and ageing produces significant changes in its chemical composition and organoleptic properties, modifying its final quality. Wines acquire complex aromas from the wood, improve their colour stability, flavour, and clarification, and extend their storage period. New trends in the use of barrels, replaced after a few years of use, have led to an increased demand for oak wood in cooperage. In addition, the fact that the wine market is becoming increasingly saturated and more competitive means that oenologists are increasingly interested in tasting different types of wood to obtain wines that differ from those already on the market. This growing demand and the search for new opportunities to give wines a special personality has led to the use of woods within the Quercus genus that are different from those used traditionally (Quercus alba, Quercus petraea, and Quercus robur) and even woods of different genera. Thus, species of the genus Quercus, such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Quercus faginea Lam., Quercus humboldtti Bonpl., Quercus oocarpa Liebm., Quercus frainetto Ten, and other genera, such as Robinia pseudoacacia L. (false acacia), Castanea sativa Mill. (chestnut), Prunus avium L. and Prunus cereaus L. (cherry), Fraxinus excelsior L. (European ash), Fraxinus americana L. (American ash), Morus nigra L, and Morus alba L. have been the subject of several studies as possible sources of wood apt for cooperage. The chemical characterization of these woods is essential in order to be able to adapt the cooperage treatment and, thus, obtain wood with oenological qualities suitable for the treatment of wines. This review aims to summarize the different species that have been studied as possible new sources of wood for oenology, defining the extractable composition of each one and their use in wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Study of High Power Ultrasound for Oak Wood Barrel Regeneration: Impact on Wood Properties and Sanitation Effect
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the ability of high power ultrasound (HPU) to ensure oak barrel sterilization and wood structure preservation. Optimization was performed in terms of temperature and time and the impact of the HPU process on the porous material was also [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the ability of high power ultrasound (HPU) to ensure oak barrel sterilization and wood structure preservation. Optimization was performed in terms of temperature and time and the impact of the HPU process on the porous material was also characterized. In this research, several wood characteristics were considered, such as the specific surface area, hydrophobicity, oxygen desorption and spoilage microorganisms after treatment. The study showed that the microbial stabilization could be obtained with HPU 60 °C/6 min. The results obtained show that microorganisms are impacted up to a depth of 9 mm, with a Brettanomyces bruxellensis population < 1 log CFU/g. The operating parameters used during the HPU treatment can also impact on wood exchange surface and oxygen desorption kinetics indicating that tartrate is removed. Indeed, the total oxygen desorption rate was recovered after HPU treatment, close to a new oak barrel, and thus may indicate that there is no impact on the ultrastructure (vessel, pore size or rays). Finally, wood wettability can also be impacted, depending on the temperature and the duration of exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditorial
Wine Aging Technologies
Received: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wine aging is a desirable and valuable process, commonly used to improve wine quality, and traditionally carried out in oak wooden casks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Use of Oak Fragments during the Aging of Red Wines. Effect on the Phenolic, Aromatic, and Sensory Composition of Wines as a Function of the Contact Time with the Wood
Beverages 2018, 4(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4040102
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of oak fragments allows wine cellars to reduce costs and the length of wine aging compared to traditional aging in oak barrels in the winery. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of oak [...] Read more.
The use of oak fragments allows wine cellars to reduce costs and the length of wine aging compared to traditional aging in oak barrels in the winery. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the use of oak fragments on the volatile, phenolic, and organoleptic characteristics of Tempranillo red wines, as a function of the contact time between the wood and the wine. The results showed important changes in the wines’ colorimetric parameters after two months of contact time. Extraction kinetics of volatile compounds from the wood was highest during the first month of contact for chips, variable for staves, and slower and continuous over time for barrels. Wines macerated with fragments showed the best quality in short periods of aging, while barrel-aged wines improved over the time they spent in the barrel. In addition, the results allowed an analytical discrimination between the wines aged with oak fragments and those aged in oak barrels, and between chips and staves, just as at the sensory level with triangular tasting tests. In conclusion, the use of oak fragments is a suitable practice for the production of red wines, which may be an appropriate option for wines destined to be aged for short periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines under Different Micro-Oxygenation Strategies and Q. Pyrenaica Chips. Effects on Color and Phenolic Characteristics
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of alternative oak products (AOP) for wine aging is a common practice in which micro-oxygenation (MOX) is a key factor to obtain a final wine that is more stable over time and with similar characteristics as barrel-aged wines. Therefore, the oxygen [...] Read more.
The use of alternative oak products (AOP) for wine aging is a common practice in which micro-oxygenation (MOX) is a key factor to obtain a final wine that is more stable over time and with similar characteristics as barrel-aged wines. Therefore, the oxygen dosage added must be that which the wine is able to consume to develop correctly. Oxygen consumption by red wine determines its properties, so it is essential that micro-oxygenation be managed properly. This paper shows the results from the study of the influence on red wine of two different MOX strategies: floating oxygen dosage (with dissolved oxygen setpoint of 50 µg/L) and fixed oxygen dosage (3 mL/L·month). The results indicated that the wines consumed all the oxygen provided: those from fixed MOX received between 3 and 3.5 times more oxygen than the floating MOX strategy, the oxygen contribution from the air entrapped in the wood being more significant in the latter. Wines aged with wood and MOX showed the same color and phenolic evolution as those aged in barrels, demonstrating the importance of MOX management. Despite the differences in the oxygen consumed, it was not possible to differentiate wines from the different MOX strategies at the end of the aging period in contact with wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Method for the Identification of the Variety of Grape Using Their Capability to Form Gold Nanoparticles
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the amount of must used. The size of the AuNPs increases with the Total Polyphenol Index (TPI) of the variety of grape. The kinetics of the reaction monitored using UV-Vis shows that the reaction rates are related to the chemical composition of the musts and specifically to the phenols that can act as reducing and capping agents during the synthesis process. Since the particular composition of each must produces AuNPs of different sizes and at different rates, color changes can be used to discriminate the variety of grape. This new technology can be used to avoid fraud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fining Agents, Reverse Osmosis and Wine Age on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) Taint in Wine
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were [...] Read more.
Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were treated with fining agents and put through reverse osmosis filtration. The efficacy of these treatments was determined using chemical analysis (MDGC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis. Tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations in red and white wine were determined at bottle aging durations of 0, 6, 12 and 24 months using MDGC-MS. Reverse osmosis was found to be partially successful in removing trans-2-decenal concentration from finished wine. While tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations decreased during bottle aging, post-fermentative fining treatments were not effective at removing these compounds. Although French oak did not alter the concentration of tridecane and trans-2-decenal in red wine, it did mask the expression of BMSB-related sensory characters. Because of the ineffectiveness of removing BMSB taint post-fermentation, BMSB densities in the grape clusters should be minimized so that the taint does not occur in the wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies) Printed Edition available
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