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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2021) – 272 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant impacts for nearly all industrial and societal sectors in the world. As closures and social distancing mandates were implemented to help control the spread of the novel coronavirus designated as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the food industry was immensely affected. This review explores the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food supply chain from a multi-disciplinary viewpoint and provides perspectives on the consequences on food safety and food security, a risk assessment on human–animal interactions, and considers logistical/protocol adjustments required for the food industry.View this paper
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14 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Role of Hydrocolloids in the Structure, Cooking, and Nutritional Properties of Fiber-Enriched, Fresh Egg Pasta Based on Tiger Nut Flour and Durum Wheat Semolina
by Maria Eugenia Martín-Esparza, Maria Dolores Raigón, Maria Dolores García-Martínez and Ana Albors
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102510 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of fresh egg tagliatelle labeled as a “source of fiber” based on tiger nut flour and wheat semolina. An attempt to improve the quality attributes and cooking properties of the obtained product was made [...] Read more.
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of fresh egg tagliatelle labeled as a “source of fiber” based on tiger nut flour and wheat semolina. An attempt to improve the quality attributes and cooking properties of the obtained product was made by means of structuring agents. More specifically, a combination of three hydrocolloids (carboximethylcellulose, CMC; xanthan gum, XG; and locust bean gum, LBG) was tested. A Box–Behnken design with randomized response surface methodology was used to determine a suitable combination of these gums to achieve fewer cooking losses, higher water gain and swelling index values, and better texture characteristics before and after cooking. Positive effects on textural characteristics were observed when incorporating XG into the pasta formulation. Cooking and fiber loss also significantly diminished with the XG-CMC combination over 0.8%. No significant effect was found for the other evaluated parameters. A synergistic interaction between LBG and XG was only significant for the water absorption index. The cooked pasta was considered a source of fiber in all cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
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14 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Cationic Modified Short Linear Glucan and Fabrication of Complex Nanoparticles with Low and High Methoxy Pectin
by Wenhui Li, Ying Yu, Jielong Peng, Ziyang Dai, Jinhong Wu, Zhengwu Wang and Huiyun Chen
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102509 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
In this study, we chemically modified the short linear glucan (SLG) using the 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride to introduce a positive surface charge via cationization (CSLG). We then prepared CSLG-based binary nanocomplex particles through electrostatic interactions with low and high methoxyl pectin. The two [...] Read more.
In this study, we chemically modified the short linear glucan (SLG) using the 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride to introduce a positive surface charge via cationization (CSLG). We then prepared CSLG-based binary nanocomplex particles through electrostatic interactions with low and high methoxyl pectin. The two new types of binary nanocomplex were comprehensively characterized. It was found that the nanocomplex particles showed a spherical shape with the particle size of <700 nm, smooth surface, homogeneous distribution, and negative surface charge. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that the driving forces to form nanocomplex were primarily electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In addition, increasing the CSLG concentration in the nanocomplex significantly enhanced both thermal stability and digestive stability. By comparing the two complex nanoparticles, the HMP-CSLG has a larger particle size and better stability under the GI condition due to the high content of the methoxy group. Additionally, the HMP-CSLG nanoparticle has a higher encapsulation efficiency and slower release rate under simulated gastrointestinal fluid for tangeretin compared with the LMP-CSLG. These results provide new insights into designing the CSLG-based nanocomplex as a potential oral delivery system for nutraceuticals or active ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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22 pages, 5650 KiB  
Article
Insights on Single-Dose Espresso Coffee Capsules’ Volatile Profile: From Ground Powder Volatiles to Prediction of Espresso Brew Aroma Properties
by Guido R. Lopes, Sílvia Petronilho, Andreia S. Ferreira, Mariana Pinto, Claúdia P. Passos, Elisabete Coelho, Carla Rodrigues, Cláudia Figueira, Sílvia M. Rocha and Manuel A. Coimbra
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102508 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4195
Abstract
Single-dose coffee capsules have revolutionized the coffee market, fueling espresso coffee popularity and offering access to a wide selection of coffee blends. Nevertheless, scarce information related to coffee powder and brew’s combined volatile characterization is available. In this study, it is hypothesized that [...] Read more.
Single-dose coffee capsules have revolutionized the coffee market, fueling espresso coffee popularity and offering access to a wide selection of coffee blends. Nevertheless, scarce information related to coffee powder and brew’s combined volatile characterization is available. In this study, it is hypothesized that coffee brew aroma characteristics can be predicted based on coffee powder’s volatile composition. For this, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC × GC-ToFMS) was used. The data were combined via chemometric tools to characterize in depth the volatile composition of eight blends of capsule-coffee powder and respective espresso brews, simulating the consumer’s perception. A total of 390 volatile compounds were putatively identified, 100 reported for the first time in roasted coffee or brews. Although the same chemical families were determined among the coffee powders and espresso brews, a different volatile profile was determined for each matrix. The Pearson correlation of coffee powders and respective brews allowed to identify 15 volatile compounds, mainly terpenic and esters recognized by their pleasant notes, with a strong relationship between the amounts present in both matrices. These compounds can be key markers to predict the volatile aroma potential of an espresso brew when analyzing the coffee powder. Full article
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11 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
In Vivo and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Fresh Pasta Produced Using Semolina-Based or Wholemeal Semolina-Based Liquid Sourdough
by Simonetta Fois, Piero Pasqualino Piu, Manuela Sanna, Tonina Roggio and Pasquale Catzeddu
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102507 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
The use of wholemeal flour and sourdough fermentation in different food matrices has received considerable attention in recent years due to its resulting health benefits. In this study, a semolina-based and a wholemeal semolina-based sourdough were prepared and added to the formulation of [...] Read more.
The use of wholemeal flour and sourdough fermentation in different food matrices has received considerable attention in recent years due to its resulting health benefits. In this study, a semolina-based and a wholemeal semolina-based sourdough were prepared and added to the formulation of gnocchetti-type fresh pasta. Four types of gnocchetti were made, using semolina plus semolina-based sourdough (SS), semolina plus wholemeal semolina-based sourdough (SWS), semolina alone (S), and semolina plus wholemeal semolina (WS). The latter two were used as controls. The digestibility of starch was studied both in vitro and in vivo, and the glycemic response (GR) and glycemic load (GL) were determined. Starch digestibility, both in vivo and in vitro, was higher in wholemeal semolina than semolina pasta and the resulting GR values (mg dL−1 min−1) were also higher (2209 and 2277 for WS and SWS; 1584 and 1553 for S and SS, respectively). The use of sourdough significantly reduced the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content and increased the inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) content. The addition of sourdough to the formulation had no effect on the GR values, but led to a reduction of the GL of the pasta. These are the first data on the GR and GL of fresh pasta made with sourdough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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14 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Select Hydrocolloids on the Processing of Pâté-Style Canned Pet Food
by Amanda N. Dainton, Hulya Dogan and Charles Gregory Aldrich
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102506 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Hydrocolloids are commonly used in canned pet food. However, their functional effects have not been quantified in this food format. The objective was to determine the effects of select hydrocolloids on batter consistency, heat penetration, and texture of canned pet food. Treatments were [...] Read more.
Hydrocolloids are commonly used in canned pet food. However, their functional effects have not been quantified in this food format. The objective was to determine the effects of select hydrocolloids on batter consistency, heat penetration, and texture of canned pet food. Treatments were added to the formula as 1% dextrose (D) and 0.5% guar gum with 0.5% of either dextrose (DG), kappa carrageenan (KCG), locust bean gum (LBG), or xanthan gum (XGG). Data were analyzed as a 1-way ANOVA with batch as a random effect and separated by Fisher’s LSD at p < 0.05. Batter consistency (distance traveled in 30 s) thickened with increasing levels of hydrocolloids (thinnest to thickest: 23.63 to 2.75 cm). The D treatment (12.08 min) accumulated greater lethality during the heating cycle compared to all others (average 9.09 min). The KCG treatment (27.00 N) was the firmest and D and DG (average 8.75 N) the softest with LBG and XGG (average 15.59 N) intermediate. Toughness was similar except D (67 N·mm) was less tough than DG (117 N·mm). The D treatment showed the greatest expressible moisture (49.91%), LBG and XGG the lowest (average 16.54%), and DG and KCG intermediate (average 25.26%). Hydrocolloids influenced heat penetration, likely due to differences in batter consistency, and affected finished product texture. Full article
11 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of an Aglycone-Enhanced Celery Extract with Germinated Soy Supplementation Using Response Surface Methodology
by Hazel Lau, Hui Min Koh, Hiranya Dayal, Yi Ren and Sam Fong Yau Li
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102505 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
In this study, the extraction conditions of bioactive aglycones from a celery extract supplemented with germinated soy were optimised by a response surface methodology. For subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance the apigenin content, increased production of its precursor apigetrin was firstly achieved through [...] Read more.
In this study, the extraction conditions of bioactive aglycones from a celery extract supplemented with germinated soy were optimised by a response surface methodology. For subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance the apigenin content, increased production of its precursor apigetrin was firstly achieved through acidic extraction at optimal conditions, involving water at pH 1, at 75 °C for 2 h. Subsequently, a central composite design was conducted to analyse the pH (3–11) and temperature (25–35 °C) effects on the aglycone levels (apigenin, daidzein and genistein). The optimal extraction conditions were pH 7.02 and 29.99 °C, which resulted in a 40-fold increase in apigenin. The novel and cost-effective application of germinated soy β-glucosidase for the conversion of aglycones in non-soy foods is demonstrated. The enhanced bioactivities of aglycones may suggest potential applications for similar formulations as functional food ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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18 pages, 3072 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Metabolites of Red Pigmented Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm and Correlations with Selected Phenotypic Characters
by Awraris Derbie Assefa, On-Sook Hur, Bum-Soo Hahn, Bichsaem Kim, Na-Young Ro and Ju-Hee Rhee
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2504; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102504 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Lettuce is an important dietary source of bioactive phytochemicals. Screening and identification of the health beneficial metabolites and evaluating the relationships with phenotypic characters can help consumers adjust their preferences for lettuce plant types. Thus, we explored the major health-beneficial individual metabolites and [...] Read more.
Lettuce is an important dietary source of bioactive phytochemicals. Screening and identification of the health beneficial metabolites and evaluating the relationships with phenotypic characters can help consumers adjust their preferences for lettuce plant types. Thus, we explored the major health-beneficial individual metabolites and antioxidant potential of 113 red pigmented lettuce leaf samples. A UV–Vis spectrophotometer and UPLC-DAD-QTOF/MS (TQ/MS) instruments were used for the identification and quantification of metabolites and antioxidant activity accordingly. The metabolites were quantified against their corresponding external standards. The contents of metabolites varied significantly among lettuce samples. Cyanidin 3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside (4.7~5013.6 μg/g DW), 2,3-di-O-caffeoyltartaric acid (337.1~19,957.2 μg/g DW), and quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside (45.4~31,121.0 μg/g DW) were the most dominant in red pigmented lettuce samples among anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives, and flavonols, respectively. Lettuces with dark and very dark red pigmented leaves, circular leaf shape, a strong degree of leaf undulation, and highly dense leaf incisions were found to have high levels of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives. Principal component analysis was used to investigate similarities and/or differences between samples, and the partial least square discriminant analysis classified them into known groups. The key variables that contributed highly were determined. Our report provides critical data on the bioactive constituents of red pigmented lettuce to breeders developing varieties with enhanced bioactive compounds and to nutraceutical companies developing nutrient dense foods and pharmaceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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18 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dry-Aging on Quality and Palatability Attributes and Flavor-Related Metabolites of Pork Loins
by Derico Setyabrata, Anna D. Wagner, Bruce R. Cooper and Yuan H. Brad Kim
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102503 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of dry-aging on quality, palatability, and flavor-related compounds of pork loins. Ten pork loins were obtained at 7 days postmortem, divided into three equal portions, randomly assigned into three different aging methods (wet-aging (W), conventional dry-aging (DA), and [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of dry-aging on quality, palatability, and flavor-related compounds of pork loins. Ten pork loins were obtained at 7 days postmortem, divided into three equal portions, randomly assigned into three different aging methods (wet-aging (W), conventional dry-aging (DA), and UV-light dry-aging (UDA)), and aged for 21 days at 2 °C, 70% RH, and 0.8 m/s airflow. The results showed similar instrumental tenderness values across all treatments (p > 0.05), while DA and UDA had a greater water-holding capacity than WA (p < 0.05). Both DA and UDA were observed to have comparable color stability to WA up to 5 days of retail display (p > 0.05). Greater lipid oxidation was measured in both DA and UDA at the end of display compared to WA (p < 0.05). The UV light minimized microorganisms concentration on both surface and lean portions of UDA compared to other treatments (p < 0.05). The consumer panel was not able to differentiate any sensory traits and overall likeness between the treatments (p > 0.05). Metabolomics analysis, however, identified more flavor-related compounds in dry-aged meat. These findings suggested that dry-aging can be used for pork loins for value-seeking consumers, as it has a potential to generate unique dry-aged flavor in meat with no adverse impacts on meat quality and microbiological attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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15 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Chile (Capsicum spp.) as Food-Medicine Continuum in Multiethnic Mexico
by Araceli Aguilar-Meléndez, Marco Antonio Vásquez-Dávila, Gladys Isabel Manzanero-Medina and Esther Katz
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102502 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
Mexico is the center of origin and diversification of domesticated chile (Capsicum annuum L.). Chile is conceived and employed as both food and medicine in Mexico. In this context, the objective of this paper is to describe and analyze the cultural role [...] Read more.
Mexico is the center of origin and diversification of domesticated chile (Capsicum annuum L.). Chile is conceived and employed as both food and medicine in Mexico. In this context, the objective of this paper is to describe and analyze the cultural role of chile as food and as medicine for the body and soul in different cultures of Mexico. To write it, we relied on our own fieldwork and literature review. Our findings include a) the first matrix of uses of chile across 67 indigenous and Afrodescendants cultures within Mexican territory and b) the proposal of a new model of diversified uses of chile. Traditional knowledge, uses and management of chile as food and medicine form a continuum (i.e., are not separated into distinct categories). The intermingled uses of Capsicum are diversified, deeply rooted and far-reaching into the past. Most of the knowledge, uses and practices are shared throughout Mexico. On the other hand, there is knowledge and practices that only occur in local or regional cultural contexts. In order to fulfill food, medicinal or spiritual functions, native communities use wild/cultivated chile. Full article
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15 pages, 6689 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Extruded and Fermented Wheat Bran to the Quality Parameters of Wheat Bread, Including the Profile of Volatile Compounds and Their Relationship with Emotions Induced for Consumers
by Elena Bartkiene, Ieva Jomantaite, Ernestas Mockus, Romas Ruibys, Aldona Baltusnikiene, Antonello Santini and Egle Zokaityte
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102501 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of extruded and fermented wheat bran (WBex-f) to the quality of wheat bread (BR), including the volatile compounds (VC) profile and VC relationship with emotions induced for consumers. A comparison study of BR [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of extruded and fermented wheat bran (WBex-f) to the quality of wheat bread (BR), including the volatile compounds (VC) profile and VC relationship with emotions induced for consumers. A comparison study of BR (prepared with 5%, 10%, and 15% untreated wheat bran (nWB) and WBex-f) quality parameters was performed. It was established that nWB increases dough hardness and reduces BR specific volume. The addition of 5% and 10% of WBex-f was not significant on BR porosity and led to the formation of a high number of large pores. nWB and WBex-f increases the mass loss of BR after baking (by 13.38%), and the control breads showed the highest crust darkness, yellowness, and redness. nWB and WBex-f reduces BR firmness during storage, and WBex-f increases the overall acceptability (OA) of BR (by 26.2%). A strong positive correlation was found between OA and the emotion ‘happy’ (r = 0.8696). In BR prepared with WBex-f, a higher content of pyrazine, methyl-; pyrazine, 2-ethyl-; pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-; furfural; ethanone, 1-(2-furanyl)-; benzaldehyde; and 3-furanmethanol was found. Finally, it can be stated that WBex-f could prolong the shelf life of BR and leads to the formation of a specific VC profile, which is associated with a higher OA of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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13 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammation and Protective Effects of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill Seeds) on Esophageal Mucosa Damages in Reflux Esophagitis-Induced Rats
by Hyeon-Hwa Nam, Li Nan and Byung-Kil Choo
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102500 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
Anethum graveolens L. (dill seeds) are important medicinal and functional foods in Europe and central and south Asia, often used as a seasoning in daily diets. Anethum graveolens L. seeds (AGS) are used to treat indigestion and have shown physiological activities such as [...] Read more.
Anethum graveolens L. (dill seeds) are important medicinal and functional foods in Europe and central and south Asia, often used as a seasoning in daily diets. Anethum graveolens L. seeds (AGS) are used to treat indigestion and have shown physiological activities such as those against hypoglycemia and gastroesophageal disease. This study explored the protective effects of AGS extract on mucosal damages and inflammation in reflux esophagitis rats. AGS inhibited cellular inflammation including NO production and the expression of inflammatory proteins (iNOS and COX2 etc.), cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nuclear transfer factor related to NF-κB signaling caused by LPS stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, reflux esophagitis-induced rats were used to observe the anti-inflammatory effect of AGS. Tissue staining and inflammation-related protein expression of rats with acute reflux esophagitis indicated that AGS improved this inflammatory response, such as COX-2 and TNF-α in mucosa. In conclusion, AGS have good physiological activity and the possibility of being used as a medicinal food and a functional resource for the prevention and therapy of gastroesophageal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Effects)
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15 pages, 2257 KiB  
Article
Low-Field NMR Analysis of Chicken Patties Prepared with Woody Breast Meat and Implications to Meat Quality
by Xiao Sun, Jinjie You, Yan Dong, Ligen Xu, Clay J. Maynard and Casey M. Owens
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102499 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The scope of this paper was to investigate the effects of water distribution differences on the quality and feasibility of chicken patties supplemented with woody breast (WB). Chicken patties, containing differing amounts of WB (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) were analyzed using low-field [...] Read more.
The scope of this paper was to investigate the effects of water distribution differences on the quality and feasibility of chicken patties supplemented with woody breast (WB). Chicken patties, containing differing amounts of WB (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) were analyzed using low-field NMR. Quality differences between chicken patties were further evaluated by combining lipid and protein properties, fry loss (FL), color (L*, a*, b*), texture (hardness, springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, resilience), microstructure, and sensory characteristics. The results expressed that both lipid and protein oxidation increased and immobilized water in chicken patties can be converted to free water more easily with increasing levels of WB. Additionally, the free water ratio decreased, water freedom increased, and the bound water ratio increased (p < 0.05). Fry loss, color, texture (hardness, springiness, chewiness), microstructure, and sensory (character, organization, taste) characteristics deteriorated significantly when the WB inclusion level exceeded 25%. Particularly, characteristics of texture (chewiness and character) and sensory (character and organization) decreased significantly as WB inclusion increased past 25% (p < 0.01). Furthermore, fry loss, texture, and overall microstructure partially confirmed the moisture variation of chicken patties as the potential cause of the abnormal quality. Although the experimental data expressed that mixing to 35% WB inclusion was feasible, the practical and economic impact recommends inclusion levels to not exceed 30%. Full article
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38 pages, 1672 KiB  
Review
Techniques for Dealcoholization of Wines: Their Impact on Wine Phenolic Composition, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Characteristics
by Faisal Eudes Sam, Teng-Zhen Ma, Rafia Salifu, Jing Wang, Yu-Mei Jiang, Bo Zhang and Shun-Yu Han
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102498 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8556
Abstract
The attention of some winemakers and researchers over the past years has been drawn towards the partial or total dealcoholization of wines and alcoholic beverages due to trends in wine styles, and the effect of climate change on wine alcohol content. To achieve [...] Read more.
The attention of some winemakers and researchers over the past years has been drawn towards the partial or total dealcoholization of wines and alcoholic beverages due to trends in wine styles, and the effect of climate change on wine alcohol content. To achieve this, different techniques have been used at the various stages of winemaking, among which the physical dealcoholization techniques, particularly membrane separation (nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporative perstraction, and pervaporation) and thermal distillation (vacuum distillation and spinning cone column), have shown promising results and hence are being used for commercial production. However, the removal of alcohol by these techniques can cause changes in color and losses of desirable volatile aroma compounds, which can subsequently affect the sensory quality and acceptability of the wine by consumers. Aside from the removal of ethanol, other factors such as the ethanol concentration, the kind of alcohol removal technique, the retention properties of the wine non-volatile matrix, and the chemical-physical properties of the aroma compounds can influence changes in the wine sensory quality during dealcoholization. This review highlights and summarizes some of the techniques for wine dealcoholization and their impact on wine quality to help winemakers in choosing the best technique to limit adverse effects in dealcoholized wines and to help meet the needs and acceptance among different targeted consumers such as younger people, pregnant women, drivers, and teetotalers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Wine Flavor Chemistry and Its Metabolic Mechanism)
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10 pages, 1039 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidative Stability of Zebra (Equus Burchelli) Droëwors Made Using Different Levels of Sheep Fat
by Zikhona Mandela, Elodie Arnaud and Louwrens C. Hoffman
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102497 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The physico-chemical properties (proximate, salt content, water activity (aw), pH) and lipid oxidation of droëwors (dried salted/spiced meat sausages) produced with zebra meat and different sheep fat levels (10, 15, and 20% by weight) measured at day 0 (before drying), day [...] Read more.
The physico-chemical properties (proximate, salt content, water activity (aw), pH) and lipid oxidation of droëwors (dried salted/spiced meat sausages) produced with zebra meat and different sheep fat levels (10, 15, and 20% by weight) measured at day 0 (before drying), day 2 (after drying at 30 °C and 40% relative humidity), and over a 90 day storage (day 17, 32, 47, 62, 77, and 92) under vacuum at 25 °C were investigated. The use of lower fat levels (10 and 15%) in the formulation resulted in higher weight loss during drying and droëwors with higher protein, ash, and salt content and lower aw and pH compared to the droëwors made with 20% fat. The pH increased (p < 0.001) during storage for all the fat levels, while the moisture content and the aw were stable as expected. TBARS values were the highest in droëwors made with 20% of fat after drying (day 2), but droëwors made with 10% of fat reached similar maximal values on day 17. Formulations containing 15% sheep fat displayed the lowest TBARS values after drying and along storage, and thus had the best characteristics in relation to oxidative stability. Full article
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13 pages, 2106 KiB  
Article
In Silico Screening of a Bile Acid Micelle Disruption Peptide for Oral Consumptions from Edible Peptide Database
by Kento Imai, Yuri Takeuchi, Kazunori Shimizu and Hiroyuki Honda
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102496 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
Recently, many bioactive peptides have been identified using bioinformatics tools. Previously, our group developed a method to screen dual-functional peptides that have direct intestinal delivery with porous silica gel and bile acid micelle disruption. However, newly designed peptides were not found in any [...] Read more.
Recently, many bioactive peptides have been identified using bioinformatics tools. Previously, our group developed a method to screen dual-functional peptides that have direct intestinal delivery with porous silica gel and bile acid micelle disruption. However, newly designed peptides were not found in any storage protein. Therefore, in this study, in silico screening was performed using a 350,000 edible peptide library consisting of 4- to 7-mer independent peptides. As an initial screening, all edible peptides were applied to the random forest model to select predicted positive peptides. For a second screening, the peptides were assessed for the possibility of intestinal delivery using a 3D color map. From this approach, three novel dual-functional peptides, VYVFDE, WEFIDF, and VEEFYC were identified, and all of them were derived from storage proteins (legumin, myosin, and 11S globulin). In particular, VEEFYCS, in which a serine residue (S) is added to VEEFYC, was assumed to be released by thermolysin from the 11S-globulin derived from Ginkgo biloba by LC-MS/MS analysis. VEEFYCS was found to have suitable direct intestinal delivery and bile acid micelle disruption activity. Full article
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12 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Low Acrylamide Flatbreads from Colored Corn and Other Flours
by Xueqi Li, Talwinder Kahlon, Selina C. Wang and Mendel Friedman
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102495 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Dietary acrylamide formed during baking and frying of plant-based foods such as bread and other cereal products, coffee, fried potatoes, and olives is reported to induce genotoxic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and antifertility properties in vivo, suggesting the need to keep the acrylamide content low [...] Read more.
Dietary acrylamide formed during baking and frying of plant-based foods such as bread and other cereal products, coffee, fried potatoes, and olives is reported to induce genotoxic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and antifertility properties in vivo, suggesting the need to keep the acrylamide content low with respect to widely consumed heat-processed food including flatbreads. Due to the fact that pigmented corn flours contain biologically active and health-promoting phenolic and anthocyanin compounds, the objective of this study was to potentially define beneficial properties of flatbread by evaluating the acrylamide content determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) with a detection limit of 1.8 µg/kg and proximate composition by standard methods of six experimental flatbreads made from two white, two blue, one red, and one yellow corn flours obtained by milling commercial seeds. Acrylamide content was also determined in experimental flatbreads made from combinations in quinoa flour, wheat flour, and peanut meal with added broccoli or beet vegetables and of commercial flatbreads including tortillas and wraps. Proximate analysis of flatbreads showed significant differences in protein and fat but not in carbohydrate, mineral, and water content. The acrylamide content of 16 evaluated flatbreads ranged from 0 to 49.1 µg/kg, suggesting that these flatbreads have the potential to serve as low-acrylamide functional foods. The dietary significance of the results is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Effects)
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21 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
The Fading Wild Plant Food–Medicines in Upper Chitral, NW Pakistan
by Muhammad Abdul Aziz, Zahid Ullah, Muhammad Adnan, Renata Sõukand and Andrea Pieroni
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102494 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3571
Abstract
The subject of food–medicines (foods ingested in order to obtain a therapeutic activity or to prevent diseases) is garnering increasing attention from both ethnobiologists and ethnopharmacologists as diet-related chronic diseases are one of the major problems resulting in a large proportion of deaths [...] Read more.
The subject of food–medicines (foods ingested in order to obtain a therapeutic activity or to prevent diseases) is garnering increasing attention from both ethnobiologists and ethnopharmacologists as diet-related chronic diseases are one of the major problems resulting in a large proportion of deaths globally, which calls for interest from the scientific community to make sensible decisions in the field of food and medicine. In this regard, the current study is an important attempt at providing baseline data for developing healthy and curative food ingredients. This study aimed at recording the culinary and medicinal uses of wild food plants (WFPs) in the remote Mastuj Valley, located at the extreme north of Chitral District, Pakistan. An ethnobotanical survey was completed via 30 in-depth semi-structured interviews with local knowledge holders to record the food and medicinal uses of WFPs in the study area. A total of 43 WFPs were recorded, most of which were used as cooked vegetables and raw snacks. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part. A remarkable proportion (81%) of use reports for the recorded wild plant taxa were quoted as food–medicines or medicinal foods, while very few were reported as either food or medicines, without any relationship between uses in these two domains. Previous ethnomedicinal studies from nearby regions have shown that most of the recorded wild plants have been used as medicines, thus supporting the findings of the current study. A literature survey revealed that many of the reported medicinal uses (33%) for the quoted WFPs were not verifiable on PubMed as they have not been studied for their respective medicinal actions. We observed that most of the plants quoted here have disappeared from the traditional food and medicinal system, which may be attributed to the invasion of the food market and the prevalence of allopathic medicine. However, knowledge of these wild plants is still alive in memory, and women are the main holders of cultural knowledge as they use it to manage the cooking and processing of WFPs. Therefore, in this context, we strongly recommend the preservation of local biocultural heritage, promoted through future development and educational programs, which could represent a timely response to the loss of cultural and traditional knowledge. Full article
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17 pages, 3000 KiB  
Article
Physiological Performance of Rabbits Administered Buffalo Milk Yogurts Enriched with Whey Protein Concentrate, Calcium Caseinate or Spirulina platensis
by Atallah A. Atallah, Ali Osman, Mahmoud Sitohy, Dalia G. Gemiel, Osams H. El-Garhy, Islam H. El Azab, Nadia. H. Fahim, Abdelmoniem M. Abdelmoniem, Amir E. Mehana and Tharwat A. Imbabi
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102493 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
The present study examines the impacts of supplementing yogurt with 1% whey protein concentrate (WPC), Ca-caseinate (Ca-CN) and Spirulina platensis on the physiological performance of V-line rabbits receiving diets containing yogurt (at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight/day) and the different meat [...] Read more.
The present study examines the impacts of supplementing yogurt with 1% whey protein concentrate (WPC), Ca-caseinate (Ca-CN) and Spirulina platensis on the physiological performance of V-line rabbits receiving diets containing yogurt (at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight/day) and the different meat quality aspects. The results show that fat content was highest (p < 0.05) in yogurt fortified with Spirulina powder, but protein (%) was highest in yogurt enriched with WPC. Yogurt containing Spirulina powder showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in total antioxidant activity. The final live body weight for G1 was higher than the other groups. However, additives affected the saddle, hind legs, liver and neck percentages significantly (p < 0.05). There were not significant differences for all groups in the forelegs, lung and heart percentages. LDL-cholesterol, total protein, globulin, albumin, creatinine and immunoglobulin M values were lowest (p < 0.05) in the WPC group. Significant improvements appeared in the small intestinal wall, microbiology, growth performance, serum biochemistry, organ histology and meat quality of the group receiving enriched yogurt. Yogurts enriched with WPC, Ca-CN and Spirulina platensis can be used as functional foods. Full article
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11 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
The Use of the Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v in the Technology of Non-Dairy Ice Cream Based on Avocado
by Ada Krawęcka, Justyna Libera and Agnieszka Latoch
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102492 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
Food enriched with probiotics and prebiotics belong to the class of novel foods. Functional food, apart from its nutritional function, has an additional pro-health effect. The aim of the presented study was to create a concept of a functional dessert—avocado-based non-diary ice cream [...] Read more.
Food enriched with probiotics and prebiotics belong to the class of novel foods. Functional food, apart from its nutritional function, has an additional pro-health effect. The aim of the presented study was to create a concept of a functional dessert—avocado-based non-diary ice cream enriched with probiotic bacteria Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v. The product was tested for the survival of bacteria in various conditions, and the influence of the probiotic on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of non-dairy ice cream was assessed. The dessert with probiotic throughout the storage period (8 weeks) kept the therapeutic minimum defined for probiotic food products. It was found that the addition of the probiotic did not deteriorate either the color or the sensory profile of the dessert. There was also no increase in the redox potential nor the acidity of the product with the addition of a probiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant in Food Safety and Sustainability)
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13 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Impact of Thyme Microcapsules on Histamine Production by Proteus bacillus in Xinjiang Smoked Horsemeat Sausage
by Honghong Yu, Yali Huang, Liliang Lu, Yuhan Liu, Zonggui Tang and Shiling Lu
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2491; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102491 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Here, we explored the influences of thyme microcapsules on the growth, gene expression, and histamine accumulation by Proteus bacillus isolated from smoked horsemeat sausage. RT-qPCR was employed to evaluate the gene expression level of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) cascade-associated genes. We used HPLC to [...] Read more.
Here, we explored the influences of thyme microcapsules on the growth, gene expression, and histamine accumulation by Proteus bacillus isolated from smoked horsemeat sausage. RT-qPCR was employed to evaluate the gene expression level of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) cascade-associated genes. We used HPLC to monitor histamine concentration both in pure culture as well as in the processing of smoked horsemeat sausage. Results showed that histamine accumulation was suppressed by thyme microcapsule inhibitory effect on the histamine-producing bacteria and the reduction in the transcription of hdcA and hdcP genes. Besides, compared with thyme essential oil (EO), thyme microcapsules exhibited higher antibacterial activity and had a higher score for overall acceptance. Therefore, the addition of thyme microcapsules in Xinjiang smoked horsemeat sausage inhibits histamine accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Food Fermentation)
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15 pages, 734 KiB  
Review
Consumer Trust in Food and the Food System: A Critical Review
by Wen Wu, Airong Zhang, Rieks Dekker van Klinken, Peggy Schrobback and Jane Marie Muller
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102490 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 7545
Abstract
Increased focus towards food safety and quality is reshaping food purchasing decisions around the world. Although some food attributes are visible, many of the attributes that consumers seek and are willing to pay a price premium for are not. Consequently, consumers rely on [...] Read more.
Increased focus towards food safety and quality is reshaping food purchasing decisions around the world. Although some food attributes are visible, many of the attributes that consumers seek and are willing to pay a price premium for are not. Consequently, consumers rely on trusted cues and information to help them verify the food quality and credence attributes they seek. In this study, we synthesise the findings from previous research to generate a framework illustrating the key trust influencing factors that are beyond visual and brand-related cues. Our framework identifies that consumer trust in food and the food system is established through the assurances related to individual food products and the actors of the food system. Specifically, product assurance builds consumer trust through food packaging labels communicating food attribute claims, certifications, country or region of origin, and food traceability information. In addition, producers, processors, and retailers provide consumers with food safety and quality assurances, while government agencies, third-party institutions, advocacy groups, and the mass media may modify how labelling information and food operators are perceived by consumers. We hope our framework will guide future research efforts to test these trust factors in various consumer and market settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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11 pages, 1039 KiB  
Communication
Two Statistical Tools for Assessing Functionality and Protein Characteristics of Different Fava Bean (Vicia faba L.) Ingredients
by Siddharth Sharan, Jens Zotzel, Johannes Stadtmüller, Daniel Bonerz, Julian Aschoff, Anne Saint-Eve, Marie-Noëlle Maillard, Karsten Olsen, Åsmund Rinnan and Vibeke Orlien
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2489; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102489 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3070
Abstract
Fava bean (Vicia faba L.) is a promising source of proteins that can be potentially used as nutritional and/or functional agents for industrial food applications. Fava ingredients are industrially produced, modified, and utilized for food applications. Their processing conditions influence physico-chemical protein [...] Read more.
Fava bean (Vicia faba L.) is a promising source of proteins that can be potentially used as nutritional and/or functional agents for industrial food applications. Fava ingredients are industrially produced, modified, and utilized for food applications. Their processing conditions influence physico-chemical protein properties that further impact ingredient functionality. To design a functionally suitable ingredient, an understanding of the interrelationships between different properties is essential. Hence, this work aimed to assess two statistical analytical tools, Pearson’s correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for investigating the role of the process conditions of fava ingredients on their functional and protein properties. Fava concentrates were processed by pH (2, 4, 6.4 and 11), temperature (55, 75 and 95 C) and treatment duration (30 and 360 min) into different modified ingredients. These were utilized under two application conditions (pH 4 and 7), and their foam and emulsion properties as well as their ingredient characteristics (charge, solubility, and intrinsic fluorescence) were measured. The results show that foam and emulsion properties are not correlated to each other. They are associated with different protein and non-protein attributes as fava concentrate is a multi-component matrix. Importantly, it is found that the results from the two statistical tools are not fully comparable but do complement each other. This highlights that both statistical analytical tools are equally important for a comprehensive understanding of the impact of process conditions on different properties and the interrelationships between them. Therefore, it is recommended to use Pearson’s correlation and principal component analysis in future investigations of new plant-based proteins. Full article
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12 pages, 376 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Quality Characteristics of Commercial Kimchi Manufactured in Korea, China, and the United States
by Ye-Rang Yun, Jin Ju Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Yun-Jeong Choi, Jong-Hee Lee, Sung Jin Park, Sung Hee Park, Hye-Young Seo and Sung Gi Min
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102488 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3154
Abstract
Recently, kimchi has been recognized as a healthy food worldwide, prompting increased interest in its health benefits and quality characteristics. Although commercial kimchi is manufactured in various countries, little is known about quality differences between the kimchi from different countries. To clarify differences [...] Read more.
Recently, kimchi has been recognized as a healthy food worldwide, prompting increased interest in its health benefits and quality characteristics. Although commercial kimchi is manufactured in various countries, little is known about quality differences between the kimchi from different countries. To clarify differences in quality characteristics, minerals, free sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds, commercial kimchi manufactured in Korea, China, and the United States were investigated. The composition of the microbial community and antioxidant activity were compared. Mineral and free sugar contents were high in Korean commercial kimchi, while the organic acid content was relatively low. The free amino acid content was markedly higher in Korean kimchi than that in kimchi manufactured in China and the United States. In addition, the volatile compound content differed between the kimchi produced in different countries. Considering the microbial communities, Leuconostoc and Weissella were more abundant in commercial kimchi from Korea than that from China or the United States. Commercial kimchi in Korea showed the highest antioxidant activity. These results support the high quality and antioxidant activity of commercial kimchi manufactured in Korea, emphasizing its importance in the global kimchi industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Plant-Based Fermented Foods)
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15 pages, 1142 KiB  
Article
Unifloral Autumn Heather Honey from Indigenous Greek Erica manipuliflora Salisb.: SPME/GC-MS Characterization of the Volatile Fraction and Optimization of the Isolation Parameters
by Marinos Xagoraris, Foteini Chrysoulaki, Panagiota-Kyriaki Revelou, Eleftherios Alissandrakis, Petros A. Tarantilis and Christos S. Pappas
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102487 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2878
Abstract
For long heather honey has been a special variety due to its unique organoleptic characteristics. This study aimed to characterize and optimize the isolation of the dominant volatile fraction of Greek autumn heather honey using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
For long heather honey has been a special variety due to its unique organoleptic characteristics. This study aimed to characterize and optimize the isolation of the dominant volatile fraction of Greek autumn heather honey using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The described approach pointed out 13 main volatile components more closely related to honey botanical origin, in terms of occurrence and relative abundance. These volatiles include phenolic compounds and norisoprenoids, with benzaldehyde, safranal and p-anisaldehyde present in higher amounts, while ethyl 4-methoxybenzoate is reported for the first time in honey. Then, an experimental design was developed based on five numeric factors and one categorical factor and evaluated the optimum conditions (temperature: 60 °C, equilibration time: 30 min extraction time: 15 min magnetic stirrer velocity: 100 rpm sample volume: 6 mL water: honey ratio: 1:3 (v/w)). Additionally, a validation test set reinforces the above methodology investigation. Honey is very complex and variable with respect to its volatile components given the high diversity of the floral source. As a result, customizing the isolation parameters for each honey is a good approach for streamlining the isolation volatile compounds. This study could provide a good basis for future recognition of monofloral autumn heather honey. Full article
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15 pages, 2140 KiB  
Article
Role of Ascorbic Acid in the Extraction and Quantification of Potato Polyphenol Oxidase Activity
by Shu Jiang and Michael H. Penner
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102486 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2939
Abstract
The ability to accurately measure the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in complex matrices is essential. A problem encountered when using spectrophotometric methods is interference due to ascorbic acid (AA), often used as an enzyme “protecting agent” during PPO extraction. This study focuses [...] Read more.
The ability to accurately measure the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in complex matrices is essential. A problem encountered when using spectrophotometric methods is interference due to ascorbic acid (AA), often used as an enzyme “protecting agent” during PPO extraction. This study focuses on the nature of AA’s effect on spectrophotometric determinations of PPO activity as well as enzyme extraction. Potato extracts and semi-purified PPO were used as enzyme sources. The inactivation of PPO attributed to AA is substrate-mediated. The extent of AA-dependent inactivation of PPO in model systems varied between substrates. AA only slows mechanism-based inactivation of PPO induced by catechol, possibly owing to the prevention of quinone formation. AA minimally protects PPO activity during enzyme extraction. The problem associated with AA in PPO assay could be circumvented by using ascorbate oxidase to remove AA when catechol is the primary substrate or by using chlorogenic acid as the primary substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 4682 KiB  
Article
Changes of High-Purity Insoluble Fiber from Soybean Dregs (Okara) after Being Fermented by Colonic Flora and Its Adsorption Capacity
by Bo Lyu, Yi Wang, Xin Zhang, Yuxi Chen, Hongling Fu, Tong Liu, Jianyu Hao, Yang Li, Hansong Yu and Lianzhou Jiang
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102485 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
In order to explore the changes and properties of high-purity insoluble dietary fiber from okara (HPIDF) after entering the colon and be fermented by colonic flora, fermented high-purity insoluble dietary fiber (F-HPIDF) was obtained by simulated fermentation in vitro by HPIDF and colonic [...] Read more.
In order to explore the changes and properties of high-purity insoluble dietary fiber from okara (HPIDF) after entering the colon and be fermented by colonic flora, fermented high-purity insoluble dietary fiber (F-HPIDF) was obtained by simulated fermentation in vitro by HPIDF and colonic flora from C57BL/6 mice. For exploring the differences of HPIDF and F-HPIDF, the changes of structure (SEM. FTIR, XRD, particle size, specific surface area, monosaccharide composition) and adsorption properties (water, oil, heavy metal irons, harmful substances) of HPIDF/F-HPIDF were explored. The results showed that F-HPIDF had a higher water-holding capacity (19.17 g/g), water-swelling capacity (24.83 mL/g), heavy metals-adsorption capacity (Cd2+: 1.82 μmol/g; Pb2+: 1.91 μmol/g; Zn2+: 1.30 μmol/g; Cu2+: 0.68 μmol/g), and harmful substances-adsorption capacity (GAC: 0.23 g/g; CAC: 14.80 mg/g; SCAC: 0.49 g/g) than HPIDF due to the changes of structure caused by fermentation. In addition, with the fermentation of HPIDF, some beneficial substances were produced, which might be potential intestinal prebiotics. The study of F-HPIDF strengthens the speculation that HPIDF may have potential bioactivities after entering the colon, which proved that okara-HPIDF may have potential functionality. Full article
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13 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
‘Don’t Worry, Honey: It’s Cooked’: Addressing Food Risk during Pregnancy on Facebook Italian Posts
by Valentina Rizzoli, Giulia Mascarello, Anna Pinto, Stefania Crovato, Mirko Ruzza, Barbara Tiozzo and Licia Ravarotto
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102484 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
During pregnancy, women exposed to microbiological risks are more susceptible to contracting specific pathogens, which can lead to serious diseases both in the mother and the foetus. Food-borne diseases can be avoided to a large extent by following good practices of food manipulation [...] Read more.
During pregnancy, women exposed to microbiological risks are more susceptible to contracting specific pathogens, which can lead to serious diseases both in the mother and the foetus. Food-borne diseases can be avoided to a large extent by following good practices of food manipulation and cooking. Safe eating behaviours are influenced by knowledge and perception of food risks and are constructed, among others, online. Pregnant women often use Web 2.0 to obtain and share pregnancy-related information as a strategy of collective coping with emotions through conversations. This paper explores how knowledge and perceptions of food risks during pregnancy are shared among users on Italian Facebook pages and groups. The corpus, including 648,399 items (i.e., posts), was analysed: (a) first, by means of the Reinert method, to verify to what extent issues concerning food risks are debated; and (b) second, through a manual content analysis, to observe how food risks are addressed in terms of contents and social sharing of emotions. The main results show that food risk is not among the most discussed topics, and the least known and debated food risks are the most widespread (e.g., campylobacteriosis). Sometimes, food risks, when addressed, were minimised or denied, and the belief to be ‘less at risk’ than peers for such risk (i.e., optimistic bias) was observed. The results underline the importance, for health institutions, of building a tailored communication strategy on food risks during pregnancy to promote correct food behaviours by exploiting social networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Influencing Factors of Food Choice and Food Consumption)
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10 pages, 1997 KiB  
Communication
A Portable, Cost-Effective and User-Friendly Instrument for Colorimetric Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Rapid Detection of Aflatoxin B1
by Wenzhi Tang, Yangchun Qi and Zhonghong Li
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102483 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Food analysis based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is simple, sensitive and rapid, but requires a costly colorimetric instrument. The aim of this work was to develop a portable, low-cost and user-friendly colorimetric instrument for colorimetric ELISA and aflatoxin B1 (AFB [...] Read more.
Food analysis based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is simple, sensitive and rapid, but requires a costly colorimetric instrument. The aim of this work was to develop a portable, low-cost and user-friendly colorimetric instrument for colorimetric ELISA and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection. The principle of the developed instrument was employing a light-emitting diode to generate the signal light and using a light-dependent resistor to measure the signal light absorbed by the oxidized 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine. The absorption spectra revealed that the solution absorbed signal light more strongly after reaction with H2SO4, and blue light would be favorably absorbed. Evaluations on the stability and accuracy of the instrument and interference from ambient light showed that the fabricated instrument was stable, accurate, capable of quantitative detection and insensitive to ambient light changes. In addition, this instrument is user-friendly since it could calculate and report the final amount of AFB1 to the operator. Measurements of maize and peanuts showed that the instrument provided as accurate results as the professional equipment. With the low fabrication cost (about RMB 129 or USD 20), portability, and user-friendliness, this instrument presents attractive potential in the rapid detection of AFB1. Full article
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14 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Scavenging, Reducing, and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Selected Tropical Brown Seaweeds Confirm the Nutraceutical Potential of Spatoglossum asperum
by Bhakti Tanna, Babita Choudhary, Avinash Mishra, O. P. Chauhan, Manish Kumar Patel, Shadi Shokralla, Tarek K. Zin El-Abedin, Hosam O. Elansary and Eman A. Mahmoud
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102482 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Brown seaweeds have shown high potential of bioactivity and provide health benefits as an important functional food ingredient. Therefore, four abundantly growing tropical brown seaweeds—Iyengaria stellata, Spatoglossum asperum, Sargassum linearifolium, and Stoechospermum polypodioides—were collected from the Saurashtra Coast of [...] Read more.
Brown seaweeds have shown high potential of bioactivity and provide health benefits as an important functional food ingredient. Therefore, four abundantly growing tropical brown seaweeds—Iyengaria stellata, Spatoglossum asperum, Sargassum linearifolium, and Stoechospermum polypodioides—were collected from the Saurashtra Coast of the Arabian Sea. They were analyzed for metabolite profiling, biochemical activities (including total antioxidant, reducing, scavenging, and anti-proliferative characteristics), and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A concentration-dependent antioxidant, reducing, and scavenging activities were observed for all four brown seaweeds. The S. asperum and I. stellata extracts showed maximum total antioxidant activity. S. asperum also showed high scavenging and reducing activities compared to other studied brown seaweeds. Further, S. asperum contained high total phenolic and flavonoid content compared to other brown seaweeds collected from the same coast. A multivariate correlation study confirmed a positive correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and biochemical activities (total antioxidant, scavenging and reducing) for all brown seaweeds. About 35% anti-proliferative activity was observed with S. asperum extract on Huh7 cells; in contrast S. polypodioide showed about 44% proliferation inhibition of Huh7 cells. Similarly, 26% proliferation inhibition of HeLa cells was observed with S. asperum extract. Overall, S. asperum possesses high total flavonoid and phenolic amounts, and showed potential antioxidant, scavenging and reducing characteristics. The study confirmed the nutraceutical potential of S. asperum and that it could be a promising functional food ingredient. Full article
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28 pages, 4735 KiB  
Article
Comparative 1H NMR-Based Chemometric Evaluations of the Time-Dependent Generation of Aldehydic Lipid Oxidation Products in Culinary Oils Exposed to Laboratory-Simulated Shallow Frying Episodes: Differential Patterns Observed for Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Soybean Oils
by Angela I. Wann, Benita C. Percival, Katy Woodason, Miles Gibson, Siâny Vincent and Martin Grootveld
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102481 - 17 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Soybean oil is the second most exported oil from the United States and South America, and is widely marketed as a cooking oil product containing numerous health benefits for human consumers. However, culinary oils with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents, are known [...] Read more.
Soybean oil is the second most exported oil from the United States and South America, and is widely marketed as a cooking oil product containing numerous health benefits for human consumers. However, culinary oils with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents, are known to produce high quantities of lipid oxidation products (LOPs), including toxic aldehydes upon exposure to high-temperature frying episodes. Previous studies have demonstrated causal links between aldehyde ingestion and inhalation with deleterious health perturbations, including mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, along with cardiovascular and teratogenic actions. In this study, aldehydic LOPs were detected and quantified in commercially available samples of soybean, avocado, corn and extra-virgin olive oil products before and after their exposure to laboratory-simulated laboratory frying episodes (LSSFEs) using high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Results acquired demonstrated that PUFA-rich soybean and corn oils gave rise to the highest concentrations of oil aldehydes from the thermo-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, whereas monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-laden avocado and olive oils were much more resistant to this peroxidation process, as expected. Multivariate chemometrics analyses provided evidence that an orthogonal component pattern of aldehydic LOPs featuring low-molecular-mass n-alkanals such as propanal, and 4-oxo-alkanals, arises from thermo-oxidation of the ω-3 fatty acid (FA) linolenic acid (present in soybean oils at levels of ca. 7% (w/w)), was able to at least partially distinguish this oil from corresponding samples of thermally-stressed corn oil. Despite having a similar total PUFA level, corn oil has only a negligible ω-3 FA content, and therefore generated significantly lower levels of these two aldehyde classes. In view of the adverse health effects associated with dietary LOP ingestion, alternative methodologies for the incorporation of soybean oils within high-temperature frying practices are proposed. Full article
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