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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 271 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biofilm formation is an integral part of the microbial life cycle in nature. In food processing environments, bacterial transmissions occur primarily through raw or undercooked foods and by cross-contamination during unsanitary food preparation practices. Foodborne pathogens form biofilms as a survival strategy in various unfavorable environments, which also become a frequent source of recurrent contamination and outbreaks of foodborne illness. Instead of focusing on bacterial biofilm formation and their pathogenicity individually, this review discusses on a molecular level how these two physiological processes are connected in several common foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. View this paper
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13 pages, 4984 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on Foaming Properties of Egg White with Yolk Fractions and Their Hydrolysates
by Xin Li, Yue-Meng Wang, Cheng-Feng Sun, Jian-Hao Lv and Yan-Jun Yang
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092238 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
As an excellent foaming agent, egg white protein (EWP) is always contaminated by egg yolk in the industrial processing, therefore, decreasing its foaming properties. The aim of this study was to simulate the industrial EWP (egg white protein with 0.5% w/w of egg [...] Read more.
As an excellent foaming agent, egg white protein (EWP) is always contaminated by egg yolk in the industrial processing, therefore, decreasing its foaming properties. The aim of this study was to simulate the industrial EWP (egg white protein with 0.5% w/w of egg yolk) and characterize their foaming and structural properties when hydrolyzed by two types of esterase (lipase and phospholipase A2). Results showed that egg yolk plasma might have been the main fraction, which led to the poor foaming properties of the contaminated egg white protein compared with egg yolk granules. After hydrolyzation, both foamability and foam stability of investigated systems thereof (egg white protein with egg yolk, egg white protein with egg yolk plasma, and egg white protein with egg yolk granules) increased significantly compared with unhydrolyzed ones. However, phospholipids A2 (PLP) seemed to be more effective on increasing their foaming properties as compared to those systems hydrolyzed by lipase (LP). The schematic diagrams of yolk fractions were proposed to explain the aggregation and dispersed behavior exposed in their changes of structures after hydrolysis, suggesting the aggregated effects of LP on yolk plasma and destructive effects of PLP on yolk granules, which may directly influence their foaming properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eggs and Eggproducts: Unravelling the Secrets)
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30 pages, 2134 KiB  
Review
Effect of Salt Content Reduction on Food Processing Technology
by Jana Rysová and Zuzana Šmídová
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092237 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6503
Abstract
Higher salt intake is associated with the risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases, hypertension and gastric cancer. Salt intake reduction represents an effective way to improve people’s health, either by the right choice of food or by a reduction of added salt. Salt [...] Read more.
Higher salt intake is associated with the risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases, hypertension and gastric cancer. Salt intake reduction represents an effective way to improve people’s health, either by the right choice of food or by a reduction of added salt. Salt substitutes are often used and also herb homogenates are treated by high pressure technology. Salt reduction significantly influences the shelf life, texture, pH, taste, and aroma of cheese. The composition of emulsifying salts or starter cultures must be modified to enact changes in microbial diversity, protease activity and the ripening process. The texture becomes softer and aroma atypical. In bakery products, a salt reduction of only 20–30% is acceptable. Water absorption, dough development, length and intensity of kneading and stability of dough are changed. Gluten development and its viscoelastic properties are affected. The salt reduction promotes yeast growth and CO2 production. Specific volume and crust colour intensity decreased, and the crumb porosity changed. In meat products, salt provides flavour, texture, and shelf life, and water activity increases. In this case, myofibrillar proteins’ solubility, water binding activity and colour intensity changes were found. The composition of curing nitrite salt mixtures and starter cultures must be modified. Full article
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15 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Lactose Residual Content in PDO Cheeses: Novel Inclusions for Consumers with Lactose Intolerance
by Maria Sole Facioni, Simona Dominici, Francesca Marescotti, Rosanna Covucci, Isabella Taglieri, Francesca Venturi and Angela Zinnai
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092236 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7455
Abstract
Lactose intolerance (LI) is the symptomatic condition that characterizes subjects unable to digest lactose. The main solution consists of reducing or eliminating lactose from one’s diet, and so dairy products, particularly cheeses, are often the first foods excluded. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Lactose intolerance (LI) is the symptomatic condition that characterizes subjects unable to digest lactose. The main solution consists of reducing or eliminating lactose from one’s diet, and so dairy products, particularly cheeses, are often the first foods excluded. The purpose of this study is to contribute to this topic by creating an updated list of naturally lactose-free (NLF) cheeses. Twenty-five PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) cheeses were selected and analyzed to determine their lactose content. At the same time, interviews with the PDO quality control consortia were carried out to understand which parameters are involved in lactose reduction, based on the cheeses’ product specifications. The analytical techniques used here for lactose determination are the most sensitive (HPAEC-PAD and LC/MS-MS), given their low limit of quantification (LOQ) of less than 10 mg/kg. The majority of selected PDO cheeses resulted in a lactose content less than the LOQ. Because of the high variability allowed in PDO cheeses’ operative conditions, it would be better to case-by-case examine the PDO cheese specification and declare the product as NLF after repeated analysis. The results of the chemical determination of this research allowed to draw up a very useful list of PDO cheeses for both consumers and nutritionists that could be identified as NLF. Full article
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16 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Multiple Breeds and Countries’ Predictions of Mineral Contents in Milk from Milk Mid-Infrared Spectrometry
by Octave S. Christophe, Clément Grelet, Carlo Bertozzi, Didier Veselko, Christophe Lecomte, Peter Höeckels, Andreas Werner, Franz-Josef Auer, Nicolas Gengler, Frédéric Dehareng and Hélène Soyeurt
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092235 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
Measuring the mineral composition of milk is of major interest in the dairy sector. This study aims to develop and validate robust multi-breed and multi-country models predicting the major minerals through milk mid-infrared spectrometry using partial least square regressions. A total of 1281 [...] Read more.
Measuring the mineral composition of milk is of major interest in the dairy sector. This study aims to develop and validate robust multi-breed and multi-country models predicting the major minerals through milk mid-infrared spectrometry using partial least square regressions. A total of 1281 samples coming from five countries were analyzed to obtain spectra and in ICP-AES to measure the mineral reference contents. Models were built from records coming from four countries (n = 1181) and validated using records from the fifth country, Austria (n = 100). The importance of including local samples was tested by integrating 30 Austrian samples in the model while validating with the remaining 70 samples. The best performances were achieved using this second set of models, confirming the need to cover the spectral variability of a country before making a prediction. Validation root mean square errors were 54.56, 63.60, 7.30, 59.87, and 152.89 mg/kg for Na, Ca, Mg, P, and K, respectively. The built models were applied on the Walloon milk recording large-scale spectral database, including 3,510,077. The large-scale predictions on this dairy herd improvement database provide new insight regarding the minerals’ variability in the population, as well as the effect of parity, stage of lactation, breeds, and seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Application of Spectral Analysis in Dairy Products)
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20 pages, 2357 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metal Levels in Milk and Cheese Produced in the Kvemo Kartli Region, Georgia
by Rami Al Sidawi, Giorgi Ghambashidze, Teo Urushadze and Angelika Ploeger
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092234 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4135
Abstract
Milk and dairy products are among the most important food sectors in Georgia, and milk is considered one of the most essential foods in the human diet according to Georgian food culture. Kvemo Kartli is one of the major regions in Georgia for [...] Read more.
Milk and dairy products are among the most important food sectors in Georgia, and milk is considered one of the most essential foods in the human diet according to Georgian food culture. Kvemo Kartli is one of the major regions in Georgia for milk production. This region suffers from heavy metal contamination in soil and water because of the mining industry. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of cadmium, lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, selenium and molybdenum in milk and cheese and to evaluate whether the concentrations of these elements correspond to the permissible levels of toxic elements in milk and cheese for Georgia and the EU. In total, 195 milk samples and 25 cheese samples (16 from Imeruli cheese and nine from Sulguni cheese) were collected from nine different villages in the Kvemo Kartli region in Georgia: Chapala, Vanati, Bolnisi, Mtskneti, Sabereti, Ratevani, Khidiskuri, Kazreti, Kvemo Bolnisi. The determination of heavy metal in all samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The research results show that the concentration of these elements in most milk samples is fairly constant for all villages and is less than the permissible levels, except for seven samples from the following villages: Kvemo Bolnisi, Bolnisi, Mitskineti and Ratawani, where the concentration of lead in the milk samples was higher than the permissible limits mentioned in the literature, ranging from 0.027 to 1003 mg L−1. As for copper, its concentration in milk in Sabereti and Vanati villages was above the permissible limits according to the EU limit, ranging from 0.42 to 1.28 mg L−1. For cheese samples, the concentration of cadmium, lead, copper, Co and Ni in the two types of cheese was less than the permissible limit according to the laws of Georgia. Finally, the heavy metal concentrations in Imeruli and Sulguni cheese for manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) were above the permissible limit. Thus, the study results showed that the consumption of milk does not pose a direct and serious threat to the health of consumers. As for the two types of cheese, future studies and continuous monitoring are necessary to assess the cheese content of trace elements and the risk of its consumption to the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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20 pages, 2672 KiB  
Article
Searching for Differences in Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Crude Drone Brood and Royal Jelly Useful for Their Authentication
by Ewelina Sidor, Michał Miłek, Grzegorz Zaguła, Aleksandra Bocian and Małgorzata Dżugan
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092233 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
Drone brood is a little-known bee product which is frequently considered as a male equivalent of royal jelly and is sometimes used as its adulterant. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition and biological activity of both bee products [...] Read more.
Drone brood is a little-known bee product which is frequently considered as a male equivalent of royal jelly and is sometimes used as its adulterant. The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition and biological activity of both bee products originated from the same apiaries (n = 3) limiting the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Moreover, for drone brood study covered testing three stages of larval development (days 7, 11, and 14). The comparison included mineral composition (ICP-OES method), protein content and protein profile (SDS-PAGE), testosterone and estradiol content (ELISA tests). HPTLC method was used to analyze of sugar, amino acids, and polyphenolic profile of drone brood and royal jelly. Moreover, their antioxidant and enzymatic properties were compared. A lot of similarities between drone brood and royal jelly were found in terms of chemical components. However, drone brood was more abundant in iron and manganese, reducing sugars and some amino acids, especially proline, tyrosine, and leucine. It contained more testosterone (especially on the 14th day) and estradiol (on the 7th day). The greatest differences in the enzymatic activities and polyphenolic profile were found. Diastase and α-glucosidase activity were found as specific enzymes of the drone brood. Similarly, ferulic and ellagic acids were characteristic for brood and were not present in royal jelly. The study showed a lot of similar features for both tested bee products, however, some specific markers which can serve to differentiate drone brood and royal jelly were found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Properties of Bee Products)
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10 pages, 2705 KiB  
Article
Detecting Dye-Contaminated Vegetables Using Low-Field NMR Relaxometry
by Sumaiya Shomaji, Naren Vikram Raj Masna, David Ariando, Shubhra Deb Paul, Kelsey Horace-Herron, Domenic Forte, Soumyajit Mandal and Swarup Bhunia
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092232 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4106
Abstract
Dyeing vegetables with harmful compounds has become an alarming public health issue over the past few years. Excessive consumption of these dyed vegetables can cause severe health hazards, including cancer. Copper sulfate, malachite green, and Sudan red are some of the non-food-grade dyes [...] Read more.
Dyeing vegetables with harmful compounds has become an alarming public health issue over the past few years. Excessive consumption of these dyed vegetables can cause severe health hazards, including cancer. Copper sulfate, malachite green, and Sudan red are some of the non-food-grade dyes widely used on vegetables by untrusted entities in the food supply chain to make them look fresh and vibrant. In this study, the presence and quantity of dye-based adulteration in vegetables are determined by applying 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The proposed technique was validated by treating some vegetables in-house with different dyes and then soaking them in various solvents. The resulting solutions were collected and analyzed using NMR relaxometry. Specifically, the effective transverse relaxation time constant, T2,eff, of each solution was estimated using a Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. Finally, the estimated time constants (i.e., measured signatures) were compared with a library of existing T2,eff data to detect and quantify the presence of unwanted dyes. The latter consists of data-driven models of transverse decay times for various concentrations of each water-soluble dye. The time required to analyze each sample using the proposed approach is dye-dependent but typically no longer than a few minutes. The analysis results can be used to generate warning flags if the detected dye concentrations violate widely accepted standards for food dyes. The proposed low-cost detection approach can be used in various stages of a produce supply chain, including consumer household. Full article
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14 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
Molecular Analytical Assessment of Thermally Precipitated α-Lactalbumin after Resolubilization
by Nicole Haller, Isabel Maier and Ulrich Kulozik
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092231 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Selective thermal precipitation followed by a mechanical separation step is a well described method for fractionation of the main whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg). By choosing appropriate environmental conditions the thermal precipitation of either α-la or β-lg can be induced. Whereas [...] Read more.
Selective thermal precipitation followed by a mechanical separation step is a well described method for fractionation of the main whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg). By choosing appropriate environmental conditions the thermal precipitation of either α-la or β-lg can be induced. Whereas β-lg irreversibly aggregates, the precipitated α-la can be resolubilized by a subsequent adjustment of the solution’s pH and the ionic composition. This study reports on the analytical characterization of resolubilized α-la compared to its native counterpart as a reference in order to assess whether the resolubilized α-la can be considered close to ‘native’. Turbidity and quantification by RP-HPLC of the resolubilized α-la solutions were used as a measure of solubility in aqueous environment. RP-HPLC was also applied to determine the elution time as a measure for protein’s hydrophobicity. DSC measurement was performed to determine the denaturation peak temperature of resolubilized α-la. FTIR spectroscopy provided insights in the secondary structure. The refolding of α-la achieved best results using pH 8.0 and a 3-fold stoichiometric amount of Ca2+ per α-la molecule. The results showed that the mechanism of aggregation induced by gentle thermal treatment under acidic conditions with subsequent mechanical separation is reversible to a certain extent, however, the exact native conformation was not restored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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12 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Design of an In Vitro Model to Screen the Chemical Reactivity Induced by Polyphenols and Vitamins during Digestion: An Application to Processed Meat
by Eléna Keuleyan, Aline Bonifacie, Philippe Gatellier, Claude Ferreira, Sylvie Blinet, Aurélie Promeyrat, Gilles Nassy, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier and Laëtitia Théron
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092230 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2592
Abstract
Processed meats’ nutritional quality may be enhanced by bioactive vegetable molecules, by preventing the synthesis of nitrosamines from N-nitrosation, and harmful aldehydes from lipid oxidation, through their reformulation. Both reactions occur during digestion. The precise effect of these molecules during processed meats’ digestion [...] Read more.
Processed meats’ nutritional quality may be enhanced by bioactive vegetable molecules, by preventing the synthesis of nitrosamines from N-nitrosation, and harmful aldehydes from lipid oxidation, through their reformulation. Both reactions occur during digestion. The precise effect of these molecules during processed meats’ digestion must be deepened to wisely select the most efficient vegetable compounds. The aim of this study was to design an in vitro experimental method, allowing to foresee polyphenols and vitamins’ effects on the chemical reactivity linked to processed meats’ digestion. The method measured the modulation of end products formation (specific nitroso-tryptophan and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), by differential UV-visible spectrophotometry, according to the presence or not of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, naringin, naringenin) or vitamins (ascorbic acid and trolox). The reactional medium was supported by an oil in water emulsion mimicking the physico-chemical environment of the gastric compartment. The model was optimized to uphold the reactions in a stable and simplified model featuring processed meat composition. Rutin, chlorogenic acid, naringin, and naringenin significantly inhibited lipid oxidation. N-nitrosation was inhibited by the presence of lipids and ascorbate. This methodology paves the way for an accurate selection of molecules within the framework of processed meat products reformulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Trends for the Meat Industry)
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15 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Nutritive Value of 11 Bee Pollen Samples from Major Floral Sources in Taiwan
by Pei-Shou Hsu, Tzu-Hsien Wu, Meng-Yuan Huang, Dun-Yan Wang and Ming-Cheng Wu
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092229 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5134
Abstract
Bee pollen is a nutrient-rich food that meets the nutritional requirements of honey bees and supports human health. This study aimed to provide nutritive composition data for 11 popular bee pollen samples (Brassica napus (Bn), Bidens pilosa var. radiata (Bp), Camellia sinensis [...] Read more.
Bee pollen is a nutrient-rich food that meets the nutritional requirements of honey bees and supports human health. This study aimed to provide nutritive composition data for 11 popular bee pollen samples (Brassica napus (Bn), Bidens pilosa var. radiata (Bp), Camellia sinensis (Cs), Fraxinus griffithii (Fg), Prunus mume (Pm), Rhus chinensis var. roxburghii (Rc), Bombax ceiba (Bc), Hylocereus costaricensis (Hc), Liquidambar formosana (Lf), Nelumbo nucifera (Nn), and Zea mays (Zm)) in Taiwan for the global bee pollen database. Macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were analyzed, which revealed that Bp had the highest carbohydrate content of 78.8 g/100 g dry mass, Bc had the highest protein content of 32.2 g/100 g dry mass, and Hc had the highest lipid content of 8.8 g/100 g dry mass. Only the bee pollen Hc completely met the minimum requirements of essential amino acids for bees and humans, and the other bee pollen samples contained at least 1–3 different limiting essential amino acids, i.e., methionine, tryptophan, histidine, valine, and isoleucine. Regarding the fatty acid profile of bee pollen samples, palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3) were predominant fatty acids that accounted for 66.0–97.4% of total fatty acids. These data serve as an indicator of the nutritional quality and value of the 11 bee pollen samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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13 pages, 1894 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity from Strawberries: Modelling with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
by Iman Golpour, Ana Cristina Ferrão, Fernando Gonçalves, Paula M. R. Correia, Ana M. Blanco-Marigorta and Raquel P. F. Guiné
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092228 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
This research study focuses on the evaluation of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of strawberries according to different experimental extraction conditions by applying the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The experimental data were applied to train ANNs using feed- [...] Read more.
This research study focuses on the evaluation of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of strawberries according to different experimental extraction conditions by applying the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) technique. The experimental data were applied to train ANNs using feed- and cascade-forward backpropagation models with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian Regulation (BR) algorithms. Three independent variables (solvent concentration, volume/mass ratio and extraction time) were used as ANN inputs, whereas the three variables of total phenolic compounds, DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities were considered as ANN outputs. The results demonstrate that the best cascade- and feed-forward backpropagation topologies of ANNs for the prediction of total phenolic compounds and DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activity factors were the 3-9-1, 3-4-4-1 and 3-13-10-1 structures, with the training algorithms of trainlm, trainbr, trainlm and threshold functions of tansig-purelin, tansig-tansig-tansig and purelin-tansig-tansig, respectively. The best R2 values for the predication of total phenolic compounds and DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activity factors were 0.9806 (MSE = 0.0047), 0.9651 (MSE = 0.0035) and 0.9756 (MSE = 0.00286), respectively. According to the comparison of ANNs, the results showed that the cascade-forward backpropagation network showed better performance than the feed-forward backpropagation network for predicting the TPC, and the FFBP network, in predicting the DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activity factors, had more precision than the cascade-forward backpropagation network. The ANN technique is a potential method for estimating targeted total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of strawberries. Full article
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15 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Green Bean, Pea and Mesquite Whole Pod Flours Nutritional and Functional Properties and Their Effect on Sourdough Bread
by Angela Mariela González-Montemayor, José Fernando Solanilla-Duque, Adriana C. Flores-Gallegos, Claudia Magdalena López-Badillo, Juan Alberto Ascacio-Valdés and Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092227 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3533
Abstract
In this study, proximal composition, mineral analysis, polyphenolic compounds identification, and antioxidant and functional activities were determined in green bean (GBF), mesquite (MF), and pea (PF) flours. Different mixtures of legume flour and wheat flour for bread elaboration were determined by a simplex-centroid [...] Read more.
In this study, proximal composition, mineral analysis, polyphenolic compounds identification, and antioxidant and functional activities were determined in green bean (GBF), mesquite (MF), and pea (PF) flours. Different mixtures of legume flour and wheat flour for bread elaboration were determined by a simplex-centroid design. After that, the proximal composition, color, specific volume, polyphenol content, antioxidant activities, and functional properties of the different breads were evaluated. While GBF and PF have a higher protein content (41–47%), MF has a significant fiber content (19.9%) as well as a higher polyphenol content (474.77 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant capacities. It was possible to identify Ca, K, and Mg and caffeic and enolic acids in the flours. The legume–wheat mixtures affected the fiber, protein content, and the physical properties of bread. Bread with MF contained more fiber; meanwhile, PF and GBF benefit the protein content. With MF, the specific bread volume only decreased by 7%. These legume flours have the potential to increase the nutritional value of bakery goods. Full article
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22 pages, 2455 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Macro- and Microalgae Extracts Bioactive Compounds and Micro- and Macroelements Transition from Algae to Extract
by Ernesta Tolpeznikaite, Vadims Bartkevics, Modestas Ruzauskas, Renata Pilkaityte, Pranas Viskelis, Dalia Urbonaviciene, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Egle Zokaityte, Romas Ruibys and Elena Bartkiene
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092226 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4401
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of macroalgae (Cladophora rupestris, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Ulva intestinalis) and microalgae (Arthrospira platensis (Sp1, Sp2), Chlorella vulgaris) extracts, including micro- and macroelement transition to extract, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of macroalgae (Cladophora rupestris, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Ulva intestinalis) and microalgae (Arthrospira platensis (Sp1, Sp2), Chlorella vulgaris) extracts, including micro- and macroelement transition to extract, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties, the concentrations of chlorophyll (-a, -b), and the total carotenoid concentration (TCC). In macroalgae, the highest TCC and chlorophyll content were found in C. rupestris. In microalgae, the TCC was 10.1-times higher in C. vulgaris than in Sp1, Sp2; however, the chlorophyll contents in C. vulgaris samples were lower. A moderate negative correlation was found between the chlorophyll-a and TCC contents (r = −0.4644). In macroalgae extract samples, C. rupestris and F. lumbricalis showed the highest total phenolic compound content (TPCC). DPPH antioxidant activity and TPCC in microalgae was related to the TCC (r = 0.6191, r = 0.6439, respectively). Sp2 extracts inhibited Staphylococcus haemolyticus; C. rupestris, F. lumbricalis, U. intestinalis, and Sp2 extracts inhibited Bacillus subtilis; and U. intestinalis extracts inhibited Streptococcus mutans strains. This study showed that extraction is a suitable technology for toxic metal decontamination in algae; however, some of the desirable microelements are reduced during the extraction, and only the final products, could be applied in food, feed, and others. Full article
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11 pages, 1017 KiB  
Article
Breakfast Cereals Carrying Fibre-Related Claims: Do They Have a Better Nutritional Composition Than Those without Such Claims? Results from the Food Labelling of Italian Products (FLIP) Study
by Daniela Martini, Cristian Del Bo’, Mauro Serafini, Marisa Porrini, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Donato Angelino and on behalf of SINU Young Working Group
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092225 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4258
Abstract
Nutrition claims (NCs) on food packaging are, from one side, an informative tool about the nutritional characteristics of the product. From another side, they could bias the consumer in perceiving such products as healthier than those without claims. In order to investigate whether [...] Read more.
Nutrition claims (NCs) on food packaging are, from one side, an informative tool about the nutritional characteristics of the product. From another side, they could bias the consumer in perceiving such products as healthier than those without claims. In order to investigate whether products with NCs have a better nutritional composition that those without claims, the present study aimed to compare the nutrition facts of 376 breakfast cereals, with and without fibre-related NCs, available in 13 Italian retailer online stores. Among these products, 73 items claimed to be a “source of fibre” and 109 “high in fibre”. In addition to a higher fibre content, products “high in fibre” showed higher protein and fat contents but lower carbohydrate, sugar and salt contents compared to both “source of fibre” and without fibre-related NC items. Overall, a high variability in nutritional values was also observed within products with the same type of fibre-related NC. In conclusion, the results suggested that fibre-related NCs should not be considered as a marker of a better nutritional composition of breakfast cereals, and thus consumers should be educated to carefully read the entire nutritional information reported in the food labelling. Full article
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16 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Celebrity Endorsement on Food Consumption Behavior
by Cristina Calvo-Porral, Sergio Rivaroli and Javier Orosa-González
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092224 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 15632
Abstract
“Is consumer food behavior influenced by celebrity endorsement?”. This question remains unsolved despite celebrities constantly recommending different products in their social media networks. Much of the literature on celebrity endorsement focuses on the characteristics of celebrities influencing consumers’ behavior, but there is scarce [...] Read more.
“Is consumer food behavior influenced by celebrity endorsement?”. This question remains unsolved despite celebrities constantly recommending different products in their social media networks. Much of the literature on celebrity endorsement focuses on the characteristics of celebrities influencing consumers’ behavior, but there is scarce research about how celebrity endorsements about food and food products influence consumers’ behavior. In this context and based on the source credibility and source attractiveness models, as well as on the match-up theory, this study aims to examine whether consumers’ food purchase intention and consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price is influenced by celebrity endorsement. For this purpose, an empirical study is developed through Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) based on data gathered from 316 consumers who read celebrity recommendations. Findings report that consumers are most influenced in their food consumption behavior by the congruence between the celebrity endorsement and the product being recommended, and by the celebrity credibility. Interestingly, celebrity recommendations show a similar influencing pattern both for consumers’ food purchase intention and consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for food. The major contribution of this research is to show that congruence is the main route by which celebrity endorsement influences food consumption behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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13 pages, 6225 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effects of Different Dietary Patterns on Breast Cancer: Monitoring Circulating Tumor Cells
by Xiuxiu Wang, Xiaoyu Liu, Zhenzhen Jia, Yilun Zhang, Shuo Wang and Hongyan Zhang
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092223 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
The occurrence and development of breast cancer are closely related to dietary factors, especially dietary patterns. This study was to investigate the effects of dietary patterns on the process of tumor metastasis by in vivo circulating tumor cell (CTC) capture strategy and monitoring [...] Read more.
The occurrence and development of breast cancer are closely related to dietary factors, especially dietary patterns. This study was to investigate the effects of dietary patterns on the process of tumor metastasis by in vivo circulating tumor cell (CTC) capture strategy and monitoring changes of CTC numbers in breast tumor mice model. Meanwhile, the effects of different dietary patterns on the development of lung metastases of breast cancer and the volume and weight of carcinoma in situ were investigated. In this study, the increase in the number of CTCs was significantly promoted by dietary patterns such as high-salt diet, high-sugar diet, and high-fat diet, while it was delayed by ketogenic diet, low-fat diet, low-protein diet, diet restriction, and Mediterranean diet. These results indicated that the in vivo capture and detection of CTCs provides a convenient method for real-time cancer metastasis monitoring, and through in-depth study of the effects of different dietary patterns on tumor growth and metastasis, it can expand a new horizon in future cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Diet and Human Nutrition)
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22 pages, 4878 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Soy Protein Prepared Using an Aqueous Ethanol Washing Process
by Yu Peng, Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Mbalo Ndiaye, Marine Bianeis, Julia K. Keppler and Atze Jan van der Goot
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092222 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4908
Abstract
Currently, the predominant process for soy protein concentrate (SPC) production is aqueous ethanol washing of hexane-extracted soy meal. However, the use of hexane is less desired, which explains the increased interest in cold pressing for oil removal. In this study, cold-pressed soy meal [...] Read more.
Currently, the predominant process for soy protein concentrate (SPC) production is aqueous ethanol washing of hexane-extracted soy meal. However, the use of hexane is less desired, which explains the increased interest in cold pressing for oil removal. In this study, cold-pressed soy meal was used as the starting material, and a range of water/ethanol ratios was applied for the washing process to produce SPCs. Washing enriched the protein content for the SPCs, regardless of the solvent used. However, we conclude that washing with water (0% ethanol) or solvents with a high water/ethanol ratio (60% and above) can be more advantageous. Washing with a high water/ethanol ratio resulted in the highest yield, and SPCs with the highest protein solubility and water holding capacity. The water-only washed SPC showed the highest viscosity, and formed gels with the highest gel strength and hardness among all the SPCs at a similar protein concentration. The variations in the functionality among the SPCs were attributed to protein changes, although the effects of non-protein constituents such as sugar and oil might also be important. Overall, the aqueous ethanol washing process combined with cold-pressed soy meal created SPCs comparable to commercial SPC in terms of composition, but with varied functionalities that are relevant for novel soy-food developments. Full article
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12 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Glycemic Index of Six Different Samples of Commercial and Experimental Pasta Differing in Wheat Varieties and Production Processes
by Amalia Pandolfo, Bernardo Messina and Giuseppe Russo
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092221 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Pasta is a staple food of the Mediterranean Diet, and it is traditionally made of durum wheat semolina. In Sicily, durum wheat production and its transformation into semolina, bread, and pasta are well-developed economic sectors. For pasta, there is a wide supply of [...] Read more.
Pasta is a staple food of the Mediterranean Diet, and it is traditionally made of durum wheat semolina. In Sicily, durum wheat production and its transformation into semolina, bread, and pasta are well-developed economic sectors. For pasta, there is a wide supply of commercial brands, whether coming from conventional industrial manufacturing or from medium to small and local handcrafted production. Both conventional durum wheat and local durum wheat landraces, such as Timilia and Russello, are used for pasta production, but local landraces are, for the most, transformed into handcrafted pasta. The market of local landraces durum wheat pasta has risen in recent decades, in Sicily and in Italy as well, boosted by a perceived high nutritional and healthy value of these wheat derivatives. In particular, a popular and scientifically unproven idea suggests that a reduced glycemic response might be elicited by these pasta landraces. Therefore, to test this hypothesis, the main objective of the present study was the evaluation of the glycemic index (GI) of four samples of Timilia and Russello handcrafted pasta and two samples of conventional durum wheat pasta. The study enrolled fourteen healthy weight male and female volunteers aged from 18 to 46; eight test sessions were performed twice a week, every session testing a pasta sample (six sessions) or the glucose solution chosen as reference food (two sessions). The standard methodology for GI measurement was followed during each step of the study. The six tested pasta samples were characterized regarding their composition (protein, fiber, and starch content) and their whole production processes (milling method and milling diagram of flour or semolina, drying temperature, and diagram of pasta shape). The six tested pasta samples showed GI values ranging from low (34.1) to intermediate (63.1). Timilia and Russello pasta are the first GI calculations available. The two samples made of conventional grains showed lower values of GI (34.1 and 37.8). The results do not support the popular idea of a reduced glycemic response elicited by Timilia and Russello wheat landrace pasta; the tested samples showed GI values in the range of 56.2 to 63.1. However, some consideration should be made of factors other than wheat varieties and related to production processes that may have affected the final GIs of the pastas. Even if the study is not designed to discriminate among factors related to wheat varieties or processes used to produce different pasta, it is a preliminary step in the characterization of the healthy potential of the local wheat landraces, popularly called ancient grain. A future implementation of the local wheat landraces supply chain should pay attention to all the factors above, from a better seed identity certification to the production process in order to further improve the healthy value of these staples of the Mediterranean Diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
24 pages, 3603 KiB  
Review
The Role of Bioactive Peptides in Diabetes and Obesity
by Ramachandran Chelliah, Shuai Wei, Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Fazle Elahi, Su-Jung Yeon, Akanksha Tyagi, Shucheng Liu, Inamul Hasan Madar, Ghazala Sultan and Deog-Hwan Oh
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092220 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 7222
Abstract
Bioactive peptides are present in most soy products and eggs and have essential protective functions. Infection is a core feature of innate immunity that affects blood pressure and the glucose level, and ageing can be delayed by killing senescent cells. Food also encrypts [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides are present in most soy products and eggs and have essential protective functions. Infection is a core feature of innate immunity that affects blood pressure and the glucose level, and ageing can be delayed by killing senescent cells. Food also encrypts bioactive peptides and protein sequences produced through proteolysis or food processing. Unique food protein fragments can improve human health and avoid metabolic diseases, inflammation, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on drug targets and fundamental mechanisms of bioactive peptides on metabolic syndromes, namely obesity and type 2 diabetes, to provide new ideas and knowledge on the ability of bioactive peptide to control metabolic syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactive Compounds as Functional Ingredient)
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17 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Effect of Moroccan Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Sefri Variety) Extracts Rich in Punicalagin against the Oxidative Stress Process
by Lamiae Benchagra, Hicham Berrougui, Mohamed Obaidul Islam, Mhamed Ramchoun, Samira Boulbaroud, Abdelouahed Hajjaji, Tamas Fulop, Gianna Ferretti and Abdelouahed Khalil
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092219 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4198
Abstract
Natural antioxidants products are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols, exhibit a wide range of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerosis activities. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a rich source of polyphenolic components. The purpose [...] Read more.
Natural antioxidants products are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols, exhibit a wide range of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerosis activities. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a rich source of polyphenolic components. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition and flavonoids and anthocyanin content of different parts (peel and aril) of the Sefri variety of pomegranate. Our results showed that Peel extract was richer in these compounds than that of the Arils, especially in Punicalagin (A and B). DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays revealed a greater dose-dependent activity of pomegranate peel phenolic extract (PPPE) compared to pomegranate aril phenolic extract (PAPE). PPPE was also more potent than PAPE concerning its ability to inhibit conjugated diene formation and to reduce α-tocopherol disappearance induced by CuSO4-mediated LDL peroxidation. Interestingly, both extracts (PPPE and PAPE) significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stressed J82 human bladder cancer cells. These results reflect the protective effects that this Moroccan variety of pomegranate can provide against the development of metabolic disorder, cancer, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Given these properties, further studies should be undertaken to investigate possible applications of Sefri pomegranate extracts in the fields of food preservation and health supplements. Full article
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9 pages, 2081 KiB  
Article
Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)-PCR for Waxy Sorghum Authentication with Single-Nucleotide Resolution
by Xiaoying Zhu, Minghua Wu, Ruijie Deng, Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Sha Deng, Xi Wang, Rosa Busquets, Wanyu Deng and Aimin Luo
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092218 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2601
Abstract
Waxy sorghum has greater economic value than wild sorghum in relation to their use in food processing and the brewing industry. Thus, the authentication of the waxy sorghum species is an important issue. Herein, a rapid and sensitive Authentication Amplification Refractory Mutation System-PCR [...] Read more.
Waxy sorghum has greater economic value than wild sorghum in relation to their use in food processing and the brewing industry. Thus, the authentication of the waxy sorghum species is an important issue. Herein, a rapid and sensitive Authentication Amplification Refractory Mutation System-PCR (aARMS-PCR) method was employed to identify sorghum species via its ability to resolve single-nucleotide in genes. As a proof of concept, we chose a species of waxy sorghum containing the wxc mutation which is abundantly used in liquor brewing. The aARMS-PCR can distinguish non-wxc sorghum from wxc sorghum to guarantee identification of specific waxy sorghum species. It allowed to detect as low as 1% non-wxc sorghum in sorghum mixtures, which ar one of the most sensitive tools for food authentication. Due to its ability for resolving genes with single-nucleotide resolution and high sensitivity, aARMS-PCR may have wider applicability in monitoring food adulteration, offering a rapid food authenticity verification in the control of adulteration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Detection Techniques for Contaminants in Food Science)
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21 pages, 2911 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review on the Antimicrobial Properties of Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants: We Still Know Too Little about Them, but What We Do Know Makes Persistent Investigation Worthwhile
by Giulia Cappelli and Francesca Mariani
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092217 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is estimated to be the cause of a major number of deaths by 2050 if we do not find strategies to slow down the rise of drug resistance. Reviews on Mediterranean wild edible plants (MWEPs) with antimicrobial [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is estimated to be the cause of a major number of deaths by 2050 if we do not find strategies to slow down the rise of drug resistance. Reviews on Mediterranean wild edible plants (MWEPs) with antimicrobial properties are scarce in the main databases (PubMed, Scopus, and WoS). Hence, we proceeded to conduct a new review of the studies on MWEPs. (2) Methods: We used ‘wild edible plant’ and ‘antimicrobial’ as keywords. Within this group, exclusion criteria were reviews, studies concerning non-Mediterranean plants or non-edible plants, studies on topics other than plants or containing no description of antimicrobial properties, or off-topic studies. (3) Results: Finally, out of the one hundred and ninety-two studies we had started with, we reviewed thirty-eight (19.8%) studies concerning the antimicrobial properties of seventy-four MWEPs species belonging to twenty-five Families. Fifty-seven (77%) species out of seventy-four proved to be antimicrobial, with a stringent threshold selection. (4) Conclusions: Studies are still very heterogeneous. We still know too little about MWEPs’ properties; however, what we already know strongly recommends carrying on investigation. Full article
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17 pages, 5657 KiB  
Article
Stability, Microstructure, and Rheological Properties of CaCO3 S/O/W Calcium-Lipid Emulsions
by Jie Zhang, Gongwei Li, Duoxia Xu and Yanping Cao
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092216 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a commonly used fortified calcium, but poor suspension stability and easy precipitation seriously limited its food processing and products application. The formation of CaCO3 loaded microparticles based on the form of solid/oil/water (S/O/W) emulsion is a [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a commonly used fortified calcium, but poor suspension stability and easy precipitation seriously limited its food processing and products application. The formation of CaCO3 loaded microparticles based on the form of solid/oil/water (S/O/W) emulsion is a promising method to improve the dispersion stability of CaCO3 in liquid food. In this study, CaCO3, soybean oil, and sodium caseinate (NaCas) were used as the solid, oil, and W phase, respectively. The fabrication involved two steps: the S/O emulsion was prepared by adding CaCO3 into soybean oil by magnetic stirring and high-speed shearing, and then put the S/O crude emulsion into NaCas solution (W phase) to obtain S/O/W emulsion by high-speed blender. The particle size distribution, zeta potential, stability of the microsphere, infrared spectral analysis, and XRD of the S/O/W calcium-lipid microsphere were explored. The stability and rheological mechanism of S/O/W calcium-lipid emulsion were investigated by combining the microstructure, shear rheological, and microrheological properties. It was found that the emulsion particles have more uniform particle size distribution and no aggregation, and the stability of the emulsion was improved with increasing the content of NaCas. The mean square displacement (MSD) curve and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLB) value of S/O/W emulsion increased with the increase in NaCas concentration, and the viscosity behavior is dominant. The results of confocal laser microscopy (CLSM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) showed that the three-dimensional network structure of S/O/W emulsions was more compact, and the embedding effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was slightly improved with the increase in NaCas concentration. According to infrared spectrum and XDR analysis, the addition of CaCO3 into the emulsion system caused crystal structure distortion. This study provides a reference for solving the dispersibility of insoluble calcium salt in liquid food. Full article
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10 pages, 1001 KiB  
Article
Alginate/Fish Gelatin-Encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus: A Study on Viability and Technological Quality of Bread during Baking and Storage
by Milad Hadidi, Nava Majidiyan, Aniseh Zarei Jelyani, Andrés Moreno, Zahra Hadian and Amin Mousavi Khanegah
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092215 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4353
Abstract
In the present study, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 was microencapsulated in sodium alginate, followed by fish gelatin coating (0.5, 1.5, and 3%). The survival of L. acidophilus in bread before and after encapsulation in alginate/fish gelatin during the baking and 7-day storage was investigated. [...] Read more.
In the present study, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 was microencapsulated in sodium alginate, followed by fish gelatin coating (0.5, 1.5, and 3%). The survival of L. acidophilus in bread before and after encapsulation in alginate/fish gelatin during the baking and 7-day storage was investigated. Moreover, the effect of alginate/fish gelatin-encapsulated L. acidophilus on the technological properties of bread (hardness, staling rate, water content, oven spring, specific volume, and internal texture structure) was evaluated. Compared with control (free bacteria), encapsulated L. acidophilus in alginate/fish gelatin showed an increase in the viability of bread until 2.49 and 3.07 log CFU/g during baking and storage, respectively. Good viability of (106 CFU/g) for probiotic in encapsulated L. acidophilus in alginate/fish gelatin (1.5 and 3%, respectively) after 4-day storage was achieved. Fish gelatin as a second-layer carrier of the bacteria had a positive effect on improving the technical quality of bread. Furthermore, the staling rate of bread containing encapsulated L. acidophilus alginate/fish gelatin 0.5, 1.5, and 3% decreased by 19.5, 25.8, and 31.7%, respectively. Overall, the findings suggested encapsulation of L. acidophilus in alginate/fish gelatin capsule had great potential to improve probiotic bacteria’s survival during baking and storage and to serve as an effective bread enhancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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23 pages, 5487 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effect of Enzyme Hydrolysis and Microwave Reactor Pretreatment as an Efficient Procedure for Gluten Content Reduction
by Ivana Gazikalović, Jelena Mijalković, Nataša Šekuljica, Sonja Jakovetić Tanasković, Aleksandra Đukić Vuković, Ljiljana Mojović and Zorica Knežević-Jugović
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092214 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the effects of microwave irradiation of wheat gluten proteins as a pretreatment performed in a microwave reactor that could accurately control process parameters as a function of power and temperature, as well as comparing it with conventional heat [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the effects of microwave irradiation of wheat gluten proteins as a pretreatment performed in a microwave reactor that could accurately control process parameters as a function of power and temperature, as well as comparing it with conventional heat treatment. The aim was to identify suitable combinations of partial enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave pretreatment parameters to produce gluten hydrolysates with reduced allergenicity and conserved techno-functional features for food application. FTIR analysis, and total and reactive SH group contents confirmed that the microwave-controlled heating can significantly change the secondary structure and conformation of gluten protein. The microwave treatment had the largest effect at 200 W and 100 °C, at which the content of gluten has been reduced by about 2.5-fold. The microwave pretreatment also accelerated the enzymatic hydrolysis of gluten, changing the kinetic profile. The apparent hydrolysis rate constants (k2) were 1.00, 3.68, 3.48, 4.64 and 4.17 min−1 for untreated gluten, and those pretreated with microwave power of 200, 400, 600 and 800 W, respectively. Compared to the heat treatment, it appeared that microwave specific non-thermal effects had a significant influence on the gluten structure and allergenicity and, in combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis, ultimately yielded protein hydrolysates with enhanced antioxidant and functional properties. Full article
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28 pages, 1461 KiB  
Review
Food Metabolites as Tools for Authentication, Processing, and Nutritive Value Assessment
by Mariana C. Pedrosa, Laíres Lima, Sandrina Heleno, Márcio Carocho, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092213 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4053
Abstract
Secondary metabolites are molecules with unlimited applications that have been gaining importance in various industries and studied from many angles. They are mainly used for their bioactive capabilities, but due to the improvement of sensibility in analytical chemistry, they are also used for [...] Read more.
Secondary metabolites are molecules with unlimited applications that have been gaining importance in various industries and studied from many angles. They are mainly used for their bioactive capabilities, but due to the improvement of sensibility in analytical chemistry, they are also used for authentication and as a quality control parameter for foods, further allowing to help avoid food adulteration and food fraud, as well as helping understand the nutritional value of foods. This manuscript covers the examples of secondary metabolites that have been used as qualitative and authentication molecules in foods, from production, through processing and along their shelf-life. Furthermore, perspectives of analytical chemistry and their contribution to metabolite detection and general perspectives of metabolomics are also discussed. Full article
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19 pages, 2222 KiB  
Article
Volatile Components and Preliminary Antibacterial Activity of Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.)
by Tung Thanh Diep, Michelle Ji Yeon Yoo, Chris Pook, Saeedeh Sadooghy-Saraby, Abhishek Gite and Elaine Rush
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092212 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
Tamarillo is a nutrient-dense fruit with a unique aroma from its volatile compounds (VCs). In this study, we aimed to compare the volatile profiles: (i) of fresh and freeze-dried tamarillo; (ii) detected using Thermal Desorption–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) and Solid-Phase MicroExtraction–Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry [...] Read more.
Tamarillo is a nutrient-dense fruit with a unique aroma from its volatile compounds (VCs). In this study, we aimed to compare the volatile profiles: (i) of fresh and freeze-dried tamarillo; (ii) detected using Thermal Desorption–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) and Solid-Phase MicroExtraction–Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS); (iii) of freeze-dried pulp and peel of New Zealand grown tamarillo. The possible antibacterial activity of freeze-dried tamarillo extracts was also investigated. We show that freeze-drying maintained most of the VCs, with some being more concentrated with the loss of water. The most abundant VC in both fresh and freeze-dried tamarillo was hexanoic acid methyl ester for pulp (30% and 37%, respectively), and (E)-3-Hexen-1-ol for peel (36% and 29%, respectively). With the use of TD–GC–MS, 82 VCs were detected for the first time, when compared to SPME–GC–MS. Methional was the main contributor to the overall aroma in both peel (15.4 ± 4.2 μg/g DW) and pulp (118 ± 8.1 μg/g DW). Compared to water as the control, tamarillo extracts prepared by water and methanol extraction showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus with zone of inhibition of at least 13.5 mm. These results suggest that freeze-dried tamarillo has a potential for use as a natural preservative to enhance aroma and shelf life of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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13 pages, 5282 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Effect of ε-Polylysine against Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli in Tryptic Soy Broth and Chicken Juice
by Do-Un Lee, Yeong Jin Park, Hwan Hee Yu, Suk-Chae Jung, Jung-Hee Park, Dae-Hee Lee, Na-Kyoung Lee and Hyun-Dong Paik
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092211 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
ε-Polylysine (ε-PL) is a safe food additive that is used in the food industry globally. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of antibacterial peptides (ε-PL) against food poisoning pathogens detected in chicken (Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli [...] Read more.
ε-Polylysine (ε-PL) is a safe food additive that is used in the food industry globally. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of antibacterial peptides (ε-PL) against food poisoning pathogens detected in chicken (Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli). The results showed that minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged between 0.031–1.0 mg/mL, although most bacterial groups (75%) showed MICs of 1.0 mg/mL. The reduction in the cell viability of pathogens due to ε-PL depended on the time and concentration, and 1/2 × MIC of ε-PL killed 99.99% of pathogens after 10 h of incubation. To confirm biofilm inhibition and degradation effects, crystal violet assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used. The biofilm formation rates of four bacterial groups (Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, and multi-species bacteria) were 10.36%, 9.10%, 17.44%, and 21.37% at 1/2 × MIC of ε-PL, respectively. Additionally, when observed under a CLSM, ε-PL was found to induce biofilm destruction and bacterial cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that ε-PL has the potential to be used as an antibiotic and antibiofilm material for chicken meat processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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18 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Quality and Safety Assessment of Edible Seaweeds Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima Cultivated in Scotland
by Anastasia E. Lytou, Eirini Schoina, Yunge Liu, Kati Michalek, Michele S. Stanley, Efstathios Z. Panagou and George-John E. Nychas
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092210 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4171
Abstract
Within Europe over the last 10 years, there has been an increase in seaweeds cultivated for human consumption. For food safety reasons, it is important to assess the microbiological and nutritional quality of the biomass. The fresh and dried edible seaweeds Alaria esculenta [...] Read more.
Within Europe over the last 10 years, there has been an increase in seaweeds cultivated for human consumption. For food safety reasons, it is important to assess the microbiological and nutritional quality of the biomass. The fresh and dried edible seaweeds Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima were assessed over two consecutive years for the presence of microorganisms. Seaweed samples supplied from Scotland were stored under isothermal conditions for specific time intervals depending on the sample’s condition (fresh, dried or rehydrated). During storage, microbiological analyses were performed for the enumeration of Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp., as well as yeasts and molds. Additionally, bacterial colonies from the Marine Agar growth medium were isolated and subjected to PCR-RAPD analysis for characterization of the bacterial diversity of seaweeds. Bacterial isolates with different fingerprint patterns were further subjected to sequencing (16S rDNA, V1–V4 region). The presence of human pathogenic bacteria was also investigated. Results showed that the initial population of TVC was differentiated depending on the year of seaweed harvest, being closer to the enumeration limit (1.0 log CFU/g) in fresh samples from 2020 and higher in samples from 2019 (6.7 and 3.9 log CFU/g in A. esculenta and S. latissima, respectively). DNA-based analysis revealed the presence of Psychrobacter, Cobetia and Pseudomonas species in A. esculenta, while Psychrobacter and Micrococcus species were present in S. latissima. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seafood Products: Bioactive Compounds and Quality Improvement)
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9 pages, 1126 KiB  
Communication
Is FOP Nutrition Label Nutri-Score Well Understood by Consumers When Comparing the Nutritional Quality of Added Fats, and Does It Negatively Impact the Image of Olive Oil?
by Morgane Fialon, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nancy Babio, Mathilde Touvier, Serge Hercberg and Pilar Galan
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092209 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 8169
Abstract
It has been suggested that the current ranking of olive oil by Nutri-Score (C) is not in line with its nutritional quality and could have a negative impact on the sales and consumption of olive oil, especially compared to other added fats with [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that the current ranking of olive oil by Nutri-Score (C) is not in line with its nutritional quality and could have a negative impact on the sales and consumption of olive oil, especially compared to other added fats with lower nutritional qualities One of the objectives of this study is to investigate consumers’ understanding of Nutri-Score when comparing the nutritional quality of added fats, and to test whether or not Nutri-Score has a negative impact on the image and the choice of olive oil in a sample of Spanish consumers. A cross-sectional study of 486 Spanish adults (mean age ± SD: 45.8 ± 14.0 years; 48.6% women) was conducted. Subjects were recruited through a web panel provider to participate in an online questionnaire. Almost 80% of participants declared that Nutri-Score was useful for recognizing the differences in nutritional quality between the eight added fats presented in the study; 89.1% rightly identified that olive oil was among the added fats with the best nutritional quality (vs. 4.1% for rapeseed oil (Nutri-Score C), and less than 3% for other added fats (Nutri-Score D or E)). When asked about which added fat they would buy more frequently, 86.2% of participants selected olive oil. Then, after being reminded that among added fats, the Nutri-Score C given to olive oil was the best grade, a majority of participants declared that they would keep consuming olive oil as much as before (71.4%). Finally, almost 78% of participants thought that Nutri-Score should be displayed on olive oil. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that displaying Nutri-Score on olive oil was well accepted and understood by a large majority of participants who appeared to accept the current ranking of the Nutri-Score for olive oil (Nutri-Score C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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