Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 32440

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition / Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Michigan State University | MSU, East Lansing, MI, USA
Interests: meat science; meat quality; eating quality; palatability; consumers; sensory evaluation; sensory analysis of meat; meat processing; tenderness; flavor; beef; lamb
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several antemortem factors, including diet/nutrition, age, genetics, and other environmental factors, can influence meat quality.  However, in this Special Issue of Foods, I ask authors to focus on the postmortem factors that impact meat quality. 

From the time muscle is converted to meat, several factors can alter the quality of meat.  Aging/conditioning is one broad example of a postmortem factor, but it encompasses many interchangeable facets – dry - vs. wet-aging, length of aging, temperature and other environmental conditions during storage, and the list goes on.  Storage conditions, both while in waiting and during retail display is another broad category that can influence meat quality.  This category could include the influence of packaging type or packaging films, storage temperature, light source(s), and oxygen or other gases on shelf-life, color, palatability, or any other assessment of meat quality.  I also want to invite papers focusing on postmortem enhancement, such as mechanical alterations and/or the incorporation of non-meat ingredients to improve meat quality and add value.  Finally, I see cooking as the last broad postmortem area where meat quality can be influenced.  In this Special Issue of Foods, I encourage the submission of manuscripts related to the impact on meat quality of not only these postmortem factors, but any others not included in this list. 

This Special Issue of Foods will focus on Postmortem factors affecting meat quality.  This could include independent or interactive effects of these postmortem factors, as well as any others not included above.  I invite both original research and review articles, but manuscripts related to antemortem factors (diet/nutrition, age, genetics, and other environmental factors) will not be considered unless they are studied in conjunction with postmortem factors.  You are cordially invited to submit review articles and original research papers related to postmortem factors affecting meat quality.

Dr. Andrea Garmyn
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Meat
  • Postmortem aging
  • Cookery methods
  • Enhancement
  • Value-add products
  • Packaging
  • Shelf-life
  • Palatability
  • Meat tenderness
  • Meat flavor
  • Sensory evaluation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
Chinese Consumer Assessment of Australian Sheep Meat Using a Traditional Hotpot Cooking Method
by Rachel A. O’Reilly, Liping Zhao, Graham E. Gardner, Hailing Luo, Qingxiang Meng, David W. Pethick and Liselotte Pannier
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051109 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Hotpot is a widely popular cooking method for sheepmeat in China. This study measured the sensory responses of 720 untrained Chinese consumers to Australian sheepmeat cooked using a hotpot technique with methods based on Meat Standards Australia protocols. Shoulder and leg cuts of [...] Read more.
Hotpot is a widely popular cooking method for sheepmeat in China. This study measured the sensory responses of 720 untrained Chinese consumers to Australian sheepmeat cooked using a hotpot technique with methods based on Meat Standards Australia protocols. Shoulder and leg cuts of 108 lambs and 109 yearlings were scored on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking with linear mixed effects models used to analyse the influence of muscle type and animal factors on these scores. On average, shoulder cuts were more palatable than legs cuts for all sensory traits (p < 0.01) and lambs compared to yearlings (p < 0.05). Intramuscular fat and muscularity were identified as strong drivers of eating quality (p < 0.05), with greater palatability for both cuts as intramuscular fat increased (range 2.5 to 7.5%), and muscularity decreased (as measured through loin weight adjusted for hot carcase weight). Consumers were unable to detect differences between animal sire type and sex in sheepmeat hotpot. These findings suggest shoulder and leg cuts performed comparatively well in hotpot compared to previously tested sheepmeat cooking methods and emphasise the importance of balanced selection for quality and yield traits to ensure that consumer satisfaction is maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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15 pages, 3030 KiB  
Article
Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Mediated Meat Tenderization Based on Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis
by Jiaying Zhang, Shuangshuang Wang and Wupeng Ge
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3751; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233751 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
This study investigates the mechanism of phosphorylation in the regulation of apoptosis-mediated meat tenderization during postmortem aging. The results found that the pork muscle exhibited apoptotic potential at early postmortem (48 h) and showed more tenderness at late postmortem, as evidenced by the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the mechanism of phosphorylation in the regulation of apoptosis-mediated meat tenderization during postmortem aging. The results found that the pork muscle exhibited apoptotic potential at early postmortem (48 h) and showed more tenderness at late postmortem, as evidenced by the increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), Ca2+ level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and caspases activity at 0 h to 48 h, and decreases in ATP level at 0 h to 24 h and shear force at 12 h to 120 h (p < 0.05). Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that phosphorylation regulated apoptosis by modulating ATP and calcium bindings as well as apoptotic signaling, which occurred within early 12 h and mainly occurred at 12 h to 48 h postmortem. Moreover, differential expression of phosphoproteins demonstrated that phosphorylation regulated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and rigor mortis, thereby promoting the development of meat tenderness. Our results provide insights into the roles of phosphorylation in various physiological processes that affect meat tenderness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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15 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Effect of Animal Age, Postmortem Calcium Chloride Marination, and Storage Time on Meat Quality Characteristics of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum of Buffalo Bulls
by Muawuz Ijaz, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muhammad Usman Akram, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Muhammad Kashif Yar, Raheel Suleman, Adeel Manzoor, Muhammad Farooq, Sher Ali, Zubair Hussain, Mubarik Mahmood, Abdur Rahman and Rao Sharafat Ali
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3193; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203193 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of animal age, calcium chloride marination, and storage time on meat quality characteristics of buffalo bulls to suggest a cost-effective method of improving buffalo meat quality. The current study was designed considering the importance of buffalo meat and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of animal age, calcium chloride marination, and storage time on meat quality characteristics of buffalo bulls to suggest a cost-effective method of improving buffalo meat quality. The current study was designed considering the importance of buffalo meat and the usage of meat from spent buffalo animals in local markets of South Asian countries. A total of 36 animals comprised of 18 young and 18 spent buffalo bulls were selected. After slaughtering and 24 h of postmortem chilling, striploins were separated and cut into 16 steaks and equally divided into two groups, i.e., either marinated with calcium chloride or not. Meat quality characteristics were recorded on 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days of storage. The results showed that the pH value of young animals was higher than the value of spent animals and pH was increased over the storage time. Color b*, C*, and h* values were higher in spent animals as compared with the young animals; however, values of colors L* and h* were higher and a* was lower in marinated samples than the values of non-marinated samples. Color a* and C* values were increased and h* was decreased with lengthening the storage time. The meat cooking loss was higher in marinated and the water-holding capacity was higher in non-marinated meat samples. Shear force values were lower in young animals and marinated samples than the values of spent animals and non-marinated meat samples, respectively. Sensory characteristic scores of marinated samples were better than the non-marinated samples. In conclusion, calcium chloride marination can be used to improve the quality characteristics of buffalo meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
16 pages, 2721 KiB  
Article
Shrinkage Properties and Their Relationship with Degradation of Proteins Linking the Endomysium and Myofibril in Lamb Meat Submitted to Heating or Air Drying
by Weili Rao, Zhenxiao Shi, Sijia Liu, Ying Shu, Xiaoyu Chai and Zhisheng Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152242 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
The shrinkage of the connective tissue and myofiber of lamb meat submitted to heat treatment or air drying at different storage stages (1, 5 and 7 days) was evaluated herein. The longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of heated lamb meat was significantly influenced by [...] Read more.
The shrinkage of the connective tissue and myofiber of lamb meat submitted to heat treatment or air drying at different storage stages (1, 5 and 7 days) was evaluated herein. The longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of heated lamb meat was significantly influenced by storage time and water bath heating temperature (50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C) (p < 0.001). In contrast, the shrinkage of air-dried lamb meat was not influenced by storage time (p > 0.05). The microstructure of heated lamb meat, namely, the distance between muscle fascicles, the distance between myofibril networks, the area of myofibril networks, and the endomysium circumference, was significantly influenced by storage time (p < 0.05). During storage, the proportion of muscle fibers completely detached from endomysium increased, which could be due to the progressive degradation of proteins linking the endomysium and myofibril, including β-dystroglycan, α-dystroglycan, integrin-β1, and dystrophin. However, degradation of such proteins did not influence the shrinkage of lamb meat stored for five days or longer, since the decreased distance between myofibril networks indicated a higher shrinkage ratio of the endomysium compared to myofibers in samples air-dried at 35 °C or heated at 90 °C. The effect of these proteins on the shrinkage of heated lamb meat (raw meat stored for 1 day or less time) requires further elucidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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12 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Sampling Adipose and Muscle Tissue following Post-Harvest Scalding Does Not Affect RNA Integrity or Real-Time PCR Results in Market Weight Yorkshire Pigs
by Amy E. Bohan, Katelyn N. Purvis, Jason T. Sawyer, Werner G. Bergen and Terry D. Brandebourg
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121741 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Improving production efficiency while enhancing pork quality is pivotal for strengthening sustainable pork production. Being able to study both gene expression and indices of pork quality from the same anatomical location of an individual animal would better enable research conducted to study relationships [...] Read more.
Improving production efficiency while enhancing pork quality is pivotal for strengthening sustainable pork production. Being able to study both gene expression and indices of pork quality from the same anatomical location of an individual animal would better enable research conducted to study relationships between animal growth and carcass merit. To facilitate gene expression studies, adipose and muscle tissue samples are often collected immediately following exsanguination to maximize RNA integrity, which is a primary determinant of the sensitivity of RNA-based assays, such as real-time PCR. However, collecting soft tissue samples requires cutting through the hide or skin. This leaves the underlying tissue exposed during scalding, poses possible food safety issues, and potentially confounds pork quality measures. To overcome these limitations, the effect of tissue sample timing post-harvest on RNA integrity, real-time PCR results, and pork quality measurements was investigated by sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle immediately following either exsanguination, scalding, or chilling. Sampling time did not affect RNA quality, as determined by the RNA integrity number of RNA samples purified from either adipose (RIN; p > 0.54) or muscle tissue (p > 0.43). Likewise, the sampling time did not influence the results of real-time PCR analysis of gene expression when comparing RNA samples prepared from adipose or muscle tissue immediately following either exsanguination or scalding (p > 0.92). However, sampling tissue prior to scalding resulted in a greater visual color score (p < 0.001) and lesser L* (p < 0.001) and b* (p < 0.001) values without impacting the 24 h pH (p < 0.41). These results suggested that if both RNA-based assays and meat quality endpoints are to be performed at the same anatomical location on an animal, tissue sampling to facilitate RNA-based assays should occur at a time point immediately following scalding. These findings demonstrated that sampling of adipose and muscle tissue can be delayed until after scalding/dehairing without decreasing the RNA integrity or altering the results of real-time PCR assays, while doing so was associated with little impact on measures of pork quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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14 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Content and Solubility of Collagen and Their Relation to Proximate Composition and Shear Force of Meat from Different Anatomical Location in Carcass of European Beaver (Castor fiber)
by Mariusz Florek, Piotr Domaradzki, Piotr Skałecki, Małgorzata Ryszkowska-Siwko, Monika Ziomek, Katarzyna Tajchman, Michał Gondek and Renata Pyz-Łukasik
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091288 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
The content and solubility of collagen in the muscle tissue and cooked meat from three anatomical locations (loin, hind leg and shoulder) in carcasses of adult male European beavers and relationships of collagen fractions with proximate composition and shear force were studied. Shoulder [...] Read more.
The content and solubility of collagen in the muscle tissue and cooked meat from three anatomical locations (loin, hind leg and shoulder) in carcasses of adult male European beavers and relationships of collagen fractions with proximate composition and shear force were studied. Shoulder muscle tissue contained the highest amount of intramuscular fat, collagen/protein ratio, total and insoluble collagen, and the lowest percentage of soluble collagen. The cooked meat from hind leg contained the lowest amount of total, soluble and insoluble collagen. The percentage of collagen fractions in cooked meat was comparable in all cuts (p > 0.05). The toughest meat was from the shoulder, followed by the hind leg, and the tenderest meat was from the loin (p < 0.01). Shear force of cooked meat was correlated positively with the amount of total collagen, insoluble collagen and its percentage in muscle tissue (0.597, 0.594 and 0.499, p < 0.01), as well as negatively with percentage of soluble collagen (−0.594, p < 0.001). No correlations between the shear force and the content of total collagen and its fractions in cooked meat were found. In conclusion, our results indicate that the amount of total collagen and its fractions in raw muscle tissue of beaver is a better tenderness predictor for cooked meat than their values in heat-treated meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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16 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
The Quality Changes and Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Muscle Postmortem during Rigor Mortis
by Zhenjiang Ding, Qichao Wei, Chunmei Liu, Hong Zhang and Feng Huang
Foods 2022, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020217 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3854
Abstract
Rigor mortis occurs in a relatively early postmortem period and is a complex biochemical process in the conversion of muscle to meat. Understanding the quality changes and biomarkers during rigor mortis can provide a theoretical basis for maintaining and improving meat quality. Herein, [...] Read more.
Rigor mortis occurs in a relatively early postmortem period and is a complex biochemical process in the conversion of muscle to meat. Understanding the quality changes and biomarkers during rigor mortis can provide a theoretical basis for maintaining and improving meat quality. Herein, a tandem mass tag proteomic method is used to investigate the effects of differentially expressed proteins on the meat quality of cattle Longissimus lumborum muscle postmortem (0, 6, and 24 h). The pH, total sulfhydryl content and sarcomere length decrease significantly during storage. In contrast, meat color values (L*, a*, and b*) and the myofibril fragmentation index increase significantly. Altogether, 147 differentially expressed proteins are identified, most being categorized as metabolic enzymes, mitochondrial proteins, necroptosis and ferroptosis proteins and structural proteins. The results also reveal additional proteins that are potentially involved in rigor mortis, such as cardiac phospholamban, acetyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase, and ankyrin repeat domain 2. The current results provide proteomic insights into the changes in meat quality during rigor mortis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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14 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Inherent Cooking Rate and Warner-Bratzler Shear Force of Pork Chops Cooked to Two Degrees of Doneness
by Taylor N. Nethery, Dustin D. Boler, Bailey N. Harsh and Anna C. Dilger
Foods 2022, 11(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010131 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2519
Abstract
The objective was to test inherent cooking rate differences on tenderness values of boneless pork chops when exogenous factors known to influence cooking rate were controlled. Temperature and elapsed time were monitored during cooking for all chops. Cooking rate was calculated as the [...] Read more.
The objective was to test inherent cooking rate differences on tenderness values of boneless pork chops when exogenous factors known to influence cooking rate were controlled. Temperature and elapsed time were monitored during cooking for all chops. Cooking rate was calculated as the change in °C per minute of cooking time. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured on chops cooked to either 63 °C or 71 °C. Slopes of regression lines and coefficients of determination between cooking rate and tenderness values for both degrees of doneness (DoD) were calculated. Shear force values decreased as cooking rate increased regardless of DoD (p ≤ 0.05), however changes in tenderness due to increased cooking rate were limited (β1 = −0.201 for 63 °C; β1 = −0.217 for 71 °C). Cooking rate only explained 3.2% and 5.4% of variability in WBSF of chops cooked to 63 °C and 71 °C, respectively. Cooking loss explained the most variability in WBSF regardless of DoD (partial R2 = 0.09–0.12). When all factors were considered, a stepwise regression model explained 20% of WBSF variability of chops cooked to 63 °C and was moderately predictive of WBSF (model R2 = 0.34) for chops cooked to 71 °C. Overall, cooking rate had minimal effect on pork chop tenderness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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13 pages, 2265 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Cooking Method and Cooked Color on Consumer Acceptability of Boneless Pork Chops
by Lauren T. Honegger, Erin E. Bryan, Hannah E. Price, Taylor K. Ruth, Dustin D. Boler and Anna C. Dilger
Foods 2022, 11(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010106 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The objective was to determine the effects of sous-vide cooking and degree of doneness on consumer eating experience of pork chops when cooked color was expected to differ. The hypothesis was consumers would prefer a cooked brown color and would rate grilled chops [...] Read more.
The objective was to determine the effects of sous-vide cooking and degree of doneness on consumer eating experience of pork chops when cooked color was expected to differ. The hypothesis was consumers would prefer a cooked brown color and would rate grilled chops more acceptable than sous-vide chops. Chops were cooked to 63 °C or 71 °C using either an open-hearth grill or a sous-vide device. Participants evaluated four samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Participants rated a greater percentage of chops cooked sous-vide at 63 °C as tender (82.82%), juicy (55.83%) and acceptable (60.34%) compared with all other cooking method and degree of doneness combinations. Participants rated a greater percentage of sous-vide chops as tender and acceptable compared to grilled chops. Participants rated a greater percentage of chops cooked to 63 °C as tender, juicy, flavorful, and acceptable when compared to 71 °C. Even when participants could visualize cooked color, they preferred chops cooked to 63 °C compared with chops cooked to 71 °C. Overall, participants preferred chops cooked to 63 °C compared to 71 °C regardless of the cooking method and preferred chops cooked to 63 °C using the sous-vide cooking method the most among all treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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9 pages, 891 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Pork Muscles Cooked to Varying End-Point Temperatures
by Reagan N. Cauble, Jase J. Ball, Virginia E. Zorn, Tristan M. Reyes, Madison P. Wagoner, Madison M. Coursen, Barry D. Lambert, Jason K. Apple and Jason T. Sawyer
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122963 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
M. biceps femoris (BF), m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. semitendinosus (ST) from fresh pork ham were evaluated for characteristics of quality after cooking to an internal endpoint temperature of 62 °C or 73 °C. Fresh ham muscles from the left side (N [...] Read more.
M. biceps femoris (BF), m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. semitendinosus (ST) from fresh pork ham were evaluated for characteristics of quality after cooking to an internal endpoint temperature of 62 °C or 73 °C. Fresh ham muscles from the left side (N = 68) were cut into 2.54 cm thick chops and allocated to cooking loss, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), pH and instrumental cooked color analysis. Cooking losses were greater (p < 0.0001) for SM and chops cooked to an internal temperature of 73 °C (p < 0.0001), whereas WBSF did not differ (p = 0.2509) among the three muscles, but was greater (p < 0.0001) in chops cooked to 73 °C. Fresh muscle’s pH was greater (p < 0.05) in ST than BF or SM. Lastly, the interactive effect (p < 0.05) of muscle × endpoint temperature for ST chops cooked to 73 °C was lighter (L*), but, when cooked to 62 °C, they were more red (a*), more yellow (b*) and incurred less color change from red to brown than BF or SM. The current results suggest it is plausible for BF, SM and ST to be considered for alternative uses instead of traditional value-added manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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18 pages, 3220 KiB  
Article
Impact of Chilling Rate on the Evolution of Volatile and Non-Volatile Compounds in Raw Lamb Meat during Refrigeration
by Can Xiang, Shaobo Li, Huan Liu, Ce Liang, Fei Fang, Dequan Zhang and Zhenyu Wang
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112792 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chilling rate (1.44, 22.2, and 32.4 °C/h) on the evolution of volatile and non-volatile compounds in raw lamb meat during refrigeration (1, 24, 72, and 120 h). Through orthogonal projection to latent [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chilling rate (1.44, 22.2, and 32.4 °C/h) on the evolution of volatile and non-volatile compounds in raw lamb meat during refrigeration (1, 24, 72, and 120 h). Through orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis, the calculation of odor activity values (OAV > 1) and taste activity values (TAV > 1) analysis, 1-octen-3-ol, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, nonanal, hexanal, nona-3,5-dien-2-one, 2,3-octanedione, hexanoic acid, 1-nonen-4-ol, aspartate (Asp), Glutamic Acid (Glu), 5′-GMP, 5′-IMP, and 5′-AMP were regarded as differential flavor or taste compounds for raw meat undergone different chilling rates. With a rapid chilling rate at 24 h after slaughter, the contribution of 1-octen-3-ol decreased, but (E, E)-2,4-decadienal increased. Moreover, at 24 h post-mortem, the equivalent umami concentration of Asp, Glu, 5′-GMP, 5′-IMP and 5′-AMP in raw meat were significantly lower at a chilling rate of 1.44 °C/h than 32.4 °C/h (p < 0.05). Conclusively, under the rapid chilling rate, more fatty odor and umami compounds accumulated in 24 h aged meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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18 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dry-Aging on Quality and Palatability Attributes and Flavor-Related Metabolites of Pork Loins
by Derico Setyabrata, Anna D. Wagner, Bruce R. Cooper and Yuan H. Brad Kim
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102503 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3034
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of dry-aging on quality, palatability, and flavor-related compounds of pork loins. Ten pork loins were obtained at 7 days postmortem, divided into three equal portions, randomly assigned into three different aging methods (wet-aging (W), conventional dry-aging (DA), and [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of dry-aging on quality, palatability, and flavor-related compounds of pork loins. Ten pork loins were obtained at 7 days postmortem, divided into three equal portions, randomly assigned into three different aging methods (wet-aging (W), conventional dry-aging (DA), and UV-light dry-aging (UDA)), and aged for 21 days at 2 °C, 70% RH, and 0.8 m/s airflow. The results showed similar instrumental tenderness values across all treatments (p > 0.05), while DA and UDA had a greater water-holding capacity than WA (p < 0.05). Both DA and UDA were observed to have comparable color stability to WA up to 5 days of retail display (p > 0.05). Greater lipid oxidation was measured in both DA and UDA at the end of display compared to WA (p < 0.05). The UV light minimized microorganisms concentration on both surface and lean portions of UDA compared to other treatments (p < 0.05). The consumer panel was not able to differentiate any sensory traits and overall likeness between the treatments (p > 0.05). Metabolomics analysis, however, identified more flavor-related compounds in dry-aged meat. These findings suggested that dry-aging can be used for pork loins for value-seeking consumers, as it has a potential to generate unique dry-aged flavor in meat with no adverse impacts on meat quality and microbiological attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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21 pages, 1648 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Lipid Content in Ground Beef Patties with Rate of Discoloration and Lipid Oxidation during Simulated Retail Display
by Yifei Wang, Rubén Domínguez, José M. Lorenzo and Benjamin M. Bohrer
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091982 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
The relationships between the lipid content, lipid oxidation, and discoloration rate of ground beef during a simulated retail display were characterized in this study. A total of 276 batches of ground beef were manufactured with inside rounds and subcutaneous fat from 138 beef [...] Read more.
The relationships between the lipid content, lipid oxidation, and discoloration rate of ground beef during a simulated retail display were characterized in this study. A total of 276 batches of ground beef were manufactured with inside rounds and subcutaneous fat from 138 beef carcasses at different targeted levels of lean:fat. There was a total of four different targeted grind levels during the manufacture of the ground beef, and the lipid content for the samples used in this study ranged from 2% to 32% total lipid. Fatty acid composition was determined based on subcutaneous fat, whereas the proximate composition of moisture and total lipids, instrumental color, visual discoloration, and lipid oxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were evaluated on ground beef patties during 7 days of simulated retail at 4 °C display under LED lights. Analysis for the correlation and the creation of linear regression models indicated that lipid content played a more critical role in the discoloration rate compared to lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition. Lipid oxidation could be more reliably predicted by lipid content and instrumental color compared to visual discoloration. Overall, ground beef formulated with greater lipid content is expected to experience greater rates of lipid oxidation and discoloration during retail display. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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