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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 8 (April-2 2023) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The composition and technological attributes of the flours and breads of two elite einkorn wheats (Monlis and ID331) and a bread wheat (Blasco) were evaluated. Einkorn had better composition, with higher protein and carotenoid content, as well as technological characteristics similar to or better than those of bread wheat: farinographic development time, stability and degree of softening were alike, while rheofermentographic tests showed earlier development time, higher maximum height and superior retention coefficient. Einkorn breads had higher loaf volume and softer texture, which were maintained for a longer time. Thus, the choice of appropriate einkorn varieties and process optimization allow the production of breads with breadmaking-quality wheat, but better nutritional value and longer shelf life. View this paper
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21 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Variation of the Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Potential in Edible Macroalga Saccharina latissima Cultivated from Atlantic Canada Subjected to Different Growth and Processing Conditions
by Bétina Lafeuille, Éric Tamigneaux, Karine Berger, Véronique Provencher and Lucie Beaulieu
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081736 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Macroalgae are a new food source in the Western world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of harvest months and food processing on cultivated Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) from Quebec. Seaweeds were harvested in May and June [...] Read more.
Macroalgae are a new food source in the Western world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of harvest months and food processing on cultivated Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) from Quebec. Seaweeds were harvested in May and June 2019 and processed by blanching, steaming, and drying with a frozen control condition. The chemical (lipids, proteins, ash, carbohydrates, fibers) and mineral (I, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) compositions, the potential bioactive compounds (alginates, fucoidans, laminarans, carotenoids, polyphenols) and in vitro antioxidant potential were investigated. The results showed that May specimens were significantly the richest in proteins, ash, I, Fe, and carotenoids, while June macroalgae contained more carbohydrates. The antioxidant potential of water-soluble extracts (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity [ORAC] analysis–625 µg/mL) showed the highest potential in June samples. Interactions between harvested months and processing were demonstrated. The drying process applied in May specimens appeared to preserve more S. latissima quality, whereas blanching and steaming resulted in a leaching of minerals. Losses of carotenoids and polyphenols were observed with heating treatments. Water-soluble extracts of dried May samples showed the highest antioxidant potential (ORAC analysis) compared to other methods. Thus, the drying process used to treat S. latissima harvested in May seems to be the best that should be selected. Full article
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16 pages, 2482 KiB  
Article
Impact of Milk Storage and Heat Treatments on In Vitro Protein Digestibility of Soft Cheese
by Simona Rinaldi, Sabrina Di Giovanni, Giuliano Palocci, Michela Contò, Roberto Steri and Carmela Tripaldi
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081735 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Cheese is an important source of protein in the human diet, and its digestibility depends on its macro and microstructure. This study investigated the effect of milk heat pre-treatment and pasteurization level on the protein digestibility of produced cheese. An in vitro digestion [...] Read more.
Cheese is an important source of protein in the human diet, and its digestibility depends on its macro and microstructure. This study investigated the effect of milk heat pre-treatment and pasteurization level on the protein digestibility of produced cheese. An in vitro digestion method was used considering cheeses after 4 and 21 days of storage. The peptide profile and amino acids (AAs) released in digestion were analyzed to evaluate the level of protein degradation following in vitro digestion. The results showed the presence of shorter peptides in the digested cheese from pre-treated milk and 4-day ripening while this trend was not observed after 21 days of storage, showing the effect of storage period. A significantly higher content of AAs was found in digested cheese produced from milk subjected to a higher temperature of pasteurization, and there was a significant increase in total AA content in the cheese after 21 days of storage, confirming the positive effect of ripening on protein digestibility. From these results emerges the importance of the management of heat treatments on the digestion of proteins in soft cheese. Full article
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12 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Six Canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) Cultivars Associated with Growth Habits and after Dehulling
by Jenny Mérida-López, Sander Jonathan Pérez, Rocío Morales, Jeanette Purhagen, Björn Bergenståhl and Cinthia Carola Rojas
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081734 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
The canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) is a native Andean crop that stands out for its high content of protein, fiber, and minerals and that has a good fatty acid profile. We studied six canihuas cultivars, which were compared according to their proximate, [...] Read more.
The canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) is a native Andean crop that stands out for its high content of protein, fiber, and minerals and that has a good fatty acid profile. We studied six canihuas cultivars, which were compared according to their proximate, mineral, and fatty acid composition. Based on the form of stems, termed growth habit, they belonged to two groups: decumbent (Lasta Rosada, Illimani, Kullaca, and Cañawiri) and ascending (Saigua L24 and Saigua L25). Dehulling is an important process applied to this grain. However, there is no information about how it affects the chemical composition of the canihua. Dehulling resulted in two levels, whole and dehulled canihua. The highest protein and ash contents were in whole Saigua L25 (19.6 and 5.12 g/100 g, respectively), and the highest fat content was found in dehulled Saigua L25, while the whole grains of Saigua L24 presented the highest fiber content (12.5 g/100 g). Dehulling mainly affected the macro-minerals content, while micro-minerals were only slightly linked to the dehulling. The growth habit influenced the C18:1 and C18:3 contents. In conclusion, the canihua had a nutritional composition influenced by each variety, strongly influenced by dehulling, and to a lesser extent by growth habit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Grains and Grain-Based Foods)
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15 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
Quercetin-Induced Glutathione Depletion Sensitizes Colorectal Cancer Cells to Oxaliplatin
by Jinkyung Lee, Chan Ho Jang, Yoonsu Kim, Jisun Oh and Jong-Sang Kim
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081733 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3246
Abstract
Quercetin is an antioxidant phytochemical which belongs to the natural flavonoids group. Recently, the compound has been reported to inhibit glutathione reductase responsible for replenishing reduced forms of glutathione and thus leads to glutathione depletion, triggering cell death. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Quercetin is an antioxidant phytochemical which belongs to the natural flavonoids group. Recently, the compound has been reported to inhibit glutathione reductase responsible for replenishing reduced forms of glutathione and thus leads to glutathione depletion, triggering cell death. In this study, we examined if quercetin sensitizes tumors to oxaliplatin by inhibiting glutathione reductase activity in human colorectal cancer cells, and thereby facilitates apoptotic cell death. A combined treatment with quercetin and oxaliplatin was found to synergistically inhibit glutathione reductase activity, lower intracellular glutathione level, increase reactive oxygen species production, and reduce cell viability, compared to treatment with oxaliplatin alone in human colorectal HCT116 cancer cells. Furthermore, the incorporation of sulforaphane, recognized for its ability to scavenge glutathione, in combination with quercetin and oxaliplatin, substantially suppressed tumor growth in an HCT116 xenograft mouse model. These findings suggest that the depletion of intracellular glutathione by quercetin and sulforaphane could strengthen the anti-cancer efficacy of oxaliplatin. Full article
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13 pages, 5728 KiB  
Article
Novel Property Cytotoxicity and Mechanism of Food Preservative Brevilaterins against Human Gastric Cancer Cells
by Zhou Chen, Dan Hong, Siting Li and Yingmin Jia
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081732 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
Brevilaterins, antimicrobial peptides produced by Brevibacillus laterosporus, are regarded as excellent food preservatives and are popular as antimicrobial applications. Recent research has uncovered their potent cytotoxic effects against diverse cancer cells, thereby underscoring the pressing need for more extensive and intensive investigations [...] Read more.
Brevilaterins, antimicrobial peptides produced by Brevibacillus laterosporus, are regarded as excellent food preservatives and are popular as antimicrobial applications. Recent research has uncovered their potent cytotoxic effects against diverse cancer cells, thereby underscoring the pressing need for more extensive and intensive investigations into this use. In this study, we explored their novel function in inducing cytotoxicity to cancer cells and systematically investigated the mechanism of action of Brevilaterin B/C (BB/BC) in vivo. Proliferation, membrane permeability, and apoptotic rate were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, LDH assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI kits. ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and JC-1. Our results demonstrated that both BB and BC at concentrations of 4–6 µg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells BGC-823. Treatment with 4 µg/mL of BB/BC rapidly increased LDH levels in the supernatant of BGC-823 cells, leading to further investigation of the mechanism of apoptosis. We found that the apoptotic rate of BGC-823 cells significantly increased upon treatment with BB/BC, demonstrating their potent induction of apoptosis. BB/BC-induced ROS production in BGC-823 cells impaired their growth and induced apoptosis, indicating a close association between apoptosis and ROS elevation. Additionally, JC-1 aggregates rapidly accumulated after treatment with 4 µg/mL of BB/BC, suggesting changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and early apoptosis. Taken together, our findings revealed that BB and BC exhibit significant anticancer effects against gastric cancer cells, highlighting the promising potential of Brevilaterins as anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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12 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Effect of Apple Polyphenols on the Antioxidant Activity and Structure of Three-Dimensional Printed Processed Cheese
by Yiqiu Deng, Guangsheng Zhao, Kewei Cheng, Chuanchuan Shi and Gongnian Xiao
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081731 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Additives can influence the processability and quality of three-dimensional (3D)-printed foods. Herein, the effects of apple polyphenols on the antioxidant activity and structure of 3D-printed processed cheese were investigated. The antioxidant activities of processed cheese samples with different contents of apple polyphenols (0%, [...] Read more.
Additives can influence the processability and quality of three-dimensional (3D)-printed foods. Herein, the effects of apple polyphenols on the antioxidant activity and structure of 3D-printed processed cheese were investigated. The antioxidant activities of processed cheese samples with different contents of apple polyphenols (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2%, or 1.6%) were evaluated using 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. In addition, the rheological properties and structural characteristics of the processed cheeses were investigated using rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Then, the final printed products were analyzed for comparative molding effects and dimensional characteristics. it was found that apple polyphenols can significantly improve the antioxidant activity of processed cheese. When the amount of apple polyphenols added was 0.8%, the 3D shaping effect was optimal with a porosity rate of 4.1%. Apple polyphenols can be used as a good antioxidant additive, and the moderate addition of apple polyphenols can effectively improve the antioxidant and structural stability of 3D-printed processed cheese. Full article
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18 pages, 2591 KiB  
Article
Incorporation of Buckwheat Flour at Different Particle Sizes and Distinctive Doses in Wheat Flour to Manufacture an Improved Wheat Bread
by Ionica Coţovanu, Costel Mironeasa and Silvia Mironeasa
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081730 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
This study explored the effect of substituting wheat flour (WF) with distinctive optimal doses of buckwheat flour (BF) corresponding to large, medium, and small particle sizes (PS), previously established based on an optimization process, on composite flour characteristics, dough rheology, and bread quality. [...] Read more.
This study explored the effect of substituting wheat flour (WF) with distinctive optimal doses of buckwheat flour (BF) corresponding to large, medium, and small particle sizes (PS), previously established based on an optimization process, on composite flour characteristics, dough rheology, and bread quality. The optimal dose for each PS was established in a previous study. The highest value for protein, lipid, mineral, and amino acids was found in the optimal composite flour with medium PS, with significant differences between those with large and small PS. The addition of BF in WF at doses corresponding to each fraction provides optimum rheological properties, with the large and medium PS providing higher performance compared to the small one. The same tendency was observed for volume and texture parameters of bread made from optimal composite flours with medium and large PS, respectively, but the crust and crumb lightness presented lower values than bread with small PS. Regarding the bread nutritional profile, the sample with medium PS possessed the highest protein, lipid, and ash content. Compared to the wheat bread, a considerably higher amino acid content, up to 21.22%, was found in bread made from optimal composite flours with medium and small PS, respectively. The bread samples with medium and large PS, respectively were superior in minerals, the value being up to 2.63 times higher compared to the control. Sensory characteristics results revealed that the bread samples containing 9.13% large and 10.57% medium PS were the most preferred by panelists. The results of this research make an important base to suitably develop wheat–buckwheat bread applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Grains and Grain-Based Foods)
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15 pages, 809 KiB  
Article
Consumer Sentiments and Emotions in New Seafood Product Concept Development: A Co-Creation Approach Using Online Discussion Rooms in Croatia, Italy and Spain
by Marta Verza, Luca Camanzi, Cosimo Rota, Marija Cerjak, Luca Mulazzani and Giulio Malorgio
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081729 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Growing Mediterranean seafood consumption, increasing consumers’ awareness of food safety and quality, and changing food lifestyles are leading to the development of new food products. However, the majority of new food products launched on the market are expected to fail within the first [...] Read more.
Growing Mediterranean seafood consumption, increasing consumers’ awareness of food safety and quality, and changing food lifestyles are leading to the development of new food products. However, the majority of new food products launched on the market are expected to fail within the first year. One of the most effective ways to enhance new product success is by involving consumers during the first phases of New Product Development (NPD), using the so-called co-creation approach. Based on data collected through online discussion rooms, two new seafood product concepts—sardine fillets and sea burgers—were evaluated by a set of potential consumers in three Mediterranean countries—Italy, Spain, and Croatia. Textual information was analyzed by first using the topic modeling technique. Then, for each main topic identified, sentiment scores were calculated, followed by the identification of the main related emotions that were evoked. Overall, consumers seem to positively evaluate both proposed seafood product concepts, and three recurrent positive emotions (trust, anticipation, joy) were identified in relation to the main topics aroused during the discussions. The results of this study will be useful to guide future researchers and actors in this industry in the next development steps of the targeted seafood products in Mediterranean countries. Full article
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15 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Physical and Chemical Characterization and Bioavailability Evaluation In Vivo of Amaranth Protein Concentrate
by Yuliya S. Sidorova, Nikita A. Petrov, Irina B. Perova, Alexey I. Kolobanov and Sergey N. Zorin
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081728 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Special attention is being paid to the study of amaranth proteins. They are characterized by a high biological value that significantly exceeds those of grain crops. The production of protein concentrate from amaranth flour includes preliminary enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction of the resulting mixture, [...] Read more.
Special attention is being paid to the study of amaranth proteins. They are characterized by a high biological value that significantly exceeds those of grain crops. The production of protein concentrate from amaranth flour includes preliminary enzymatic hydrolysis, extraction of the resulting mixture, protein precipitation, microfiltration, and freeze-drying. In our study, the obtained amaranth protein concentrate was limited by valine, with an amino acid score of 74%. The true digestibility of the amaranth protein concentrate determined in vivo was 97.6 ± 0.3%, which was significantly lower than that of casein (99.3 ± 0.2%). The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score value of the concentrate was 72.2%. The obtained concentrate was a rich source of selenium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and iron. Ferulic acid was the only polyphenolic compound found in the amaranth protein concentrate, but its content was significantly greater compared to the original flour. Saponins were not removed completely during the process of obtaining the amaranth protein concentrate. We identified 15 saponins in the concentrate, mainly of the bidesmoside type, the sapogenins of which are related derivatives of oleanolic acid. Thus, the developed amaranth protein concentrate can be used as an ingredient in functional food products, with a high biological value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Food Additives)
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13 pages, 4048 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Hot Air Drying Efficiency through Electrostatic Field–Ultrasonic Coupling Pretreatment
by Ri-Fu Yang, Ying-Ying Peng and Yu-Rong Wang
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081727 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
The drying of compact and biologically active materials presents significant challenges. In this study, we propose using electrostatic field–ultrasonic coupling pretreatment to enhance the drying efficiency of ginkgo fruits. We designed and constructed an experimental device to investigate the effects of ultrasonic power, [...] Read more.
The drying of compact and biologically active materials presents significant challenges. In this study, we propose using electrostatic field–ultrasonic coupling pretreatment to enhance the drying efficiency of ginkgo fruits. We designed and constructed an experimental device to investigate the effects of ultrasonic power, pretreatment time, hot air drying temperature, and electrostatic field voltage on the moisture content of the fruits. We used the response surface methodology to identify optimal process conditions and further explored the kinetic model for the moisture content of the fruits under the pretreatment. The results showed that the optimal process parameters for electrostatic–ultrasound pretreatment and the drying of ginkgo fruits were: an electrostatic field voltage of 11.252 kV, an ultrasound power of 590.074 W, a pretreatment time of 32.799 min, and a hot air drying temperature of 85 °C. Under the optimized process conditions, the correlation between the moisture content of ginkgo fruits and the two-term drying kinetics model was the highest. After electrostatic–ultrasound coupling pretreatment, the drying rate of ginkgo fruits was significantly improved during hot air drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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17 pages, 8400 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fermentation Humidity on Quality of Congou Black Tea
by Sirui Zhang, Xinfeng Jiang, Chen Li, Li Qiu, Yuqiong Chen, Zhi Yu and Dejiang Ni
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081726 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of different fermentation humidities (55%, 65%, 75%, 85% and 95%) on congou black tea quality and bioactivity. Fermentation humidity mainly affected the tea′s appearance, aroma and taste quality. The tea fermented at low humidity (75% or below) showed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of different fermentation humidities (55%, 65%, 75%, 85% and 95%) on congou black tea quality and bioactivity. Fermentation humidity mainly affected the tea′s appearance, aroma and taste quality. The tea fermented at low humidity (75% or below) showed a decrease in tightness, evenness and moistening degree, as well as a heavy grassy and greenish scent, plus a green, astringent and bitter taste. The tea fermented at a high humidity (85% or above) presented a sweet and pure aroma, as well as a mellow taste, plus an increase of sweetness and umami. With increasing fermentation humidity, the tea exhibited a drop in the content of flavones, tea polyphenols, catechins (EGCG, ECG) and theaflavins (TF, TF-3-G), contrasted by a rise in the content of soluble sugars, thearubigins and theabrownins, contributing to the development of a sweet and mellow taste. Additionally, the tea showed a gradual increase in the total amount of volatile compounds and in the content of alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones and acids. Moreover, the tea fermented at a low humidity had stronger antioxidant activity against 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a higher inhibiting capability on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Overall results indicated the desirable fermentation humidity of congou black tea should be 85% or above. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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17 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Storability and Linear Regression Models of Pericarp Browning and Decay in Fifty Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Cultivars at Room Temperature Storage
by Kan Huang, Danwen Fu, Yonghua Jiang, Hailun Liu, Fachao Shi, Yingjie Wen, Changhe Cai, Jiezhen Chen, Liangxi Ou and Qian Yan
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081725 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
The primary cause for the limited shelf life of litchi fruit is rapid pericarp browning and decay. This study aims to evaluate the storability of 50 litchi varieties and establish a linear regression model for pericarp browning and decay based on 11 postharvest [...] Read more.
The primary cause for the limited shelf life of litchi fruit is rapid pericarp browning and decay. This study aims to evaluate the storability of 50 litchi varieties and establish a linear regression model for pericarp browning and decay based on 11 postharvest physical and chemical indices after 9 days of storage at room temperature. The results indicated that the average value of the browning index and decay rate significantly increased to 3.29% and 63.84% of 50 litchi varieties at day 9, respectively. Different litchi varieties showed different variations in appearance indicators, quality indicators, and physiological indicators. Furthermore, principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed that Liu Li 2 Hao exhibited the highest resistance to storage, whereas Dong Long Mi Li, Jiao Pan Li, E Dan Li 2 Hao, and Ren Shan Li were not resistant. Stepwise multiple regression analysis further demonstrated that the factors were highly correlated with the decay index, with a partial correlation coefficient of 0.437 between the effective index and the decay index. Therefore, pericarp thickness, relative conductivity, pericarp laccase activity, and total soluble solids were significant indicators for the comprehensive evaluation of litchi browning and decay, and relative conductivity was the significant determinant causing fruit browning. These findings provide a new perspective on the sustainable development of the litchi industry. Full article
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13 pages, 3967 KiB  
Article
Effect of Soluble Dietary Fiber of Navel Orange Peel Prepared by Mixed Solid-State Fermentation on the Quality of Jelly
by Yanan Cheng, Puyou Xue, Yi Chen, Jianhua Xie, Guanyi Peng, Shenglan Tian, Xinxin Chang and Qiang Yu
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081724 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
The aim of this work was to prepare soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) from insoluble dietary fiber of navel orange peel (NOP-IDF) by mixed solid-state fermentation (M-SDF) and to investigate the influence of fermentation modification on the structural and functional characteristics of SDF in [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to prepare soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) from insoluble dietary fiber of navel orange peel (NOP-IDF) by mixed solid-state fermentation (M-SDF) and to investigate the influence of fermentation modification on the structural and functional characteristics of SDF in comparison with untreated soluble dietary fiber (U-SDF) of NOP-IDF. Based on this, the contribution of two kinds of SDF to the texture and microstructure of jelly was further examined. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy indicated that M-SDF exhibited a loose structure. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy indicated that M-SDF exhibited a loose structure. In addition, M-SDF exhibited increased molecular weight and elevated thermal stability, and had significantly higher relative crystallinity than U-SDF. Fermentation modified the monosaccharide composition and ratio of SDF, as compared to U-SDF. The above results pointed out that the mixed solid-state fermentation contributed to alteration of the SDF structure. Furthermore, the water holding capacity and oil holding capacity of M-SDF were 5.68 ± 0.36 g/g and 5.04 ± 0.04 g/g, which were about six times and two times of U-SDF, respectively. Notably, the cholesterol adsorption capacity of M-SDF was highest at pH 7.0 (12.88 ± 0.15 g/g) and simultaneously exhibited better glucose adsorption capacity. In addition, jellies containing M-SDF exhibited a higher hardness of 751.15 than U-SDF, as well as better gumminess and chewiness. At the same time, the jelly added with M-SDF performed a homogeneous porous mesh structure, which contributed to keeping the texture of the jelly. In general, M-SDF displayed much excellent structural and functional properties, which could be utilized to develop functional food. Full article
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16 pages, 1442 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pre-Storage Melatonin Application on the Standard, Sensory, and Bioactive Quality of Early Sweet Cherry
by Daniel Cortés-Montaña, María Josefa Bernalte-García, Belén Velardo-Micharet, María Serrano and Manuel Joaquín Serradilla
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081723 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is involved in multiple functions in plants. However, its role in some metabolic pathways and exogenous application’s effect on fruits is still unclear. Furthermore, the effects of pre-storage melatonin treatment on sensory traits and consumer acceptance of cherries have yet to [...] Read more.
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is involved in multiple functions in plants. However, its role in some metabolic pathways and exogenous application’s effect on fruits is still unclear. Furthermore, the effects of pre-storage melatonin treatment on sensory traits and consumer acceptance of cherries have yet to be studied. For this reason, the early sweet cherry cultivar ‘Samba’ harvested at the commercial ripening stage was treated with different melatonin concentrations (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mmol L−1) and stored for 21 days under controlled cold temperature and humidity. The standard quality, respiration rate, postharvest aptitude, sensory quality, phenols, and antioxidant systems (non-enzymatic and enzymatic) were analysed at 14 and 21 days of storage. Postharvest treatment with melatonin 0.5 mmol L−1 improved firmness and reduced weight loss and non-commercial fruit percentage while increasing respiration rate, lipophilic antioxidant activity, and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity. Furthermore, the treated cherries showed better sensory qualities, such as uniformity of colour and skin colour, as well as being sourer and showing better consumer acceptance and liking after 14 days of storage. Therefore, we conclude that the 0.5 mmol L−1 concentration is effective on the standard, sensory, and bioactive quality of early sweet cherries and can be considered an eco-friendly tool for maintaining the postharvest quality of early cherries. Full article
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33 pages, 2964 KiB  
Review
Generating Multi-Functional Pulse Ingredients for Processed Meat Products—Scientific Evaluation of Infrared-Treated Lentils
by Darshika Pathiraje, Janelle Carlin, Tanya Der, Janitha P. D. Wanasundara and Phyllis J. Shand
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081722 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
In the last decade, various foods have been reformulated with plant protein ingredients to enhance plant-based food intake in our diet. Pulses are in the forefront as protein-rich sources to aid in providing sufficient daily protein intake and may be used as binders [...] Read more.
In the last decade, various foods have been reformulated with plant protein ingredients to enhance plant-based food intake in our diet. Pulses are in the forefront as protein-rich sources to aid in providing sufficient daily protein intake and may be used as binders to reduce meat protein in product formulations. Pulses are seen as clean-label ingredients that bring benefits to meat products beyond protein content. Pulse flours may need pre-treatments because their endogenous bioactive components may not always be beneficial to meat products. Infrared (IR) treatment is a highly energy-efficient and environmentally friendly method of heating foods, creating diversity in plant-based ingredient functionality. This review discusses using IR-heating technology to modify the properties of pulses and their usefulness in comminuted meat products, with a major emphasis on lentils. IR heating enhances liquid-binding and emulsifying properties, inactivates oxidative enzymes, reduces antinutritional factors, and protects antioxidative properties of pulses. Meat products benefit from IR-treated pulse ingredients, showing improvements in product yields, oxidative stability, and nutrient availability while maintaining desired texture. IR-treated lentil-based ingredients, in particular, also enhance the raw color stability of beef burgers. Therefore, developing pulse-enriched meat products will be a viable approach toward the sustainable production of meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Meat Processing Technology)
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14 pages, 2037 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Feeding Adaptability of Clanis bilineata tsingtauica Larvae to Different Cultivars of Soybean, (Glycine max)
by Lei Qian, Bo-Jian Chen, Fu-Rong Gui, Yi Qin, Pan Deng and Huai-Jian Liao
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081721 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
The larvae of Clanis bilineata tsingtauica, a special species of Chinese edible insect, are of great nutritional, medicinal and economic value to humans. This study aimed to clarify the effect of different soybean varieties (Guandou-3 (G3), Ruidou-1 (R1), September cold (SC)) on [...] Read more.
The larvae of Clanis bilineata tsingtauica, a special species of Chinese edible insect, are of great nutritional, medicinal and economic value to humans. This study aimed to clarify the effect of different soybean varieties (Guandou-3 (G3), Ruidou-1 (R1), September cold (SC)) on the nutritional quality and feeding selection behavior of C. bilineata tsingtauica larvae. The results showed that soybean isoleucine (Ile) and phenylalanine (Phe) were positively correlated with larval host selection (HS) and protein content. The order of soybean plants selected by C. bilineata tsingtauica larvae was R1 > SC > G3, and they selected R1 significantly higher than SC and G3 by 50.55% and 109.01%, respectively. The protein content of the larvae fed on R1 was also the highest among the three cultivars. In addition, a total of 17 volatiles belonging to 5 classes were detected from soybeans: aldehydes, esters, alcohols, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds. Pearson’s analysis showed that soybean methyl salicylate was positively correlated with larval HS and their protein content, and soybean 3-octenol was negatively correlated with larval HS and their palmitic acid content. In conclusion, C. bilineata tsingtauica larvae are more adapted to R1 than to the other two soybean species. This study provides a theoretical basis for the production of more protein-rich C. bilineata tsingtauica in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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13 pages, 1156 KiB  
Article
Sex Does Not Affect the Colour, Shear Stress, and Lipid Oxidation of Pork Meat, but Feed-Added Plant-Derived Extracts, Storage Time and Packaging Type Do
by Begoña Panea and Guillermo Ripoll
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081720 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Essential plant oils added to products, packaging or animal feed are used as a method of preserving food quality because they extend the shelf-life of meat due their antioxidant and/or antimicrobial capacity. This action can be achieved with the correct packaging that preserves [...] Read more.
Essential plant oils added to products, packaging or animal feed are used as a method of preserving food quality because they extend the shelf-life of meat due their antioxidant and/or antimicrobial capacity. This action can be achieved with the correct packaging that preserves the meat’s quality and safety. This study investigates the effects of plant-derived extracts (PDE) on the meat quality and shelf-life of pork packaged in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Thirty-six barrows and thirty-six gilts were allocated into three experimental groups: the control, garlic extract (1 kg/ton of feed) and oregano–rosemary oil (2 kg/ton of feed) with the same base-diet. Two packaging were used: vacuum and a commercial MAP (70% O2, 30% CO2). The meat fat content, pH, colour, TBARS values and Warner–Bratzler shear stress were investigated. The sex of the animals did not affect any of the studied variables, whereas PDE affected some of the colour variables and the shear stress; both the packaging type and the storage time affected the colour variables, lipid oxidation and shear stress. Vacuum-packed meat was more stable in terms of colour, lipid oxidation and shear stress than MAP-packed meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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21 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Pro- and Antioxidant Effect of Food Items and Matrices during Simulated In Vitro Digestion
by Farhad Vahid, Lisi Wagener, Bernadette Leners and Torsten Bohn
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081719 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The digestive tract can be considered a bioreactor. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during digestion may predispose for local and/or systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases. Food items rich in antioxidants may prevent such aggravation. This investigation analyzed [...] Read more.
The digestive tract can be considered a bioreactor. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during digestion may predispose for local and/or systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases. Food items rich in antioxidants may prevent such aggravation. This investigation analyzed pro-and antioxidant patterns of food matrices/items following in vitro digestion. Gastrointestinal digestion reflecting typically consumed quantities was performed on nine food items (orange and tomato juice, soda, coffee, white chocolate, sausage, vitamin C and E, and curcumin) and their combinations (n = 24), using the INFOGEST model. Antioxidant potential was measured by FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS, and pro-oxidant aspects by MDA (malondialdehyde) and peroxide formation. An anti-pro-oxidant score was developed, combining the five assays. Liquid food items showed moderately high antioxidant values, except for coffee and orange juice, which exhibited a high antioxidant potential. Solid matrices, e.g., white chocolate and sausage, showed both high pro-oxidant (up to 22 mg/L MDA) and high antioxidant potential (up to 336 mg/L vitamin C equivalents) at the same time. Individual vitamins (C and E) at physiological levels (achievable from food items) showed a moderate antioxidant potential (<220 mg/L vitamin C equivalents). Overall, both antioxidant and pro-oxidant assays correlated well, with correlation coefficients of up to 0.894. The effects of food combinations were generally additive, i.e., non-synergistic, except for combinations with sausage, where strong quenching effects for MDA were observed, e.g., with orange juice. In conclusion, as especially highlighted by complex matrices demonstrating both pro- and antioxidant potential, only measuring one aspect would result in physiological misinterpretations. Therefore, it is imperative to employ a combination of assays to evaluate both pro- and antioxidant properties of food digesta to ensure physiological relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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17 pages, 1126 KiB  
Article
Impact of Potentially Toxic Compounds in Cow Milk: How Industrial Activities Affect Animal Primary Productions
by Sergio Forcada, Mario Menéndez-Miranda, Carlos Boente, José Luis Rodríguez Gallego, José M. Costa-Fernández, Luis J. Royo and Ana Soldado
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081718 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently coexist in soils near industrial areas and sometimes in environmental compartments directly linked to feed (forage) and food (milk) production. However, the distribution of these pollutants along the dairy farm production chain is [...] Read more.
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently coexist in soils near industrial areas and sometimes in environmental compartments directly linked to feed (forage) and food (milk) production. However, the distribution of these pollutants along the dairy farm production chain is unclear. Here, we analyzed soil, forage, and milk samples from 16 livestock farms in Spain: several PTEs and PAHs were quantified. Farms were compared in terms of whether they were close to (<5 km) or far away from (>5 km) industrial areas. The results showed that PTEs and PAHs were enriched in the soils and forages from farms close to industrial areas, but not in the milk. In the soil, the maximum concentrations of PTEs reached 141, 46.1, 3.67, 6.11, and 138 mg kg−1 for chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, respectively, while fluoranthene (172.8 µg kg−1) and benzo(b)fluoranthene (177.4 µg kg−1) were the most abundant PAHs. Principal component analysis of the soil PTEs suggested common pollution sources for iron, arsenic, and lead. In the forage, the maximum contents of chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead were 32.8, 7.87, 1.31, 0.47, and 7.85 mg kg−1, respectively. The PAH found in the highest concentration in the feed forage was pyrene (120 µg kg−1). In the milk, the maximum PTE levels were much lower than in the soil or the feed forages: 74.1, 16.1, 0.12, 0.28, and 2.7 µg kg−1 for chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, respectively. Neither of the two milk samples exceeded the 20 µg kg−1 limit for lead set in EU 1881/2006. Pyrene was the most abundant PAH found in the milk (39.4 µg kg−1), while high molecular weight PAHs were not detected. For PTEs, the results showed that soil–forage transfer factors were higher than forage–milk ratios. Our results suggest that soils and forages around farms near industries, as well as the milk produced from those farms, have generally low levels of PTE and PAH contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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21 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
The Relationships between Waxes and Storage Quality Indexes of Fruits of Three Plum Cultivars
by Shouliang Zhu, Shian Huang, Xin Lin, Xuan Wan, Qin Zhang, Junsen Peng, Dengcan Luo, Yun Zhang and Xiaoqing Dong
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081717 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1405
Abstract
In the present study, the cuticular wax morphology, composition and the relationship with storage quality in three plum cultivars of Prunus salicina ‘Kongxin’ (KXL), Prunus salicina ‘Fengtang’ (FTL) and Prunus salicina ‘Cuihong’ (CHL) were investigated during storage at room temperature of 25 ± [...] Read more.
In the present study, the cuticular wax morphology, composition and the relationship with storage quality in three plum cultivars of Prunus salicina ‘Kongxin’ (KXL), Prunus salicina ‘Fengtang’ (FTL) and Prunus salicina ‘Cuihong’ (CHL) were investigated during storage at room temperature of 25 ± 1 °C. The results illustrated that the highest cuticular wax concentration was discovered in KXL, followed by FTL and the lowest in CHL. The fruit wax composition of the three plum cultivars was similar and principally composed of alkanes, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, triterpenes and olefins. Alcohols, alkanes and triterpenes were the dominant fruit wax compounds of the three plum cultivars. After storage for 20 d at room temperature, the variation of cuticular wax crystal structure and composition showed significant cultivar-associated differences. The total wax content decreased for FTL and CHL and increased for KXL, and the wax crystal degraded and melted together over time. The higher contents of the main components in the three plum cultivars were nonacosane, 1-triacontanol, 1-heneicosanol, nonacosan-10-one, octacosanal, ursolic aldehyde and oleic acid. Alcohols, triterpenes, fatty acids and aldehydes were most dramatically correlated with the softening of fruit and storage quality, and alkanes, esters and olefins were most significantly correlated with the water loss. Nonacosane and ursolic aldehyde can enhance the water retention of fruit. Overall, this study will provide a theoretical reference for the further precise development of edible plum fruit wax. Full article
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16 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Industrial Multiple-Effect Fractional Condensation under Vacuum for the Recovery of Hop Terpene Fractions in Water
by Lorenzo Lamberti, Luisa Boffa, Giorgio Grillo, Stefano Concari, Francesca Cavani and Giancarlo Cravotto
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081716 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
The inflorescences of Humulus lupulus L. are the most valuable ingredient in the brewing industry. Only female cones are used as their bitterness and aroma, much associated with beer, are granted by the production of resins and essential oils, respectively. The traditional brewing [...] Read more.
The inflorescences of Humulus lupulus L. are the most valuable ingredient in the brewing industry. Only female cones are used as their bitterness and aroma, much associated with beer, are granted by the production of resins and essential oils, respectively. The traditional brewing process for the extraction of the organic volatiles in hops is called dry hopping. It consists of extended maceration at low temperature after the fermentation phase. New extraction technologies can improve extraction rates and product quality while saving time and money. This article proves that multiple-effect fractional condensation under a vacuum is suitable for flavouring applications and especially for performing dry hopping without contamination risks and reductions in hop amounts. This technique leads to the recovery of aqueous aromatic fractions that are very rich in hop sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes. These suspensions are extremely stable when stored at 5–8 °C and avoid degradation even after several months. This feature is crucial for the marketing of non-alcoholic beverages, where the dilution of essential oils is otherwise problematic. Full article
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15 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Post-Harvest Red- and Far-Red-Light Irradiation and Low Temperature Induce the Accumulation of Carotenoids, Capsaicinoids, and Ascorbic Acid in Capsicum annuum L. Green Pepper Fruit
by Pavel Pashkovskiy, Nikolay Sleptsov, Mikhail Vereschagin, Vladimir Kreslavski, Natalia Rudometova, Pavel Sorokoumov, Aleksandr Ashikhmin, Maksim Bolshakov and Vladimir Kuznetsov
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081715 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Environmental factors, such as light of different spectral compositions and temperature, can change the level of activated photoreceptors which, in turn, can affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in the cells of green fruit. By briefly irradiating the harvested fruit of Capsicum annuum [...] Read more.
Environmental factors, such as light of different spectral compositions and temperature, can change the level of activated photoreceptors which, in turn, can affect the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in the cells of green fruit. By briefly irradiating the harvested fruit of Capsicum annuum L. hot peppers with red light (RL, maximum 660 nm) and far-red light (FRL, maximum 730 nm) and by keeping them at a low temperature, we attempted to determine whether the state of phytochromes in fruit affects the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Using HPLC, we analysed the qualitative composition and quantitative content of the main carotenoids and alkaloids and the chlorophylls and ascorbate, in pepper fruit exposed to the above factors. We measured the parameters characterising the primary photochemical processes of photosynthesis and the transcript levels of genes encoding capsaicin biosynthesis enzymes. The total carotenoids content in the fruit increased most noticeably after 24 h of RL irradiation (more than 3.5 times compared to the initial value), and the most significant change in the composition of carotenoids occurred when the fruit was irradiated with FRL for 72 h. The capsaicin alkaloid content increased markedly after 72 h of FRL irradiation (more than 8 times compared to the initial value). It was suggested that decrease in the activity of phytochromes due to a low temperature or FRL may result in an increase in the expression of the PAL and CAM genes. Full article
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15 pages, 1402 KiB  
Article
Impact of Processing Methods on the In Vitro Protein Digestibility and DIAAS of Various Foods Produced by Millet, Highland Barley and Buckwheat
by Lulu Fu, Song Gao and Bo Li
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081714 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Cereals are rich sources of dietary protein, whose nutritional assessments are often performed on raw grains or protein isolates. However, processing and gastrointestinal digestion may affect amino acid (AA) compositions, then change the protein quality. In this study, we determined the digestibility and [...] Read more.
Cereals are rich sources of dietary protein, whose nutritional assessments are often performed on raw grains or protein isolates. However, processing and gastrointestinal digestion may affect amino acid (AA) compositions, then change the protein quality. In this study, we determined the digestibility and AA compositions of various foods produced by whole grains (PG) or flour (PF) from three cereals (millet, highland barley and buckwheat) and analyzed the impact of processing methods on the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using the INFOGEST protocol. The in vitro protein digestibility of cereal-based foods was lower than raw grains, and PF showed a better digestion property than PG. The intestinal digestibility of individual AA within a food varied widely, and the digestibility of Cys and Ile was the lowest among all AAs. The DIAAS values of PG were lower than those of PF in each kind of cereal, and PF of buckwheat had the highest DIAAS value, followed by highland barley. The first limiting AA was still Lys for millet and highland barley compared to the raw grains; however, for buckwheat it was Leu. This study provided nutritional information on cereal products and helped to guide the collocation of different foods in diets. Full article
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18 pages, 4546 KiB  
Review
Occurrence and Dietary Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Most Consumed Foods in Cameroon: Exploring Current Data to Understand Futures Challenges
by Isabelle Sandrine Bouelet Ntsama, Chiara Frazzoli, Guy Bertrand Pouokam and Vittorio Colizzi
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081713 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins that contaminate different crops and foodstuffs under certain circumstances during harvesting, handling, storage, and processing. Neither the dietary intake of mycotoxins in Cameroon is well characterized, nor its health effects on the consumers. This review is intended to [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins that contaminate different crops and foodstuffs under certain circumstances during harvesting, handling, storage, and processing. Neither the dietary intake of mycotoxins in Cameroon is well characterized, nor its health effects on the consumers. This review is intended to be the first milestone towards national risk management of mycotoxins. It is noteworthy that mycotoxins contaminate the main staple foods of Cameroonian communities, which are also often used as complementary foods for infants, young children, and people with compromised immune systems (e.g., HIV/AIDS), thus calling for urgent intervention in primary and secondary prevention. Very few data exist on mycotoxin contamination in Cameroonian agricultural commodities and food items. Only 25 studies from 14 different authors have been published in the last decade. On the basis of available data in Cameroon, the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of major mycotoxins in foods for Aflatoxins was 0.0018–14.2 µg/kgbw/day in maize, 0.027–2.36 µg/kgbw/day in cassava, and 0.023–0.1 µg/kgbw/day in groundnuts. The estimated daily intake of fumonisins was 0.12–60.6 µg/kgbw/day in maize and 0.056–0.82 µg/kgbw/day in beans. Based on the estimated distribution of human exposure levels by food, maize and cassava are the major sources of exposure and should be prioritized, followed by beans and spices. This estimate will be updated along with improvements on the national database on mycotoxin contamination of Cameroonian foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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10 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Casein Phosphopeptide Addition on the Egg Production Performance, Egg Quality, and Eggshell Ultrastructure of Late Laying Hens
by Wenpei Liu, Jun Lin, Chenyue Zhang, Zhi Yang, Haoshu Shan, Jiasen Jiang, Xiaoli Wan and Zhiyue Wang
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081712 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
(1) Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of dietary casein phosphopeptide (CPP) supplementation on the egg production performance of late laying hens and the resulting egg quality and eggshell ultrastructure. (2) Methods: A total of 800 laying hens aged 58 weeks [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of dietary casein phosphopeptide (CPP) supplementation on the egg production performance of late laying hens and the resulting egg quality and eggshell ultrastructure. (2) Methods: A total of 800 laying hens aged 58 weeks were randomly assigned into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 20 hens each. The hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control, T1), 0.5 (T2), 1.0 (T3), 1.5 (T4), and 2.0 (T5) g/kg CPP for 9 weeks. (3) Results: Dietary CPP supplementation was found to be beneficial for improving eggshell quality. The spoiled egg rate of the experimental groups was lower than that of the control group (linear and quadratic effect, p < 0.05). The yolk color in the T2, T3, and T4 groups was higher than that in the T1 group (quadratic effect, p < 0.05). The shell thickness in the T4 group was higher than that in the T1 and T2 groups (linear effect, p < 0.05). The shell color in the experimental groups was higher than that in the control group (linear and quadratic effect, p < 0.05). The effective thickness in the T3–T5 groups (linear and quadratic, p < 0.05) and the number of papillary nodes in the T2 and T3 groups were higher than those in the T1 group (quadratic, p < 0.05). The calcium content in the T2 and T3 groups was higher than that in the T1 group (quadratic effect, p < 0.05). The iron content in the T2 and T3 groups was higher than that in the T1 group (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusion: In summary, 0.5–1.0 g/kg CPP supplementation reduced the spoiled egg rate, enhanced the yolk and eggshell colors, increased the thickness of the effective layer, and the calcium and iron contents in the eggshell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
15 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Development of a Functional Dark Chocolate with Baobab Pulp
by Sara Monteiro, João Dias, Vanda Lourenço, Ana Partidário, Manuela Lageiro, Célia Lampreia, Jaime Fernandes, Fernando Lidon, Fernando Reboredo and Nuno Alvarenga
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081711 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
In recent years, cocoa and dark chocolate have attracted the interest of consumers not only for their sensory characteristics but also for their nutritional properties and positive impact on health. The baobab is a fruit of African origin with a sour and slightly [...] Read more.
In recent years, cocoa and dark chocolate have attracted the interest of consumers not only for their sensory characteristics but also for their nutritional properties and positive impact on health. The baobab is a fruit of African origin with a sour and slightly sweet flavour, widely consumed by local communities due to its unique nutritional features. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the concentration of baobab flour in the development of functional dark chocolate, including physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory evaluations. The results presented a positive correlation between the incorporation of baobab flour and the antioxidant activity (up to 2297 mmol TE/100 g), vitamin C content (up to 49.7 mg/100 g), calcium (up to 1052 mg/kg), potassium (up to 10,175 mg/kg), phosphorus (up to 795.9 mg/kg), chlorine (up to 235.4 mg/kg) and sulphur (up to 1158 mg/kg). The sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with 3% baobab presented the highest evaluation on the parameters “texture” and “overall flavour”, while the parameter “overall flavour” presented the lowest evaluation on chocolate with 9% baobab. No influence was observed on fatty acid profile, protein, fat and hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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13 pages, 3282 KiB  
Article
Rapid Test for Adulteration of Fritillaria Thunbergii in Fritillaria Cirrhosa by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
by Kai Wei, Geer Teng, Qianqian Wang, Xiangjun Xu, Zhifang Zhao, Haida Liu, Mengyu Bao, Yongyue Zheng, Tianzhong Luo and Bingheng Lu
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1710; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081710 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Fritillaria has a long history in China, and it can be consumed as medicine and food. Owing to the high cost of Fritillaria cirrhosa, traders sometimes mix it with the cheaper Fritillaria thunbergii powder to make profit. Herein, we proposed a laser-induced breakdown [...] Read more.
Fritillaria has a long history in China, and it can be consumed as medicine and food. Owing to the high cost of Fritillaria cirrhosa, traders sometimes mix it with the cheaper Fritillaria thunbergii powder to make profit. Herein, we proposed a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to test the adulteration present in the sample of Fritillaria cirrhosa powder. Experimental samples with different adulteration levels were prepared, and their LIBS spectra were obtained. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was adopted as the quantitative analysis model to compare the effects of four data standardization methods, namely, mean centring, normalization by total area, standard normal variable, and normalization by the maximum, on the performance of the PLSR model. Principal component analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were utilized for feature extraction and feature selection, and the performance of the PLSR model was determined based on its quantitative analysis. Subsequently, the optimal number of features was determined. The residuals were corrected using support vector regression (SVR). The mean absolute error and root mean square error of prediction obtained from the quantitative analysis results of the combined LASSO-PLSR-SVR model for the test set data were 5.0396% and 7.2491%, respectively, and the coefficient of determination R2 was 0.9983. The results showed that the LIBS technique can be adopted to test adulteration in the sample of Fritillaria cirrhosa powder and has potential applications in drug quality control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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18 pages, 348 KiB  
Review
A Prospective Review of the Sensory Properties of Plant-Based Dairy and Meat Alternatives with a Focus on Texture
by Rachael Moss, Jeanne LeBlanc, Mackenzie Gorman, Christopher Ritchie, Lisa Duizer and Matthew B. McSweeney
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081709 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6487
Abstract
Consumers are interested in plant-based alternatives (PBAs) to dairy and meat products, and as such, the food industry is responding by developing a variety of different plant-based food items. For these products to be successful, their textural properties must be acceptable to consumers. [...] Read more.
Consumers are interested in plant-based alternatives (PBAs) to dairy and meat products, and as such, the food industry is responding by developing a variety of different plant-based food items. For these products to be successful, their textural properties must be acceptable to consumers. These textural properties need to be thoroughly investigated using different sensory methodologies to ensure consumer satisfaction. This review paper aims to summarize the various textural properties of PBAs, as well as to discuss the sensory methodologies that can be used in future studies of PBAs. PBAs to meat have been formulated using a variety of production technologies, but these products still have textural properties that differ from animal-based products. Most dairy and meat alternatives attempt to mimic their conventional counterparts, yet sensory trials rarely compare the PBAs to their meat or dairy counterparts. While most studies rely on consumers to investigate the acceptability of their products’ textural properties, future studies should include dynamic sensory methodologies, and attribute diagnostics questions to help product developers characterize the key sensory properties of their products. Studies should also indicate whether the product is meant to mimic a conventional product and should define the target consumer segment (ex. flexitarian, vegan) for the product. The importance of textural properties to PBAs is repeatedly mentioned in the literature and thus should be thoroughly investigated using robust sensory methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis of Plant-Based Products)
16 pages, 1846 KiB  
Review
Applicable Strains, Processing Techniques and Health Benefits of Fermented Oat Beverages: A Review
by Qian Yu, Jiaqin Qian, Yahui Guo, He Qian, Weirong Yao and Yuliang Cheng
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081708 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2741
Abstract
Based on the high nutrients of oat and the demand of health-conscious consumers for value-added and functional foods, fermented oat beverages have great market prospects. This review summarizes the applicable strains, processing techniques and health benefits of fermented oat beverages. Firstly, the fermentation [...] Read more.
Based on the high nutrients of oat and the demand of health-conscious consumers for value-added and functional foods, fermented oat beverages have great market prospects. This review summarizes the applicable strains, processing techniques and health benefits of fermented oat beverages. Firstly, the fermentation characteristics and conditions of the applicable strains are systematically described. Secondly, the advantages of pre-treatment processes such as enzymatic hydrolysis, germination, milling and drying are summarized. Furthermore, fermented oat beverages can increase the nutrient content and reduce the content of anti-nutritional factors, thereby reducing some risk factors related to many diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. This paper discusses the current research status of fermented oat beverages, which has academic significance for researchers interested in the application potential of oat. Future studies on fermenting oat beverages can focus on the development of special compound fermentation agents and the richness of their taste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain Intensive Processing and Utilization)
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20 pages, 4028 KiB  
Article
The Study of Yak Colostrum Nutritional Content Based on Foodomics
by Lin Xiong, Jie Pei, Pengjia Bao, Xingdong Wang, Shaoke Guo, Mengli Cao, Yandong Kang, Ping Yan and Xian Guo
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081707 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
The utilization of yak milk is still in a primary stage, and the nutrition composition of yak colostrum is not systematically characterized at present. In this study, the lipids, fatty acids, amino acids and their derivatives, metabolites in yak colostrum, and mature milk [...] Read more.
The utilization of yak milk is still in a primary stage, and the nutrition composition of yak colostrum is not systematically characterized at present. In this study, the lipids, fatty acids, amino acids and their derivatives, metabolites in yak colostrum, and mature milk were detected by the non−targeted lipidomics based on (ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer) UHPLC−MS, the targeted metabolome based on gas chromatography−mass spectrometer (GC−MS), the targeted metabolome analysis based on UHPLC−MS, and the non-targeted metabolome based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC−TOF−MS), respectively. Meanwhile, the nutrition composition of yak colostrum was compared with the data of cow mature milk in the literatures. The results showed that the nutritive value of yak colostrum was higher by contrast with yak and cow mature milk from the perspective of the fatty acid composition and the content of Σpolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), Σn−3PUFAs; the content of essential amino acid (EAA) and the ratio of EAA/total amino acid (TAA) in yak colostrum were higher than the value in yak mature milk; and the content of functional active lipids including phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC), lyso-phosphatidylglycerol (LPG), lyso-phosphatidylinositol (LPI), sphingomyelin (SM), ganglioside M3 (GM3), ganglioside T3 (GT3), and hexaglycosylceramide (Hex1Cer) in yak colostrum, was higher than the value of yak mature milk. Moreover, the differences of nutritive value between yak colostrum and mature milk were generated by the fat, amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism that were regulated by the ovarian hormone and referencesrenin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in yaks. These research results can provide a theoretical basis for the commercial product development of yak colostrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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