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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 8 (April-2 2024) – 146 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This review explores potential applications of cruciferous vegetable waste and byproducts, spotlighting cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli in food, medicinal, and other industries. Their significance of being utilized in value-added applications is addressed, emphasizing important biomolecules, technologies involved in the valorization process, and future aspects of practical applications. Cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli generate waste and low-processing byproducts, including leaves, stems, stalks, and rot. Most of them contain high-value biomolecules, including bioactive proteins and phytochemicals, glucosinolates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and tocopherols. Derived from glucosinolates, they exhibit strong anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity through various interactions with cellular molecules and the modulation of key signaling pathways in cells. View this paper
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0 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
Extraction, Identification, and In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Feruloylated Oligosaccharides from Baijiu Distillers’ Grains
by Zhongtian Yin, Mengyao Liu, Bowen Wang, Dongrui Zhao, Hehe Li and Jinyuan Sun
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081283 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
The structure and function of phenoyl oligosaccharides in baijiu distillers’ grains (BDGs) have not been identified and investigated yet. This study aimed to elucidate the major phenolic oligosaccharides present in BDGs, optimize their extraction process via a central composite design, and assess their [...] Read more.
The structure and function of phenoyl oligosaccharides in baijiu distillers’ grains (BDGs) have not been identified and investigated yet. This study aimed to elucidate the major phenolic oligosaccharides present in BDGs, optimize their extraction process via a central composite design, and assess their anti-inflammatory properties utilizing the LPS-induced RAW264.7 inflammation model. The main results are as follows: feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) were identified as the main phenoyl oligosaccharides in BDGs with a structure of ferulic acid esterified on arabinooligosaccharide xylose. Then, the preparation process of FOs was optimized using the following conditions: pH 5, temperature 55 °C, time 12 h, xylanase addition amount 7 g/L, BDG concentration 120 g/L. Furthermore, the acquired FOs demonstrated notable scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals, with Trolox equivalent values of 366.8 ± 10.38 and 0.35 ± 0.01 mM Trolox/mg sample, respectively. However, their efficacy was comparatively lower than that of ferulic acid. Finally, the obtained FOs could effectively inhibit the LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and promote the secretion of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Based on the above results, FOs from BDGs were determined to have certain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
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14 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Development of Germinated-Brown-Rice-Based Novel Functional Beverage Enriched with γ-Aminobutyric Acid: Nutritional and Bio-Functional Characterization
by Rifat Jabeen, Nusrat Jan, Bazila Naseer, Prakash Kumar Sarangi, Kandi Sridhar, Praveen Kumar Dikkala, Maharshi Bhaswant, Syed Zameer Hussain and Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081282 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 775
Abstract
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), recognized as a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter within the brain, serves a crucial role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Research has demonstrated the beneficial effects of GABA, particularly for elderly individuals. Given that elderly [...] Read more.
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), recognized as a primary inhibitory neurotransmitter within the brain, serves a crucial role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Research has demonstrated the beneficial effects of GABA, particularly for elderly individuals. Given that elderly individuals often encounter challenges with swallowing food, beverages designed to address dysphagia represent a preferable option for this demographic. Among the different processing techniques, the germination process triggers biochemical changes, leading to an increase in certain nutrients and bioactive compounds (e.g., GABA). Therefore, we attempted to develop a novel functional beverage utilizing germinated brown rice enriched with GABA and studied its nutritional and bio-functional characterization. The optimal conditions (X1, X2, X3 and X4.) were determined: powdered sugar (40 g), chocolate powder (20 g), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5 g), GBR (220 g), and water (440 mL). The results of storage studies indicated that the germinated-brown-rice-based beverage exhibited favorable nutritional attributes, including increased γ-oryzanol (52.73 ± 1.56%), total phenolic content (26.68 ± 1.56 mg GAE/100 g), niacin (5.17 ± 0.14%), and GABA (42.12 ± 0.63 mg/100 g) levels. Additionally, the beverage demonstrated notable antioxidant activity (74.23 ± 2.37 µmol TE/100 g), suggesting potential health-promoting effects. Sensory evaluation revealed satisfactory acceptability among consumers, highlighting its palatability. Overall, this study elucidates the development of a novel functional beverage utilizing germinated brown rice enriched with GABA, offering promising nutritional and bio-functional characteristics for health-conscious consumers. Full article
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24 pages, 2590 KiB  
Article
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Digital Technologies on Sustainable Food Production and Consumption in the European Union
by Claudiu George Bocean
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081281 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 734
Abstract
In today’s landscape, digital technologies hold immense potential in tackling challenges associated with food sustainability. This study aims to contextualize a broader investigation of food sustainability and digitalization within the agricultural sector. Its objective is to explore the influence of digital technologies on [...] Read more.
In today’s landscape, digital technologies hold immense potential in tackling challenges associated with food sustainability. This study aims to contextualize a broader investigation of food sustainability and digitalization within the agricultural sector. Its objective is to explore the influence of digital technologies on sustainable food production and consumption, particularly examining relationships among digital technologies, municipal waste, agricultural output, nitrogen emissions, methane emissions from agriculture, and Goal 12 Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG12). Through the use of Structural Equation Modeling, the empirical investigation scrutinizes the relationships between digital technology use and critical variables linked to food sustainability in a longitudinal analysis. The results highlight the significant impact of extensive digital technology use on municipal waste, sustainable production, and consumption, indirectly influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Empirical research findings reveal a negative influence of digital technologies on responsible consumption and production (path coefficient −0.349, p values < 0.001), suggesting an impact of digital technologies on diminishing sustainability in consumption and production. The relationship between digital technologies and municipal solid waste is also negative (path coefficient −0.360, p values < 0.001), suggesting that the use of digital technologies can contribute to reducing the amount of municipal solid waste. Digitalization has the potential to improve the sustainability of supply chains by reducing resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production and distribution operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Food Consumption and Sustainable Development)
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16 pages, 3176 KiB  
Article
A Facile Determination of Herbicide Residues and Its Application in On-Site Analysis
by Yifei Sun, Yan Tang, Zetao Chen, Miaoxiu Ge, Wei Xiong and Luhong Wen
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081280 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Abuse of herbicides in food safety is a vital concern that has an influence on the sustainable development of the world. This work presents, a modified ionization method with separation of the sample and carrier gas inlets, which was utilized for efficient ionization [...] Read more.
Abuse of herbicides in food safety is a vital concern that has an influence on the sustainable development of the world. This work presents, a modified ionization method with separation of the sample and carrier gas inlets, which was utilized for efficient ionization and analyte transfer of herbicides in crops. The working parameters of voltage, injective distance, desorption temperature, and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized to achieve the high efficiency of the transfer and ionization of the analyte. When it was applied in the analysis of herbicides in laboratory, the method exhibited excellent performance in achieving the quantitative detection of herbicides in solutions and residues spiked in an actual matrix with a limit of quantification of 1–20 μg/kg and relative standard deviations of less than 15%. Although a simple QuEchERS process was used, the programmable heating platform ensured efficient gasification and transfer of the target analyte, with the advantages of high speed and selectivity, avoiding the noted matrix effect. The method exhibited a relatively acceptable performance by using air as the discharged gas (open air). It could be used to monitor herbicide residues in the growth stage via on-site non-destructive analysis, which obtained low LODs by dissociating the herbicides from the crops without any pretreatment. It showed great potential for the supervision of the food safety market by achieving non-destructive detection of crops anytime and anywhere. This finding may provide new insights into the determination of pesticide emergence and rice quality assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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16 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
Detection and Analysis of VOCs in Cherry Tomato Based on GC-MS and GC×GC-TOF MS Techniques
by Sihui Guan, Chenxu Liu, Zhuping Yao, Hongjian Wan, Meiying Ruan, Rongqing Wang, Qingjing Ye, Zhimiao Li, Guozhi Zhou and Yuan Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081279 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in influencing the flavor quality of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). The scarcity of systematic analysis of VOCs in cherry tomatoes can be attributed to the constraints imposed by detection technology and other [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in influencing the flavor quality of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). The scarcity of systematic analysis of VOCs in cherry tomatoes can be attributed to the constraints imposed by detection technology and other contributing factors. In this study, the cherry tomato cultivar var. ‘Zheyingfen1’ was chosen due to its abundant fruit flavor. Two detection technology platforms, namely the commonly employed headspace solid-phase microextraction—gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and the most advanced headspace solid-phase microextraction—full two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS), were employed in the analysis. The VOCs of cherry tomato cultivar var. ‘Zheyingfen1’ fruits at red ripening stage were detected. A combined total of 1544 VOCs were detected using the two aforementioned techniques. Specifically, 663 VOCs were identified by through the HS-SPME-GC-MS method, 1026 VOCs were identified by through the HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS, and 145 VOCs were identified by both techniques. The identification of β-ionone and (E)-2-nonenal as the principal VOCs was substantiated through the application of the relative odor activity value (rOAV) calculation and subsequent analysis. Based on the varying contribution rates of rOAV, the analysis of sensory flavor characteristics revealed that cherry tomato cultivar var. ‘Zheyingfen1’ predominantly exhibited green and fatty attributes, accompanied by elements of fresh and floral flavor characteristics. In conclusion, our study conducted a comprehensive comparison of the disparities between these two methodologies in detecting VOCs in cherry tomato fruits. Additionally, we systematically analyzed the VOC composition and sensory flavor attributes of the cherry tomato cultivar var. ‘Zheyingfen1’. This research serves as a significant point of reference for investigating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the development of volatile flavor quality in cherry tomatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Food Component)
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23 pages, 2333 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Extraction and Refining Parameters of Oil from Dotted Gizzard Shad (Konosirus punctatus)
by Ying Guo, Juanjuan Shao, Jilu Sun, Zhen Wang and Baojie Jiang
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081278 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
To address the challenges associated with resource inefficiency, low extraction rates, environmental concerns, and high energy consumption in traditional fish oil production from dotted gizzard shad (Konosirus punctatus), a novel approach is needed. This study aimed to develop and evaluate two [...] Read more.
To address the challenges associated with resource inefficiency, low extraction rates, environmental concerns, and high energy consumption in traditional fish oil production from dotted gizzard shad (Konosirus punctatus), a novel approach is needed. This study aimed to develop and evaluate two innovative methods for fish oil extraction and refinement, focusing on their effects on fish oil quality, fatty acid profile, and volatile compound composition throughout the respective processes. The findings of the study revealed that the ethanol-assisted enzymatic extraction method surpassed the conventional enzymatic approach in extraction efficiency, achieving an optimal extraction rate of 74.94% ± 0.45% under optimized process conditions. Moreover, the ethanol-NaOH one-step degumming and deacidification method proved effective in simultaneously removing phospholipids and free fatty acids. Under optimal conditions, a notable reduction in phospholipid content in dotted gizzard shad oil, from 6.80 ± 0.01 mg/g to 1.18 ± 0.01 mg/g, and a substantial decrease in acid value, from 3.31 mg/g to 0.31 mg/g, were observed. In summary, the study analyzed the physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and volatile components of fish oil before and after refinement. The refining process was found to preserve the fatty acid composition while efficiently eliminating hydroperoxides and reducing unpleasant odors in the crude oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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19 pages, 4356 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microwave Treatment on Protease Activity, Dough Properties and Protein Quality in Sprouted Wheat
by Xiangyu Wang, Mengyuan Zhao, Panpan Shang, Jing Liu and Renyong Zhao
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081277 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 642
Abstract
In this study, the effects of microwave treatment on protease activity, dough properties and protein quality in sprouted wheat were investigated. Microwave treatment led to a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in protease activity in sprouted wheat. Proteases with a pH optimum [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of microwave treatment on protease activity, dough properties and protein quality in sprouted wheat were investigated. Microwave treatment led to a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in protease activity in sprouted wheat. Proteases with a pH optimum of 4.4 (cysteine proteinases) were more susceptible to microwave heating, which contributed mostly to protease inactivation. Significant improvements (p < 0.05) in the dough properties and gluten quality of sprouted wheat were observed, which are probably attributable to the synergistic effectiveness of protease inactivation and heat-induced gluten cross-linking. After microwave treatment, the decrease in the solubility and extractability of protein in sprouted wheat indicated protein polymerization, which was induced by intermolecular disulfide bond cross-linking. The changes in gliadin were less pronounced due to the relatively low temperature of the microwave treatment. The cross-linking in sprouted wheat that occurred after microwave treatment seemed to mainly involve glutenin, especially B/C low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (B/C-LMW-GSs) in the range of 30–50 kD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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13 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Physical Stability of Lily Juice: Rheological Behavior, Particle Size, and Microstructure
by Si-Hai Han, Jun-Kun Zhu, Lei Shao, Chong-Hui Yue, Pei-Yan Li, Zhou-Ya Bai and Deng-Lin Luo
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081276 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological properties, particle size distribution, color change, and stability of lily juice under different ultrasonic treatment conditions (152 W, 304 W, 456 W, 608 W, and 760 W). The results showed that the lily [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological properties, particle size distribution, color change, and stability of lily juice under different ultrasonic treatment conditions (152 W, 304 W, 456 W, 608 W, and 760 W). The results showed that the lily juice exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior, and the viscosity decreased with the increase in ultrasonic power. Under ultrasonic treatment conditions, there was no significant change in the pH value and zeta potential value of the samples. The content of cloudy value and total soluble solids (TSS) increased gradually. However, both the sedimentation components and centrifugal sedimentation rate showed a downward trend and an asymptotic behavior. In addition, high-power ultrasound changed the color index (L* value decreased, a* value increased), tissue structure, and particle distribution of the sample, and small particles increased significantly. To sum up, ultrasonic treatment has great potential in improving the physical properties and suspension stability of lily juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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19 pages, 10852 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Pickled Cucumber Products, Based on Microbial Diversity and Flavor Substance Detection
by Xiaoyue Tang, Xiangyu Chen, Fuxiang Li, Mengmeng Huang, Lele Xie, Jingping Ge, Hongzhi Ling and Keke Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081275 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Changes to the microbial community during pickled cucumber fermentation were studied using the 16S rDNA technique. The changes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during pickled cucumber fermentation were studied by gas chromatograph–ion mobility spectrometry. At the phylum level, Cyanophyta and Proteobacteria were the [...] Read more.
Changes to the microbial community during pickled cucumber fermentation were studied using the 16S rDNA technique. The changes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during pickled cucumber fermentation were studied by gas chromatograph–ion mobility spectrometry. At the phylum level, Cyanophyta and Proteobacteria were the dominant flora in the natural fermentation group, and Firmicutes were the dominant flora in the added-bacteria fermentation group. At the generic level, the addition of Lactobacillus led to changes in the community of the bacteria in the added-bacterial fermentation group and decreased the species abundance of other bacteria. In total, 75 volatile organic compounds were identified from naturally fermented pickled cucumber, and 60 volatile organic compounds were identified from fermented pickled cucumber with bacterial addition. The main metabolites were esters, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, nitriles, and alkenes. These metabolites will bring their unique aroma components to the pickled cucumber. Metabolomic analysis of the O2PLS model showed that Weissella and Lactobacillus were closely and positively correlated with nine alcohols, six esters, five aldehydes, four acids, three ketones, and one pyrazine. Pseudomonas and norank_f_Mitochondria show a close positive correlation with four kinds of alcohols, two kinds of esters, one kind of aldehyde, and one kind of nitrile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Widely Targeted Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology Reveal the Nutritional Potential of Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge) Leaves and Flowers
by Haojie Sha, Shouke Li, Jiaxing Li, Junying Zhao and Dingding Su
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081274 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge) is a unique oilseed tree in China with high edible and medicinal value. However, the application potential of yellowhorn has not been adequately explored. In this study, widely targeted metabolomics (HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS) and network pharmacology were applied [...] Read more.
Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge) is a unique oilseed tree in China with high edible and medicinal value. However, the application potential of yellowhorn has not been adequately explored. In this study, widely targeted metabolomics (HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS) and network pharmacology were applied to investigate the nutritional potential of yellowhorn leaves and flowers. The widely targeted metabolomics results suggested that the yellowhorn leaf contains 948 non-volatile metabolites and 638 volatile metabolites, while the yellowhorn flower contains 976 and 636, respectively. A non-volatile metabolite analysis revealed that yellowhorn leaves and flowers contain a variety of functional components beneficial to the human body, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, lignans and coumarins, phenolic acids, amino acids, and nucleotides. An analysis of volatile metabolites indicated that the combined action of various volatile compounds, such as 2-furanmethanol, β-icon, and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, provides the special flavor of yellowhorn leaves and flowers. A network pharmacology analysis showed that various components in the flowers and leaves of yellowhorn have a wide range of biological activities. This study deepens our understanding of the non-volatile and volatile metabolites in yellowhorn and provides a theoretical basis and data support for the whole resource application of yellowhorn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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15 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Effect of Neutral Protease on Freshness Quality of Shucked Pacific Oysters at Different Storage Conditions
by Lanxiang Su, Wenge Yang, Siyang Liu, Chunhong Yuan, Tao Huang, Ru Jia and Huamao Wei
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081273 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neutral protease treatment on the biochemical properties of various parts of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) under different storage conditions. The mechanism of quality degradation in the mantle, adductor muscle, gill, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neutral protease treatment on the biochemical properties of various parts of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) under different storage conditions. The mechanism of quality degradation in the mantle, adductor muscle, gill, and trunk of treated oysters stored at −1.5 °C (superchilling) or 4 °C (refrigeration) for several days using different storage methods was studied. The results showed that the oyster treated with the enzyme exhibited higher glycogen content, flavor nucleotide content, and sensory scores compared to the control group. Superchilling at −1.5 °C was observed to slow the increase in total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable count (TVC), and pH, while maintaining sensory scores better than refrigeration at 4 °C. Both wet superchilling (WS) and dry exposed superchilling (DeS) methods effectively preserved freshness and quality at −1.5 °C. The freshness of the oysters’ body trunk changed most significantly. K value, K′ value, and AEC value, as the evaluation indexes of oyster freshness, were affected by the storage medium. Therefore, neutral protease enhances the flavor of oysters in a short time, and oysters stored in wet superchilling or dry exposed superchilling conditions have an extended shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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17 pages, 742 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Raw and Pasteurized Milk Quality through the Use of Lactoperoxidase Systems (LPSs) along the Dairy Value Chain, under Real Conditions in Ethiopia
by Tigist Ashenafi, Haftom Zebib and Ashagrie Zewdu Woldegiorgis
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081272 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Lactoperoxidase systems (LPSs) can enhance the microbiological quality of raw milk when there is lack of cooling facilities. In this study, a total of 250 milk samples were collected from farmers, collectors, and factories. Experimental samples were both LPS-activated morning and overnight milk. [...] Read more.
Lactoperoxidase systems (LPSs) can enhance the microbiological quality of raw milk when there is lack of cooling facilities. In this study, a total of 250 milk samples were collected from farmers, collectors, and factories. Experimental samples were both LPS-activated morning and overnight milk. The samples were tested with several chemical and microbiological tests, such as total bacterial count (TBC), total coliform count (TCC), and Escherichia coli count (EC). Results indicated that all LPS-activated milk samples had a higher quality than all the control samples. For instance, both the morning and overnight farm milk samples had mean TBCs of 5.79 log and 6.55 log cfu/mL, which is significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the control samples’ mean TBC of 6.73 log and 7.31 log cfu/mL, respectively. When this was compared with the Ethiopian Standard, 51.4% of morning and 39.5% of overnight farm milk with LPS activation met the acceptable quality, while only 28% of morning and 15.7% of overnight control milk met the standard. Moreover, LPS activation has also significantly improved the shelf life of collectors’ raw milk and pasteurized milk at the factories. Therefore, a better hygienic practice with LPS application can be practiced in conditions that lack cooling infrastructure and electricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 2773 KiB  
Article
The Preparation and Characterization of Quinoa Protein Gels and Application in Eggless Bread
by Qianqian Xu, Xinxia Zhang, Zhongyu Zuo, Ming Zhang, Ting Li and Li Wang
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081271 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
The properties of xanthan gum protein gels composed of quinoa protein (XG-QPG) and ultrasound-treated quinoa protein (XG-UQPG) were compared for the preparation of high-quality quinoa protein gels. The gel qualities at different pH values were compared. The gels were used to produce eggless [...] Read more.
The properties of xanthan gum protein gels composed of quinoa protein (XG-QPG) and ultrasound-treated quinoa protein (XG-UQPG) were compared for the preparation of high-quality quinoa protein gels. The gel qualities at different pH values were compared. The gels were used to produce eggless bread. Microscopically, the secondary structure of the proteins in XG-QPG (pH 7.0) was mainly α-helix, followed by random coiling. In contrast, the content of β-sheet in XG-UQPG was higher, relative to the viscoelastic properties of the gel. Moreover, the free sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds of XG-QPG (pH 7.0) were 48.30 and 38.17 µmol/g, while XG-UQPG (pH 7.0) was 31.95 and 61.58 µmol/g, respectively. A high disulfide bond content was related to the formation of gel networks. From a macroscopic perspective, XG-QPG (pH 7.0) exhibited different pore sizes, XG-UQPG (pH 7.0) displayed a loose structure with uniform pores, and XG-UQPG (pH 4.5) exhibited a dense structure with small pores. These findings suggest that ultrasound can promote the formation of a gel by XG-UQPG (pH 7.0) that has a loose structure and high water-holding capacity and that XG-UQPG (pH 4.5) forms a gel with a dense structure and pronounced hardness. Furthermore, the addition of the disulfide bond-rich XG-UQPG (pH 7.0) to bread promoted the formation of gel networks, resulting in elastic, soft bread. In contrast, XG-UQPG (pH 4.5) resulted in firm bread. These findings broaden the applications of quinoa in food and provide a good egg substitute for quinoa protein gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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17 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Influence of Origin, Harvest Time, and Cultivation Method on Antioxidant Capacity and Bioactive Compounds of Matcha Teas
by Karolina Jakubczyk, Kinga Szymczykowska, Joanna Kika, Katarzyna Janda-Milczarek, Joanna Palma, Klaudia Melkis, Rami Alshekh and Dominika Maciejewska-Markiewicz
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081270 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Matcha, or powdered green tea, has been gaining popularity and is no longer consumed only in the form of infusions, finding new uses in gastronomy and the food industry. The range of teas available on the food market has expanded considerably; hence, the [...] Read more.
Matcha, or powdered green tea, has been gaining popularity and is no longer consumed only in the form of infusions, finding new uses in gastronomy and the food industry. The range of teas available on the food market has expanded considerably; hence, the aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the antioxidant capacity and contents of antioxidant compounds in various Matcha teas available on the Polish market, taking into account the country of origin, time of harvest, and conventional vs. organic cultivation. Eleven green-tea powders were used in the analyses performed using spectrophotometric methods (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Ferric-Ion-Reducing Antioxidant Power, Total Polyphenol Content, Total Flavonoid Content, Vitamin C Content) and HPLC methods (polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and caffeine). Antioxidant capacity ranged from 7.26 to 9.54 mM Trolox equivalent/L while reducing power ranged from 1845.45 to 2266.12 Fe(II)/L. Total phenolic content amounted to 820.73–1017.83 mg gallic acid equivalent/L, and total flavonoid content was 864.71–1034.40 mg rutin equivalent /L. A high vitamin C content was found, ranging from 38.92 to 70.15 mg/100 mL. Additionally, a high content of caffeine that ranged between 823.23 and 7313.22 mg/L was noted. Moreover, a high content of polyphenolic compounds, including epicatechin gallate, myricetin, gallic acid, and 4—hydroxybenzoic acid, was found. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties depended on the harvest time, type of cultivation, and country of origin. Therefore, Matcha tea infusions have been shown to be a valuable source of antioxidants that can be used in the daily diet. Full article
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14 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Dietary Factors and Risk of Gout: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
by Guosen Ou, Jialin Wu, Shiqi Wang, Yawen Jiang, Yaokang Chen, Jingwen Kong, Huachong Xu, Li Deng, Huan Zhao, Xiaoyin Chen and Lu Xu
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081269 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Background: Dietary intervention is the preferred approach for the prevention and clinical management of gout. Nevertheless, the existing evidence regarding the influence of specific foods on gout is insufficient. Methods: We used two-sample Mendelian randomization for genetic prediction to analyze the relationship between [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary intervention is the preferred approach for the prevention and clinical management of gout. Nevertheless, the existing evidence regarding the influence of specific foods on gout is insufficient. Methods: We used two-sample Mendelian randomization for genetic prediction to analyze the relationship between the intake of more than a dozen daily food items, such as pork, beef, cheese, and poultry, and dietary macronutrient intake (fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar) and the risk of developing gout and elevating the serum uric acid level. Inverse-variance weighted MR analyses were used as the main evaluation method, and the reliability of the results was tested by a sensitivity analysis. Results: Cheese intake was associated with lower serum uric acid levels, and tea intake (OR = 0.523, [95%CI: 0.348~0.784], p = 0.002), coffee intake (OR = 0.449, [95%CI: 0.229~0.882], p = 0.020), and dried fruit intake (OR = 0.533, [95%CI: 0.286~0.992], p = 0.047) showed a preventive effect on the risk of gouty attacks. In contrast, non-oily fish intake (β = 1.08, [95%CI: 0.24~1.92], p = 0.012) and sugar intake (β = 0.34, [95%CI: 0.03~0.64], p = 0.030) were risk factors for elevated serum uric acid levels, and alcohol intake frequency (OR = 1.422, [95%CI: 1.079~1.873], p = 0.012) was a risk factors for gout predisposition. Conclusions: These results will significantly contribute to the formulation and refinement of nutritional strategies tailored to patients afflicted with gout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ways to Achieve Healthy and Sustainable Diets)
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18 pages, 6951 KiB  
Article
Ailanthus altissima Seed Oil—A Valuable Source of Lipid-Soluble Components with DNA Protective and Antiproliferative Activities
by Tsvetelina Andonova, Zhana Petkova, Olga Teneva, Ginka Antova, Elena Apostolova, Samir Naimov, Tsvetelina Mladenova, Iliya Slavov and Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081268 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 759
Abstract
The present study is focused on the chemical and lipid composition of seed oil of the European ornamental and invasive wood plant Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae). Total lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture in the seeds were determined. A high yield of glyceride oil [...] Read more.
The present study is focused on the chemical and lipid composition of seed oil of the European ornamental and invasive wood plant Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae). Total lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture in the seeds were determined. A high yield of glyceride oil (30.7%) was found, as well as a high content of fibers (29.6%) and proteins (18.7%). Physicochemical properties of the oil define it as semi-dry (129.4 g I2/100 g Iodine value) with oxidative stability, refractive index, saponification value, and relative density similar to widely used oils with nutritional value and health benefits. The composition of the seed oil was determined chromatographically. Unsaturated fatty acids (95.3%) predominated in the seed oil, of which linoleic acid (48.6%) and oleic acid (44.8%) were the major ones. The main lipid-soluble bioactive components were β-sitosterol (72.6%), γ-tocopherol (74.6%), phosphatidylinositol (29.5%), and phosphatidic acids (25.7%). The proven in vitro DNA-protective ability of seed oil is reported for the first time. The seed oil exhibited a weak antiproliferative effect on HT-29 and PC3 tumor cell lines and showed no cytotoxicity on the BALB/c 3T3 cell line. In brief, the present study reveals that A. altissima seed oil can be used as a healthy food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in Plant Food: Extraction, Characteristic and Health Benefits)
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10 pages, 226 KiB  
Article
Contributions of Common Foods to Resveratrol Intake in the Chinese Diet
by Yichi Xu, Mengxue Fang, Xue Li, Du Wang, Li Yu, Fei Ma, Jun Jiang, Liangxiao Zhang and Peiwu Li
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081267 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore has potential health benefits for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. The beneficial dose of resveratrol is between 30 [...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore has potential health benefits for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. The beneficial dose of resveratrol is between 30 and 150 mg. Although the health benefits of resveratrol have been extensively studied, resveratrol intake through the diet of residents in China remains unclear, which restricts the development of resveratrol-rich foods. In this study, a dietary assessment was conducted to reveal that the daily resveratrol intake by Chinese residents through common foods was only 0.783 mg, which was significantly below the beneficial dose. Among the main food types, fruits emerged as the primary source of resveratrol, contributing to 88.35% of the total intake. To improve resveratrol intake, potential methods to increase its consumption were proposed. First method is to increase the resveratrol content of fruits and peanuts. In addition, resveratrol can be extracted from peels. It is also recommended to adopt technical means to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol and develop related supplements and functional drinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Polyphenols in Foods)
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16 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
Decoding the Effect of Running on Flavor Perception Changes during Consumption of Sports Drinks
by Biwen Pu, Ruixin Meng, Yige Shi and Dandan Pu
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081266 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
An online survey was conducted to show that most respondents preferred sports drinks with sweet and fruity characteristics. Eleven sports drinks with higher consumers’ preferences were further selected for aroma and taste evaluation. Temporal dominance of sensations analysis showed that fruity and fresh [...] Read more.
An online survey was conducted to show that most respondents preferred sports drinks with sweet and fruity characteristics. Eleven sports drinks with higher consumers’ preferences were further selected for aroma and taste evaluation. Temporal dominance of sensations analysis showed that fruity and fresh attributes were dominant, while sour and fruity sweet were dominant tastes during consumption. β-Damascenone, β-ionone, and linalool contributing to floral perception, γ-decalactone, ethyl cinnamate, and isoamyl acetate contributing to fruity perception, and menthol contributing to fresh perception were confirmed by odor activity value analysis. Running affected the nasal air flow and the saliva secretion, resulting in the flavor perception changing from fruity sweet, sweet, and fruity to sour because the recognition threshold decreased for sweet, fruity, floral, and fresh flavors and increased for saltiness, astringency, and sour tastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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19 pages, 10626 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Dictyophora rubrovolvata Volva Proteins: Process Optimization, Structural Characterization, Intermolecular Forces, and Functional Properties
by Yongqing Zhang, Shinan Wei, Qinqin Xiong, Lingshuai Meng, Ying Li, Yonghui Ge, Ming Guo, Heng Luo and Dong Lin
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081265 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Dictyophora rubrovolvata volva, an agricultural by-product, is often directly discarded resulting in environmental pollution and waste of the proteins’ resources. In this study, D. rubrovolvata volva proteins (DRVPs) were recovered using the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method. Based on one-way tests, orthogonal tests were conducted [...] Read more.
Dictyophora rubrovolvata volva, an agricultural by-product, is often directly discarded resulting in environmental pollution and waste of the proteins’ resources. In this study, D. rubrovolvata volva proteins (DRVPs) were recovered using the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method. Based on one-way tests, orthogonal tests were conducted to identify the effects of the material–liquid ratio, pH, extraction time, and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of DRVPs. Moreover, the impact of UAE on the physicochemical properties, structure characteristics, intermolecular forces, and functional attributes of DRVPs were also examined. The maximum protein extraction rate was achieved at 43.34% under the best extraction conditions of UAE (1:20 g/mL, pH 11, 25 min, and 550 W). UAE significantly altered proteins’ morphology and molecular size compared to the conventional alkaline method. Furthermore, while UAE did not affect the primary structure, it dramatically changed the secondary and tertiary structure of DRVPs. Approximately 13.42% of the compact secondary structures (α-helices and β-sheets) underwent a transition to looser structures (β-turns and random coils), resulting in the exposure of hydrophobic groups previously concealed within the molecule’s core. In addition, the driving forces maintaining and stabilizing the sonicated protein aggregates mainly involved hydrophobic forces, disulfide bonding, and hydrogen bonding interactions. Under specific pH and temperature conditions, the water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, foaming capacity and stability, emulsion activity, and stability of UAE increased significantly from 2.01 g/g to 2.52 g/g, 3.90 g/g to 5.53 g/g, 92.56% to 111.90%, 58.97% to 89.36%, 13.85% to 15.37%, and 100.22% to 136.53%, respectively, compared to conventional alkali extraction. The findings contributed to a new approach for the high-value utilization of agricultural waste from D. rubrovolvata. Full article
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19 pages, 2040 KiB  
Article
Quality of Refrigerated Squid Mantle Cut Treated with Mint Extract Subjected to High-Pressure Processing
by Krisana Nilsuwan, Suriya Palamae, Jasmin Naher, Natchaphol Buamard, Bin Zhang and Soottawat Benjakul
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081264 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Squid (Loligo vulgaris) is commonly prone to spoilage, leading to a short shelf-life. High-pressure processing (HPP) can play a role in maintaining the quality and freshness of squid. Along with HPP, food preservatives from natural sources such as mint extract (ME), [...] Read more.
Squid (Loligo vulgaris) is commonly prone to spoilage, leading to a short shelf-life. High-pressure processing (HPP) can play a role in maintaining the quality and freshness of squid. Along with HPP, food preservatives from natural sources such as mint extract (ME), which are effective, safe, available, and cost-effective, are required. The present study aimed to investigate the combined effect of ME and HPP on the quality of refrigerated squid mantle cuts (SMC) over a period of 15 days. The time-kill profiles of ME and planktonic cell inactivation by HPP were assessed. ME (400 mg/L) inhibited bacterial growth, while planktonic cells treated with HPP (400 MPa) exhibited a reduction at 5 min. Physicochemical and microbial qualities of SMC treated with ME (0, 200, 400 mg/L) followed by HPP (0.1, 200, 400 MPa) for 5 min were monitored during refrigerated storage. Samples treated with ME (400 mg/L) and HPP (400 MPa) exhibited lower weight loss, cooking loss, pH changes, volatile base content, microbial counts, and higher textural properties than other samples. Based on next-generation sequencing results, Brochothrix campestris from family Listeriaceae was the predominant spoilage bacteria in treated sample after 12 days of storage. Therefore, ME and HPP combined treatments exhibited effectiveness in extending the shelf-life of refrigerated SMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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12 pages, 4258 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Fungal Diversity, Physicochemical Properties and Volatile Organic Compounds of Strong-Flavor Daqu from Seven Different Areas
by Zhigao Li, Xu Yan, Sibo Zou, Chaofan Ji, Liang Dong, Sufang Zhang, Huipeng Liang and Xinping Lin
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081263 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Strong-flavor Daqu, as a fermentation agent, plays a significant role in shaping the quality of strong-flavor baijius, and fungal species in Daqu are important factors affecting the quality of Daqu. Therefore, we selected strong-flavor Daqu from seven different origins to study the fungal [...] Read more.
Strong-flavor Daqu, as a fermentation agent, plays a significant role in shaping the quality of strong-flavor baijius, and fungal species in Daqu are important factors affecting the quality of Daqu. Therefore, we selected strong-flavor Daqu from seven different origins to study the fungal composition and the effects of the fungal composition on the physicochemical properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It was found that the fungal composition influences the physicochemical properties of Daqu. Specifically, there was a positive link between Rhizomucor, Rhizopus, Thermomyces, and liquefying activity and a positive correlation between Aspergillus and fermenting activity. Furthermore, the relationships between esterifying activity and Thermomyces, Rhizomucor, Aspergillus, Pichia, and Saccharomycopsis were found to be positive. The VOCs in Daqu were affected by Aspergillus, Issatchenkia, Pichia, and Thermoascus. Issatchenkia was significantly positively correlated with benzeneethanol as well as Aspergillus and pentadecanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl myristate. Pichia and Thermoascus were significantly negatively correlated with benzaldehyde and 2-furaldehyde. This study deepens our understanding of the relationship between VOCs, the physicochemical properties with microbial communities, and reference significance for the production of better-quality strong-flavor Daqu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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15 pages, 3144 KiB  
Article
Lost Food and Associated Phosphorus Footprint: Evidence from China
by Dengyun Gao, Xing Li, Junkai Ma and Long Qian
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081262 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 377
Abstract
The environmental impacts of excessive phosphorus emissions (PE) have been widely discussed in recent years. This study aims to calculate and evaluate the phosphorus footprint (PF) of food thrown away in Chinese universities. Based on a nationwide survey involving 9192 university students from [...] Read more.
The environmental impacts of excessive phosphorus emissions (PE) have been widely discussed in recent years. This study aims to calculate and evaluate the phosphorus footprint (PF) of food thrown away in Chinese universities. Based on a nationwide survey involving 9192 university students from 29 provinces and 29 universities in China, the result reveals that the PF generated by food waste in Chinese university canteens was 3.209 Kt in 2018. Furthermore, it is found that meal satisfaction, gender, regional economic level, dietary culture, and years of education all have significant impacts on lost food PF. Our findings emphasize the importance of reducing food waste in university canteens, which plays a crucial role in ensuring food security and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Systems)
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12 pages, 2947 KiB  
Article
Chemical Compositions and Characteristics of Biocalcium from Pre-Cooked Tuna Bone as Influenced by Sodium Chloride Pretreatment and Defatting by Asian Seabass Lipase
by Soottawat Benjakul, Saowakon Pomtong, Afeefah Chedosama, Jirakrit Saetang, Pornsatit Sookchoo and Krisana Nilsuwan
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081261 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Pre-cooked bone is a waste product generated during tuna processing and can serve as a potential source of biocalcium (BC). Generally, non-collagenous protein and fat must be removed properly from bone. A NaCl solution can be used to remove such proteins, while fish [...] Read more.
Pre-cooked bone is a waste product generated during tuna processing and can serve as a potential source of biocalcium (BC). Generally, non-collagenous protein and fat must be removed properly from bone. A NaCl solution can be used to remove such proteins, while fish lipase can be used in a green process, instead of solvent, for fat removal. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the impact of NaCl pretreatment at different concentrations in combination with heat to eliminate non-collagenous proteins, and to implement fish lipase treatments at varying levels for fat removal, for BC production from pre-cooked tuna bone. Optimal NaCl pretreatment of bone was achieved when a 5% NaCl solution at 80 °C was used for 150 min. The lowest lipid content was obtained for bone defatted with crude lipase extract (CLE) at 0.30 Unit/g of bone powder for 2 h. BC powder from bone defatted with CLE (DF-BC) possessed greater contents of ash, calcium, and phosphorus and smaller particle sizes than the control BC powder. X-ray diffractograms suggested that both BC powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as a major compound, which had a crystallinity of 62.92–63.07%. An elemental profile confirmed the presence of organic and inorganic matter. Thus, BC powder could be produced from pre-cooked tuna bone using this ‘green process’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
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30 pages, 2542 KiB  
Article
The Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Non-Smoked Bacon by Instrumental and Sensory Methods
by Han Wu, Zhifei He, Li Yang and Hongjun Li
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081260 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The aroma profiles in non-smoked bacon were investigated via GC–O–MS, GC × GC–TOFMS, and GC–IMS. GC-O-MS is advantageous for detecting aldehydes. GC × GC-TOFMS is more sensitive to hydrocarbons and alcohols, while GC-IMS detects a balanced range of categories. Only 9 of the [...] Read more.
The aroma profiles in non-smoked bacon were investigated via GC–O–MS, GC × GC–TOFMS, and GC–IMS. GC-O-MS is advantageous for detecting aldehydes. GC × GC-TOFMS is more sensitive to hydrocarbons and alcohols, while GC-IMS detects a balanced range of categories. Only 9 of the 239 detected volatiles were identifiable by all three methods. Therefore, the combination of all three methods proved to be the most effective way to comprehensively analyze the aroma profiles of bacon. Recombination and omission tests were performed using aroma compounds with a flavor dilution (FD) factor greater than 27; five volatiles were identified as key aroma compounds in non-smoked bacon, including hexanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, dihydro-5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone, and 3-methyl-butanoic acid. Among these, hexanal and 1-octen-3-ol exhibited relatively high FD factors and odor activity values (OAVs), so they were confirmed as the primary contributors. Meanwhile, seven volatiles contributed to the unique aroma of non-smoked bacon in different regions. The difference in the aroma of bacon in different regions is mainly due to the content of various volatiles rather than the type. A comprehensive analysis of the aroma in non-smoked bacon can reveal theoretical information for improving the process and quality control of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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19 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Precision Food Composition Data as a Tool to Decipher the Riddle of Ultra-Processed Foods and Nutritional Quality
by Antonis Vlassopoulos, Alexandra Katidi, Stamoulis Noutsos and Maria Kapsokefalou
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081259 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Background: Epidemiology supports a link between ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and health, mediated mainly through the clustering of foods with suboptimal nutrient profiles within UPFs. However, successful NOVA categorization requires access to a food’s ingredient list, which we hypothesized can impact both UPF identification [...] Read more.
Background: Epidemiology supports a link between ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and health, mediated mainly through the clustering of foods with suboptimal nutrient profiles within UPFs. However, successful NOVA categorization requires access to a food’s ingredient list, which we hypothesized can impact both UPF identification and the link between processing and composition. Methods: Foods (n = 4851) in the HelTH branded food composition database were classified as NOVA1-4, with or without using the ingredient lists (generic and branded approach, respectively), to identify differences in NOVA classification (chi-square test) and the estimated average nutritional composition of each NOVA group (Kruskal–Willis U test). Results: Using the ingredients list increased UPF identification by 30%. More than 30% of foods commonly assumed to be minimally processed (NOVA1-plain dairy, frozen vegetables, etc.) were reclassified as UPFs when using ingredient lists. These reclassified foods, however, had nutritional compositions comparable to NOVA1 foods and better than UPFs for energy, fat, sugars, and sodium (p < 0.001). In fact, UPFs did not show a uniform nutritional composition covering foods from Nutri-Score A (~10%) to Nutri-Score E (~20%). Conclusions: The assumption that all UPFs have the same unfavorable nutritional composition is challenged when NOVA is applied using the appropriate branded food composition database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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18 pages, 6113 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Role and Functionality of Ingredients in Plant-Based Meat Analogue Burgers: A Comprehensive Review
by Gil Vila-Clarà, Anna Vila-Martí, Laia Vergés-Canet and Miriam Torres-Moreno
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081258 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 980
Abstract
The development of plant-based meat analogues has become a significant challenge for the food industry in recent years due to the increasing demand for sustainable and healthier proteins in the context of a global protein transition. Plant-based meat analogues imitate the visual, textural, [...] Read more.
The development of plant-based meat analogues has become a significant challenge for the food industry in recent years due to the increasing demand for sustainable and healthier proteins in the context of a global protein transition. Plant-based meat analogues imitate the visual, textural, and chemical properties of traditional meat products and are required to closely resemble meat to appeal to consumers. In addition, consumers demand natural, clean-label, and nutritional, and healthy products. To address these challenges, the food industry must develop highly healthy, nutritious, and E-number-free meat analogue products. Understanding the functionality of each ingredient and its role in the food matrix is crucial to being a key player in the innovation of the meat analogue market. This review provides updated information on the primary ingredients utilized for the development of plant-based burger meat alternatives and their functionality. The key components of meat analogue burgers are outlined, including plant proteins, binding agents, fats and oils, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, fortificants, and clean-label considerations. Full article
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22 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Volatile Profiling of Spirulina Food Supplements
by Aikaterina Paraskevopoulou, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Anastasia Hiskia, Martin Steinhaus, Dimitra Dimotikali and Theodoros M. Triantis
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081257 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Spirulina, a cyanobacterium widely used as a food supplement due to its high nutrient value, contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is crucial to assess the presence of VOCs in commercial spirulina products, as they could influence sensory quality, various processes, and technological [...] Read more.
Spirulina, a cyanobacterium widely used as a food supplement due to its high nutrient value, contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is crucial to assess the presence of VOCs in commercial spirulina products, as they could influence sensory quality, various processes, and technological aspects. In this study, the volatile profiles of seventeen commercial spirulina food supplements were determined using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of volatile compounds was achieved using a workflow that combined data processing with software tools and reference databases, as well as retention indices (RI) and elution order data. A total of 128 VOCs were identified as belonging to chemical groups of alkanes (47.2%), ketones (25.7%), aldehydes (10.9%), alcohols (8.4%), furans (3.7%), alkenes (1.8%), esters (1.1%), pyrazines (0.8%), and other compounds (0.4%). Major volatiles among all samples were hydrocarbons, especially heptadecane and heptadec-8-ene, followed by ketones (i.e., 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one, β-ionone, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexan-1-one), aldehydes (i.e., hexanal), and the alcohol oct-1-en-3-ol. Several volatiles were found in spirulina dietary supplements for the first time, including 6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one (geranylacetone), 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, hept-2-enal, octanal, nonanal, oct-2-en-1-ol, heptan-1-ol, nonan-1-ol, tetradec-9-en-1-ol, 4,4-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, and 1-(2,5-dimethylfuran-3-yl) ethanone. The methodology used for VOC analysis ensured high accuracy, reliability, and confidence in compound identification. Results reveal a wide variety of volatiles in commercial spirulina products, with numerous newly discovered compounds, prompting further research on sensory quality and production methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volatiles in Foods—Its Importance on Consumer Acceptance Volume II)
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19 pages, 2557 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Quality and Microbial Communities of Precooked Seasoned Crayfish Tail Treated with Microwave and Biological Preservatives during Room Temperature Storage
by Banghong Wei, Yan Gao, Yao Zheng, Jinxiang Yu, Xuejun Fu, Hairong Bao, Quanyou Guo and Huogen Hu
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081256 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The qualities of precooked foods can be significantly changed by the microorganisms produced during room temperature storage. This work assessed the effects of different antibacterial treatments (CK, without any treatment; microwave treatment, MS; microwave treatment and biological preservatives, MSBP) on the physicochemical properties [...] Read more.
The qualities of precooked foods can be significantly changed by the microorganisms produced during room temperature storage. This work assessed the effects of different antibacterial treatments (CK, without any treatment; microwave treatment, MS; microwave treatment and biological preservatives, MSBP) on the physicochemical properties and microbial communities of precooked crayfish tails during room temperature storage. Only the combination of microwave sterilization and biological preservatives significantly inhibited spoilage, as evidenced by the total viable count (4.15 log CFU/g) after 3 days of room temperature storage, which satisfied the transit time of most logistics companies in China. Changes in pH and TVB-N were also significantly inhibited in the MSBP group compared with those in the CK and MS groups. More than 30 new volatile compounds were produced in the CK groups during room temperature storage. However, in the MSBP groups, the volatile compounds were almost unchanged. The correlations between the microbial composition and volatile compounds suggested that specific bacterial species with metabolic activities related to amino acid, energy, cofactor, and vitamin metabolism, as well as xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, were responsible for the changes in volatile compounds. These bacteria included Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, Facklamia, Leucobacter, Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix, Devosia, Dietzia, and Acidovorax. Overall, our findings provide a foundation for the development of strategies to inhibit spoilage in precooked crayfish tails stored at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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0 pages, 3624 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Verbascum sinaiticum Leaves: Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Capacity
by Alemu Belay Legesse, Shimelis Admassu Emire, Minbale Gashu Tadesse, Debebe Worku Dadi, Shimelis Kebede Kassa, Timilehin Martins Oyinloye and Won Byong Yoon
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081255 - 19 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
Verbascum sinaiticum (Qetetina or yeahya Joro) is a medicinal plant with secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and alkaloids. This study was designed to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters to enhance the phenolic content and characterize the phenolic [...] Read more.
Verbascum sinaiticum (Qetetina or yeahya Joro) is a medicinal plant with secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and alkaloids. This study was designed to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) parameters to enhance the phenolic content and characterize the phenolic compounds using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS), and antioxidant activities in Verbascum sinaiticum extract. Extraction time, sample-to-solvent ratio, and extraction temperature were considered for UAE optimization. It was found that UAE generated the highest extraction yield (21.6%), total phenolic content (179.8 GAE mg/g), total flavonoid content (64.49 CE mg/g), DPPH (61.85 µg/mL), and ABTS (38.89 µg/mL) when compared to maceration extraction. Metabolite analysis in this study showed the detection of 17 phenolic compounds, confirming antioxidant capacities. The optimization parameters have significant effects on phenolic compounds. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of structural changes when UAE was used over the maceration method. The optimized UAE parameters for extraction temperature (41.43 °C), sample-to-solvent ratio (36.32 g/mL), and extraction time (33.22 min) for TPC were obtained. This study shows the potential application for UAE of Verbascum sinaiticum leaves in the development of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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21 pages, 1628 KiB  
Article
The Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Pentachlorophenol in Five Animal-Derived Foods Measured by Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
by Quan Zhou, Huiming Chen, Liangliang Li, Yongning Wu, Xingfen Yang, Aimin Jiang and Weiliang Wu
Foods 2024, 13(8), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13081254 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a ubiquitous emerging persistent organic pollutant detected in the environment and foodstuffs. Despite the dietary intake of PCP being performed using surveillance data, the assessment does not consider the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of PCP. Pork, beef, pork liver, chicken and [...] Read more.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a ubiquitous emerging persistent organic pollutant detected in the environment and foodstuffs. Despite the dietary intake of PCP being performed using surveillance data, the assessment does not consider the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of PCP. Pork, beef, pork liver, chicken and freshwater fish Ctenopharyngodon Idella-fortified by three levels of PCP were processed by RIVM and the Caco-2 cell model after steaming, boiling and pan-frying, and PCP in foods and digestive juices were detected using isotope dilution–UPLC-MS/MS. The culinary treatment and food matrix were significantly influenced (p < 0.05) in terms of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of PCP. Pan-frying was a significant factor (p < 0.05) influencing the digestion and absorption of PCP in foods, with the following bioaccessibility: pork (81.37–90.36%), beef (72.09–83.63%), pork liver (69.11–78.07%), chicken (63.43–75.52%) and freshwater fish (60.27–72.14%). The bioavailability was as follows: pork (49.39–63.41%), beef (40.32–53.43%), pork liver (33.63–47.11%), chicken (30.63–40.83%) and freshwater fish (17.14–27.09%). Pork and beef with higher fat content were a key factor in facilitating the notable PCP bioaccessibility and bioavailability (p < 0.05). Further, the exposure of PCP to the population was significantly reduced by 42.70–98.46% after the consideration of bioaccessibility and bioavailability, with no potential health risk. It can improve the accuracy of risk assessment for PCP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment and Dietary Exposure of Hazardous Substances in Foods)
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