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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 382 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fruit and vegetable beverages are a convenient way to enhance the consumption of horticultural commodities, with the possibility to be supplemented with plant by-products enhancing their bioactive compounds content. Fortification could be performed with several strategies: physical elicitors, plant extract supplementation, and fermentation with probiotics, among others. Green non-thermal technologies (UV, high-pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasounds, cold plasma, etc.) are widely investigated to reduce costs and make more sustainable production processes without affecting the nutritional and sensory quality, while preserving food safety. Such processing technologies may even enhance the phytochemicals content through an improvement of their extraction and bioaccessibility. View this paper
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Article
Rapid Detection of Thermal Treatment of Honey by Chemometrics-Assisted FTIR Spectroscopy
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112892 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
Honey, as a nutritious natural sweetener produced by honeybees, offers a unique biochemical composition with great benefit to human health. Transportation and storage conditions as well as violations of processing can lead to decomposition of vitamins, destruction of the integrity of the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Honey, as a nutritious natural sweetener produced by honeybees, offers a unique biochemical composition with great benefit to human health. Transportation and storage conditions as well as violations of processing can lead to decomposition of vitamins, destruction of the integrity of the antioxidant components and enzymes, and further biochemical changes with impact on nutritional quality. We developed a fast detection method of adulterations or changes of honey caused by thermal exposure, which does not require any sample pretreatment. By Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, supported by chemometrics methods, we investigated three types of raw honey before and after heat treatment for varying exposure times at different temperatures. Applying principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis to the preprocessed spectroscopic data, allowed us to discriminate raw honey from thermally altered ones even at low temperatures of 40 °C with high accuracies ≥90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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Review
The Beneficial Effect of Coarse Cereals on Chronic Diseases through Regulating Gut Microbiota
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112891 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In recent years, chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders have been the leading causes of incapacity and death globally. Increasing evidence suggests that improvements of lifestyle habits and diet is the most commonly adopted strategy for the prevention of [...] Read more.
In recent years, chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders have been the leading causes of incapacity and death globally. Increasing evidence suggests that improvements of lifestyle habits and diet is the most commonly adopted strategy for the prevention of chronic disorders. Moreover, many dietary compounds have revealed health-promoting benefits beyond their nutritional effects. It is worth noting that diet plays an important role in shaping the intestinal microbiota. Coarse cereals constitute important sources of nutrients for the gut microbiota and contribute to a healthy gut microbiome. Furthermore, the gut microbiota converts coarse cereals into functional substances and mediates the interaction between the host and these components. In this study, we summarize the recent findings concerning functional components of cereal grains and their potential chemopreventive activity via modulating the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ingredients in Minor Grain Crops)
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Article
Cooking African Pumpkin Leaves (Momordica balsamina L.) by Stir-Frying Improved Bioactivity and Bioaccessibility of Metabolites—Metabolomic and Chemometric Approaches
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112890 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
The leaves of African pumpkins (Momordica balsamina L.) are a commonly consumed traditional vegetable. They are a good source of polyphenolic antioxidants and carotenoids, which are, however, affected by cooking or digestion. We investigated the effect of household cooking methods (stir-frying or [...] Read more.
The leaves of African pumpkins (Momordica balsamina L.) are a commonly consumed traditional vegetable. They are a good source of polyphenolic antioxidants and carotenoids, which are, however, affected by cooking or digestion. We investigated the effect of household cooking methods (stir-frying or boiling) on the changes in bioactive metabolites, antioxidant capacity, release and accessibility of β-carotene and also inhibition of inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes during in vitro digestion of African pumpkin leaves compared to the raw leaves. Compared to boiled or raw leaves, stir-frying improved the availability of bioactive metabolites at the gastrointestinal phase. Quercetin 3-galactoside and rhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (marker compounds) discriminated the stir-fried leaves from raw leaves and boiled leaves after digestion. Stir-frying improved the release and accessibility of β-carotene and enhanced the antioxidant activities compared to boiling. Dialysable fractions of stir-fried leaves exhibited the greatest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes compared to the raw and boiled leaves, as well as acarbose. Stir-frying, therefore, is recommended for use in household cooking to benefit consumers by increasing the intake of phenolics and β-carotene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Review
Food Informatics—Review of the Current State-of-the-Art, Revised Definition, and Classification into the Research Landscape
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112889 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Background: The increasing population of humans, changing food consumption behavior, as well as the recent developments in the awareness for food sustainability, lead to new challenges for the production of food. Advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing population of humans, changing food consumption behavior, as well as the recent developments in the awareness for food sustainability, lead to new challenges for the production of food. Advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, including Machine Learning and data analytics, might help to account for these challenges. Scope and Approach: Several research perspectives, among them Precision Agriculture, Industrial IoT, Internet of Food, or Smart Health, already provide new opportunities through digitalization. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art of the mentioned concepts. An additional concept is Food Informatics, which so far is mostly recognized as a mainly data-driven approach to support the production of food. In this review paper, we propose and discuss a new perspective for the concept of Food Informatics as a supportive discipline that subsumes the incorporation of information technology, mainly IoT and AI, in order to support the variety of aspects tangent to the food production process and delineate it from other, existing research streams in the domain. Key Findings and Conclusions: Many different concepts related to the digitalization in food science overlap. Further, Food Informatics is vaguely defined. In this paper, we provide a clear definition of Food Informatics and delineate it from related concepts. We corroborate our new perspective on Food Informatics by presenting several case studies about how it can support the food production as well as the intermediate steps until its consumption, and further describe its integration with related concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Untargeted Headspace-Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry in Combination with Chemometrics for Detecting the Age of Chinese Liquor (Baijiu)
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112888 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
This paper proposes the combination of headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) and chemometrics as a method to detect the age of Chinese liquor (Baijiu). Headspace conditions were optimized through single-factor optimization experiments. The optimal sample preparation involved diluting Baijiu with saturated brine to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes the combination of headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) and chemometrics as a method to detect the age of Chinese liquor (Baijiu). Headspace conditions were optimized through single-factor optimization experiments. The optimal sample preparation involved diluting Baijiu with saturated brine to 15% alcohol by volume. The sample was equilibrated at 70 °C for 30 min, and then analyzed with 200 μL of headspace gas. A total of 39 Baijiu samples from different vintages (1998–2019) were collected directly from pottery jars and analyzed using HS-GC-IMS. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to establish two discriminant models based on the 212 signal peaks and the 93 identified compounds. Although both models were valid, the model based on the 93 identified compounds discriminated the ages of the samples more accurately according to the goodness of fit value (R2) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), which were 0.9986 and 0.244, respectively. Nineteen compounds with variable importance for prediction (VIP) scores > 1, including 11 esters, 4 alcohols, and 4 aldehydes, played vital roles in the model established by the 93 identified compounds. Overall, we determined that HS-GC-IMS combined with PLSR could serve as a rapid and accurate method for detecting the age of Baijiu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Characterization of Foods and Beverages)
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Article
Diverse Krill Lipid Fractions Differentially Reduce LPS-Induced Inflammatory Markers in RAW264.7 Macrophages In Vitro
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112887 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Antarctic krill oil is an emerging marine lipid and expected to be a potential functional food due to its diverse nutrients, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phospholipids, astaxanthin and tocopherols. Although krill oil has been previously proved to have anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Antarctic krill oil is an emerging marine lipid and expected to be a potential functional food due to its diverse nutrients, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phospholipids, astaxanthin and tocopherols. Although krill oil has been previously proved to have anti-inflammatory activity, there is little information about the relationship between its chemical compositions and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, the RAW264.7 macrophages model was used to elucidate and compare the anti-inflammatory potential of different krill lipid fractions: KLF-A, KLF-H and KLF-E, which have increasing phospholipids, EPA and DHA contents but decreasing astaxanthin and tocopherols levels. Results showed that all the krill lipid fractions alleviated the inflammatory reaction by inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO), release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and gene expression of proinflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, KLF-E with the highest phospholipids, EPA and DHA contents showed the strongest inhibition effect on the LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator release and their gene expressions. The results would be helpful to provide powerful insights into the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism of krill lipid and guiding the production of krill oil products with tailor-made anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Delivery System and Functional Food)
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Article
The Use of Electronic Nose as Alternative Non-Destructive Technique to Discriminate Flavored and Unflavored Olive Oils
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112886 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Cv. Arbequina extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) were flavored with cinnamon, garlic, and rosemary and characterized. Although flavoring significantly affected the physicochemical quality parameters, all oils fulfilled the legal thresholds for EVOO classification. Flavoring increased (20 to 40%) the total phenolic contents, whereas [...] Read more.
Cv. Arbequina extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) were flavored with cinnamon, garlic, and rosemary and characterized. Although flavoring significantly affected the physicochemical quality parameters, all oils fulfilled the legal thresholds for EVOO classification. Flavoring increased (20 to 40%) the total phenolic contents, whereas oxidative stability was dependent on the flavoring agent (a slight increase for rosemary and a decrease for cinnamon and garlic). Flavoring also had a significant impact on the sensory profiles. Unflavored oils, cinnamon, and garlic flavored oils had a fruity-ripe sensation while rosemary flavored oils were fruity-green oils. Fruit-related sensations, perceived in unflavored oils, disappeared with flavoring. Flavoring decreased the sweetness, enhanced the bitterness, and did not influence the pungency of the oils. According to the EU regulations, flavored oils cannot be commercialized as EVOO. Thus, to guarantee the legal labelling requirement and to meet the expectations of the market-specific consumers for differentiated olive oils, a lab-made electronic nose was applied. The device successfully discriminated unflavored from flavored oils and identified the type of flavoring agent (90 ± 10% of correct classifications for the repeated K-fold cross-validation method). Thus, the electronic nose could be used as a practical non-destructive preliminary classification tool for recognizing olive oils’ flavoring practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Communication
Instrumental and Sensory Characteristics of Commercial Korean Rice Noodles
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112885 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
In this study, the rheological properties of several commercial rice noodle strands were investigated. In the bending test, failure stress decreased as the cooking temperature increased from 80 to 90 °C, and the cooking time increased from 3 to 4 min for higher [...] Read more.
In this study, the rheological properties of several commercial rice noodle strands were investigated. In the bending test, failure stress decreased as the cooking temperature increased from 80 to 90 °C, and the cooking time increased from 3 to 4 min for higher rice content noodles (>60%). The stress–relaxation test and sensory tests were carried out with bundles of noodles to investigate correlations with the bending test. The modulus of elasticity was higher at 80 than 90 °C. However, no correlation was found between cooking temperature and the rheological properties of lower rice content noodles. In the stress relaxation test, the deviation was larger due to the empty space in the bundle. In the correlation analysis, sensory stickiness was correlated with a modulus of elasticity in the bending test. Comparing the bending and stress–relaxation tests, each instrumental variable showed differences in the rheological properties of rice noodles in strands and bundles. However, the bending test measured with noodle strands seemed to be most suitable as a method of measuring the rheological properties of rice noodles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Effects of Ultrasound Technology on the Qualitative Properties of Italian Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112884 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
The development of innovative technologies in the mechanical extraction process of extra virgin olive oil can improve its quality standards through the modulation of physical, chemical and biochemical processes. Extra virgin olive oil quality and varietal differentiation are influenced by many factors, particularly [...] Read more.
The development of innovative technologies in the mechanical extraction process of extra virgin olive oil can improve its quality standards through the modulation of physical, chemical and biochemical processes. Extra virgin olive oil quality and varietal differentiation are influenced by many factors, particularly the extraction. The use of ultrasound technology in the extraction process does not affect the quality, the composition, and the thermal properties of the oil, facilitating its separation from solids, and it allows the release of active compounds from the olive paste, with a positive influence on the phenolic content. In this study, the impact of ultrasound technologies was evaluated on merceological parameters, quality profile, and organoleptic features of extra virgin olive oils extracted from whole and destoned olives of the three main Italian cultivars (i.e., Peranzana, Canino, and Coratina). The parameters analyzed were influenced by both genotype and treatment, in particular, sonication did not lead to significant changes in the nutraceutical profile of the oils. The de-stoned olives were able to determine a great improvement of oil quality both for phenolic and volatile composition with a significant enhancement of health and sensory properties of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of 17 Qualities of 84 Types of Rice Based on Principal Component Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112883 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Rice quality is a complex indicator, and people are paying more and more attention to the quality of rice. Therefore, we used seven rice varieties for twelve nitrogen fertilizer treatments and obtained eighty-four rice types with seventeen qualities. It was found that 17 [...] Read more.
Rice quality is a complex indicator, and people are paying more and more attention to the quality of rice. Therefore, we used seven rice varieties for twelve nitrogen fertilizer treatments and obtained eighty-four rice types with seventeen qualities. It was found that 17 quality traits had different coefficients of variation. Among them, the coefficient of variation of chalkiness and protein content was the largest, 44.60% and 17.89% respectively. The cluster analysis method was used to define four categories of different rice qualities. The principal component analysis method was used to comprehensively evaluate 17 qualities of 84 rice. It was found that rice quality was better under low nitrogen conditions, Huanghuazhan and Lvyinzhan were easier to obtain better comprehensive rice quality during cultivation. Future rice research should focus on reducing protein content and increasing peak viscosity. Full article
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Article
Investigation of the Maturity Evaluation Indicator of Honey in Natural Ripening Process: The Case of Rape Honey
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112882 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 892
Abstract
Honey maturity, a critical factor for quality evaluation, is difficult to detect in the current industry research. The objective of this study was to explore the changes in the composition and find potential maturity indicators of rape honey at different maturity stages through [...] Read more.
Honey maturity, a critical factor for quality evaluation, is difficult to detect in the current industry research. The objective of this study was to explore the changes in the composition and find potential maturity indicators of rape honey at different maturity stages through evaluating physicochemical parameters (moisture, sugars, pH, electrical conductivity, total protein, total phenols, total flavonoids, proline, and enzyme activity), the antioxidant capacity, and volatile components. The relevant results are as follows: 1. As the maturity increased, the moisture, sucrose, and maltose content of rape honey gradually decreased, while the glucose, fructose, and total protein content gradually increased. The activities of diastase, invertase, and β-glucosidase showed a significant increase with the elevation of ripening days, and the activity of glucose oxidase reached the highest before completely capping. 2. The antioxidant capacity of honey increased with the increase in honey maturity. There is a significant and strong correlation between the bioactive components of rape honey and antioxidant capacity (p < 0.01, |r| > 0.857). 3. Thirty-five volatile components have been identified. Nonanal, benzaldehyde monomer, and benzaldehyde dimer can be used as potential indicators for the identification of honey maturity stages. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on antioxidant parameters and volatile components can identify the maturity of honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Effect of Water Temperature and Time during Heating on Mass Loss and Rheology of Cheese Curds
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112881 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
During the manufacturing of mozzarella, cheese curds are heated to the desired stretching temperature traditionally by immersion in water, which influences the curd characteristics before stretching, and consequently the final cheese properties. In this study, cheese curds were immersed in hot water at [...] Read more.
During the manufacturing of mozzarella, cheese curds are heated to the desired stretching temperature traditionally by immersion in water, which influences the curd characteristics before stretching, and consequently the final cheese properties. In this study, cheese curds were immersed in hot water at 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C up to 16 min and the kinetics of mass loss and changes of rheological properties were investigated. The total mass of cooked curds increased up to 10% during the first minute, independent of the temperature, as a consequence of water retention. Fat was the main component lost into the cooking water (<3.5% w/w), while the concentration of protein increased up to 3.4% (w/w) compared to uncooked curds due to the loss of other components. Curds macrostructure during cooking showed that curds fully fuse at 70 °C/4 min; 80 °C/2 min and 90 °C/1 min, while after intensive cooking (>8 min) they lost the ability to fuse as a consequence of protein contraction and fat loss. Storage modulus, representing the curd strength, was dependent on cooking temperature and positively, and linearly, correlated with curd protein content (21.7–24.9%). This work shows the potential to modify curd composition and structure, which will have consequences for further processing and final product properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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Article
Emoji for Food and Beverage Research: Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance Meanings and Appropriateness for Use
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112880 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Emoji have been argued to have considerable potential for emotion research but are struggling with uptake in part because knowledge about their meaning is lacking. The present research included 24 emoji (14 facial, 10 non-facial) which were characterized using the PAD model (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) [...] Read more.
Emoji have been argued to have considerable potential for emotion research but are struggling with uptake in part because knowledge about their meaning is lacking. The present research included 24 emoji (14 facial, 10 non-facial) which were characterized using the PAD model (Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance) of human affect by 165 consumers in New Zealand and 861 consumers in the UK. The results from the two countries were remarkably similar and contributed further evidence that emoji are suitable for cross-cultural research. While significant differences between the emoji were established for each of the PAD dimensions, the mean scores differed most on the Pleasure dimension (positive to negative), then on the Arousal dimension (activated to deactivated), and lastly on the Dominance dimension (dominance to submissive). The research also directly measured the perceived appropriateness of the 24 emoji for use with foods and beverages. The emoji face savoring food, clapping hands and party popper were in the top-5 for the highest appropriateness in food and beverage context for both studies, as was a strong negative expression linked to rejection (Study 1: face vomiting; Study 2: nauseated face). On the other hand, zzz and oncoming fist were considered as the least appropriate to be used in a food and beverage context in both studies. Again, the results from the UK and NZ were in good agreement and identified similar groups of emoji as most and least suitable for food-related consumer research. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Feeding Chicken and Geese Broilers with Different Cereals on the Fatty Acids Profile in Meat
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112879 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The research was conducted on the effect of bird broilers fed with different hybrid rye doses on the fatty acids profile in muscle. The first experiment was performed on 3 geese broilers groups fed with hybrid rye, oats or hybrid rye and oats [...] Read more.
The research was conducted on the effect of bird broilers fed with different hybrid rye doses on the fatty acids profile in muscle. The first experiment was performed on 3 geese broilers groups fed with hybrid rye, oats or hybrid rye and oats mix in proportion 1:1. No effect of the hybrid rye feeding of geese on the SFA level in meat was observed, but the MUFA level was significantly higher and PUFA level and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio were significantly lower than in geese fed with oats. The second experiment was performed on 3 chicken broiler groups fed with mix of corn, wheat, soybean meal and rapeseed oil (control group), and fed with an addition of 10% or 20% hybrid rye in diet (experimental groups). No effect of hybrid rye feeding of chicken broilers on the meat quality and SFA level was observed. However, the MUFA level was higher and the PUFA level and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio were lower in meat of chicken broilers fed with hybrid rye. In conclusion hybrid rye is a healthy ingredient in the diet of studied birds and may be used up to 20% in chicken broilers and 50% in the diets of geese. A 100% hybrid rye in geese diet caused lower final body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
Review
An Integrative View of the Role of Lachancea thermotolerans in Wine Technology
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112878 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The interest in Lachancea thermotolerans, a yeast species with unusual characteristics, has notably increased in all ecological, evolutionary, and industrial aspects. One of the key characteristics of L. thermotolerans is the production of high quantities of lactic acid compared to other yeast [...] Read more.
The interest in Lachancea thermotolerans, a yeast species with unusual characteristics, has notably increased in all ecological, evolutionary, and industrial aspects. One of the key characteristics of L. thermotolerans is the production of high quantities of lactic acid compared to other yeast species. Its evolution has mainly been driven by the influence of the environment and domestication, allowing several metabolic traits to arise. The molecular regulation of the fermentative process in L. thermotolerans shows interesting routes that play a complementary or protective role against fermentative stresses. One route that is activated under this condition is involved in the production of lactic acid, presenting a complete system for its production, showing the involvement of several enzymes and transporters. In winemaking, the use of L. thermotolerans is nowadays mostly focused in early–medium-maturity grape varieties, in which over-ripening can produce wines lacking acidity and with high concentrations of ethanol. Recent studies have reported new positive influences on quality apart from lactic acid acidification, such as improvements in color, glutathione production, aroma, malic acid, polysaccharides, or specific enzymatic activities that constitute interesting new criteria for selecting better strains. This positive influence on winemaking has increased the availability of commercial strains during recent years, allowing comparisons among some of those products. Initially, the management of L. thermotolerans was thought to be combined with Saccaharomyces cerevisiae to properly end alcoholic fermentation, but new studies are innovating and reporting combinations with other key enological microorganisms such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Oenocous oeni, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, or other non-Saccharomyces. Full article
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Brief Report
Potential Biological Activities of Peptides Generated during Casein Proteolysis by Curly Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica L.) Leaf Extract: An In Silico Preliminary Study
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112877 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 635
Abstract
This study is a brief report on the proteolytic activity of curly kale leaf extract against casein. Casein degradation products and an in silico analysis of the biological activity of the peptides obtained was performed. The efficiency of casein hydrolysis by curly kale [...] Read more.
This study is a brief report on the proteolytic activity of curly kale leaf extract against casein. Casein degradation products and an in silico analysis of the biological activity of the peptides obtained was performed. The efficiency of casein hydrolysis by curly kale extract was determined using SDS–PAGE and by peptide concentration determination. The pattern of the enzymatic activity was determined by MALDI–TOF MS analysis. The results showed that α- and β-casein were more resistant to curly kale extract hydrolysis, whereas κ-casein was absent in the protein profile after 8 h of proteolysis, and all casein fractions were completely hydrolyzed after 24 h of incubation. Based on sequence analysis, seven peptides were identified, with molecular mass in the range of 1151–3024 Da. All the peptides were products of β-casein hydrolysis. The identified amino acid sequences were analyzed in BIOPEP, MBPDB, and FeptideDB databases in order to detect the potential activities of the peptides. In silico analysis suggests that the β-casein-derived peptides possess sequences of peptides with ACE inhibitory, antioxidant, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, and antiamnesic bioactivity. Our study was first to evaluate the possibility of applying curly kale leaf extract to generate biopeptides through β-casein hydrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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Article
Characterization of Vegetative Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Processed Cheese Products in an Italian Dairy Plant
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112876 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
Processed cheese is a commercial product characterized by high microbiological stability and extended shelf life obtained through the application of severe heat treatment. However, spore-forming bacteria can survive through thermal processes. Among them, microorganisms belonging to Bacillus genus have been reported. In this [...] Read more.
Processed cheese is a commercial product characterized by high microbiological stability and extended shelf life obtained through the application of severe heat treatment. However, spore-forming bacteria can survive through thermal processes. Among them, microorganisms belonging to Bacillus genus have been reported. In this study, we examined the microbiological population of the first hours’ production of processed cheeses in an Italian dairy plant during two seasons, between June and October 2020. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify bacteria colonies, allowing the isolation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis strains. These results were further confirmed by amplification and sequencing of 16 rRNA bacterial region. A multi-locus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed to assess the genetic similarity among a selection of isolates. The fourteen B. cereus strains showed two sequence types: ST-32 was observed in only one strain and the ST-371 in the remaining thirteen isolates. On the contrary, all twenty-one B. subtlis strains, included in the study, showed a new allelic profile for the pycA gene, resulting in a new sequence type: ST-249. For B. cereus strains, analysis of toxin genes was performed. All isolates were positive for nheABC, entFM, and cytK, while hblABCD, bceT, and ces were not detected. Moreover, the biofilm-forming ability of B. cereus and B. subtilis strains was assessed, and all selected isolates proved to be biofilm formers (most of them were stronger producers). Considering the genetical similarity between isolates, jointly with the capacity to produce biofilm, the presence of a recurring Bacillus population could be hypothesized. Full article
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Article
Identification of Mammalian and Poultry Species in Food and Pet Food Samples Using 16S rDNA Metabarcoding
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112875 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
The substitution of more appreciated animal species by animal species of lower commercial value is a common type of meat product adulteration. DNA metabarcoding, the combination of DNA barcoding with next-generation sequencing (NGS), plays an increasing role in food authentication. In the present [...] Read more.
The substitution of more appreciated animal species by animal species of lower commercial value is a common type of meat product adulteration. DNA metabarcoding, the combination of DNA barcoding with next-generation sequencing (NGS), plays an increasing role in food authentication. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of a DNA metabarcoding method for routine analysis of mammalian and poultry species in food and pet food products. We analyzed a total of 104 samples (25 reference samples, 56 food products and 23 pet food products) by DNA metabarcoding and by using a commercial DNA array and/or by real-time PCR. The qualitative and quantitative results obtained by the DNA metabarcoding method were in line with those obtained by PCR. Results from the independent analysis of a subset of seven reference samples in two laboratories demonstrate the robustness and reproducibility of the DNA metabarcoding method. DNA metabarcoding is particularly suitable for detecting unexpected species ignored by targeted methods such as real-time PCR and can also be an attractive alternative with respect to the expenses as indicated by current data from the cost accounting of the AGES laboratory. Our results for the commercial samples show that in addition to food products, DNA metabarcoding is particularly applicable to pet food products, which frequently contain multiple animal species and are also highly prone to adulteration as indicated by the high portion of analyzed pet food products containing undeclared species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques for Food Authentication: Trends and Emerging Approaches)
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Review
Challenges for Upcycled Foods: Definition, Inclusion in the Food Waste Management Hierarchy and Public Acceptability
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112874 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Upcycled foods contain unmarketable ingredients (e.g., damaged food produce, by-products and scraps from food preparation) that otherwise would not be directed for human consumption. Upcycled food is a new food category and thus faces several challenges, such as definition development, inclusion in the [...] Read more.
Upcycled foods contain unmarketable ingredients (e.g., damaged food produce, by-products and scraps from food preparation) that otherwise would not be directed for human consumption. Upcycled food is a new food category and thus faces several challenges, such as definition development, inclusion in the food waste management hierarchy and public acceptability. This review provides an overview of these three challenges. The upcycled food definitions have been developed for research, food manufacturers, and multi-stakeholders use. Thus, there is a need for a consumer-friendly definition for the general public. A simplified definition is proposed to introduce these foods as environmentally friendly foods containing safe ingredients that otherwise would not have gone to human consumption such as damaged food produce, by-products and scraps from food preparation. Moreover, an updated version of the food waste management hierarchy has been proposed by including the production of upcycled foods as a separate waste management action that is less preferable than redistribution but more favourable than producing animal feed. Furthermore, consumer sociodemographic characteristics and beliefs, as well as food quality cues and attributes, were identified as crucial factors for the public acceptability of these foods. Future research should address these challenges to facilitate the introduction of upcycled foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Recycling of Food Waste and Its Valorisation)
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Article
Bitter Gourd Honey Ameliorates Hepatic and Renal Diabetic Complications on Type 2 Diabetes Rat Models by Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Apoptotic Mechanisms
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112872 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Honey has several pharmacological effects, including anti-diabetic activity. However, the effectiveness of bitter gourd honey (BGH) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of BGH on the [...] Read more.
Honey has several pharmacological effects, including anti-diabetic activity. However, the effectiveness of bitter gourd honey (BGH) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of BGH on the kidney and liver of a streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model. Methods: A single dose (nicotinamide 110 mg/kg, streptozotocin (STZ) 55 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) was used to induce DM in male rats. For 28 days, normal or diabetic rats were administered 1 g/kg/day and 2 g/kg/day of BGH orally. After the treatment, blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected and analysed for biochemical, histological, and molecular parameters. In addition, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify the major bioactive components in BGH. Results: The administration of BGH to diabetic rats resulted in significant reductions in alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea levels. Diabetic rats treated with BGH showed lesser pathophysiological alterations in the liver and kidney as compared to non-treated control rats. BGH-treated diabetic rats exhibited reduced levels of oxidative stress (MDA levels), inflammatory (MYD88, NFKB, p-NFKB, IKKβ), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers, as well as higher levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) in the liver and kidney. BGH contains many bioactive compounds that may have antioxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Conclusion: BGH protected the liver and kidney in diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis-induced damage. As a result, BGH can be used as a potential therapy to ameliorate diabetic complications. Full article
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Article
Consumer Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Mud Crabs in Southeast Asian Countries: A Discrete Choice Experiment
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112873 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
The mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an economically important species found in the mangroves and estuaries of tropical countries and is a popular seafood product in the coastal areas of Southeast Asian markets. The aim of this study is to identify factors affecting [...] Read more.
The mud crab (Scylla serrata) is an economically important species found in the mangroves and estuaries of tropical countries and is a popular seafood product in the coastal areas of Southeast Asian markets. The aim of this study is to identify factors affecting consumer preference of mud crabs, and to understand consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for these factors in a Singapore market where imported mud crabs from other Asian countries are sold. The results showed that the country of origin matters to participants, affecting purchasing decisions, and consumers were willing to pay approximately 16.48 SGD (11.49 USD, the average price of four shops: 35.55 USD/kg for one mud crab) more if the mud crabs were from Sri Lanka if compared with Indonesian or Cambodian mud crabs. Moreover, consumers were willing to pay 25.08 SGD (17.48 USD) more if the mud crabs were alive and 13.40 SGD (9.34 USD) less if the mud crabs were frozen compared with fresh, but not alive, mud crabs. Furthermore, consumers’ preference in mud crab was associated with the consumers’ religion. Some groups of consumers preferred female mud crabs with eggs over male mud crabs, while other groups preferred male crabs. The results identified diverse consumer preference of mud crabs and, therefore, could provide new insights that are useful for sustainable consumption of mud crabs in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Discrimination of Four Cinnamomum Species with Physico-Functional Properties and Chemometric Techniques: Application of PCA and MDA Models
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112871 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Discrimination of highly valued and non-hepatotoxic Cinnamomum species (C. verum) from hepatotoxic (C. burmannii, C. loureiroi, and C. cassia) is essential for preventing food adulteration and safety problems. In this study, we developed a [...] Read more.
Discrimination of highly valued and non-hepatotoxic Cinnamomum species (C. verum) from hepatotoxic (C. burmannii, C. loureiroi, and C. cassia) is essential for preventing food adulteration and safety problems. In this study, we developed a new method for the discrimination of four Cinnamomum species using physico-functional properties and chemometric techniques. The data were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and multiclass discriminant analysis (MDA). The results showed that the cumulative variability of the first three principal components was 81.70%. The PCA score plot indicated a clear separation of the different Cinnamomum species. The training set was used to build the discriminant MDA model. The testing set was verified by this model. The prediction rate of 100% proved that the model was valid and reliable. Therefore, physico-functional properties coupled with chemometric techniques constitute a practical approach for discrimination of Cinnamomum species to prevent food fraud. Full article
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Article
Mapping Aspergillus niger Metabolite Biomarkers for In Situ and Early Evaluation of Table Grapes Contamination
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112870 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The Aspergillus niger exometabolome was recently investigated using advanced gas chromatography in tandem with multivariate analysis, which allowed a metabolite biomarker pattern to be proposed. Microbial metabolomics patterns have gained enormous relevance, mainly due to the amount of information made available, which may [...] Read more.
The Aspergillus niger exometabolome was recently investigated using advanced gas chromatography in tandem with multivariate analysis, which allowed a metabolite biomarker pattern to be proposed. Microbial metabolomics patterns have gained enormous relevance, mainly due to the amount of information made available, which may be useful in countless processes. One of the great challenges in microbial metabolomics is related to applications in more complex systems of metabolomics information obtained from studies carried out in culture media, as complications may occur due to the dynamic nature of biological systems. Thus, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the A. niger metabololite biomarkers pattern for in situ and early evaluation of table grapes contamination, used as study model. A. niger is a ubiquitous fungus responsible for food contamination, being reported as one of the main agents of the black mold disease, a serious post-harvest pathology of table grapes. This work included analysis from 1 day of growth time of pure A. niger cultures, A. niger cultures obtained from previously contaminated grapes, and finally, an in situ solid-phase microextraction (SPME) approach directly on previously contaminated table grapes. Supervised multivariate analysis was performed which revealed that after 1 day of inoculation it was possible to detect A. niger biomarkers, which can be extremely useful in making this type of method possible for the rapid detection of food contamination. The results obtained confirm the potential applicability of the pattern of A. niger biomarkers for early detection of the fungi (after 1 day of contamination), and may be further explored for access food susceptibility to fungi contamination, based on direct analysis of the food item. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
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Article
Characterization of the Volatile Compounds of Zhenba Bacon at Different Process Stages Using GC–MS and GC–IMS
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112869 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Zhenba bacon (ZB), a type of Chinese traditional bacon with a long history, has attracted considerable attention in the Southwest of China for its unique flavor. To elucidate the changing course of aroma components during the process of ZB, four stages of process [...] Read more.
Zhenba bacon (ZB), a type of Chinese traditional bacon with a long history, has attracted considerable attention in the Southwest of China for its unique flavor. To elucidate the changing course of aroma components during the process of ZB, four stages of process stages were assessed by GC–MS and GC–IMS coupled with multivariate data analysis. A total of 44 volatile compounds were identified by GC–IMS, including 5 esters, 8 alcohols, 12 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 1 furan and 2 sulfides; 40 volatile compounds were identified by GC–MS, 4 ketones, 7 phenols, 8 alcohols, 6 esters, 6 aldehydes, and 6 other compounds were detected. During the curing period, the amount and content of esters in Zhenba bacon gradually increased. Phenols appear in large quantities during the smoking period. The VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in the gallery plots were the most diverse in YZ samples, which are mainly esters. POV (peroxide value) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) showed that lipid oxidation played an important role in the formation of volatile flavor components of bacon. This study provides valuable analytical data to explain the flavor formation of Zhenba bacon. Full article
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Review
Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Sorghum Grains
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112868 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Sorghum is the fifth most commonly used cereal worldwide and is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. We summarized phenolic compounds and carotenoids, vitamin E, amines, and phytosterols in sorghum grains. Recently, with the development of detection technology, new bioactive compounds such [...] Read more.
Sorghum is the fifth most commonly used cereal worldwide and is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. We summarized phenolic compounds and carotenoids, vitamin E, amines, and phytosterols in sorghum grains. Recently, with the development of detection technology, new bioactive compounds such as formononetin, glycitein, and ononin have been detected. In addition, multiple in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that sorghum grains have extensive bio-logical activities, such as antioxidative, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiobesity properties. Finally, with the establishment of sorghum phenolic compounds database, the bound phenolics and their biological activities and the mechanisms of biological activities of sorghum bioactive compounds using clinical trials may be researched. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Ingredients in Minor Grain Crops)
Article
Evaluation of Fatty Acids Profile as a Useful Tool towards Valorization of By-Products of Agri-Food Industry
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112867 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Worldwide, the food industry generates a large number of by-products from a wide variety of sources. These by-products represent an interesting and economical source of added value components with potential functionalities and/or bioactivities, which might be explored for industrial purposes, encouraging and promoting [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the food industry generates a large number of by-products from a wide variety of sources. These by-products represent an interesting and economical source of added value components with potential functionalities and/or bioactivities, which might be explored for industrial purposes, encouraging and promoting the circular economy concept. In this context, the current work aimed to evaluate the fatty acids (FAs) profile using gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), as well as the determination of related health lipid indices (e.g., atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI)) as a powerful strategy to investigate the potential applications of different agri-food by-products for human nutrition and animal feeding. This work results showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the predominant group in grape pomace (72.7%), grape bunches (54.3%), and brewer’s spent grain (BSG, 59.0%), whereas carrot peels are dominated by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, 47.3%), and grape stems (46.2%), lees (from 50.8 to 74.1%), and potato peels (77.2%) by saturated fatty acids (SFAs). These findings represent a scientific basis for exploring the nutritional properties of agri-food by-products. Special attention should be given to grape pomace, grape bunches, and BSG since they have a high content of PUFAs (from 54.3 to 72.7%) and lower AI (from 0.11 to 0.38) and TI (from 0.30 to 0.56) indexes, suggesting their potential to provide a variety of health benefits against cardiovascular diseases including well-established hypotriglyceridemia and anti-inflammatory effects, products to which they are added. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Differences in Polyamine Content between Human Milk and Infant Formulas
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112866 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 543
Abstract
Human milk is the gold standard for nutrition during the first months of life, but when breastfeeding is not possible, it may be replaced by infant formulas, either partially or totally. Polyamines, which play an important role in intestinal maturation and the development [...] Read more.
Human milk is the gold standard for nutrition during the first months of life, but when breastfeeding is not possible, it may be replaced by infant formulas, either partially or totally. Polyamines, which play an important role in intestinal maturation and the development of the immune system, are found both in human milk and infant formulas, the first exogenous source of these compounds for the newborn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and evolution of polyamines in human milk during the first semester of lactation and to compare the polyamine content with that of infant formulas. In total, 30 samples of human milk provided by six mothers during the first five months of lactation as well as 15 different types of infant formulas were analyzed using UHPLC-FL. Polyamines were detected in all human milk samples but with great variation among mothers. Spermidine and spermine levels tended to decrease during the lactation period, while putrescine remained practically unchanged. Considerable differences were observed in the polyamine contents and profiles between human milk and infant formulas, with concentrations being up to 30 times lower in the latter. The predominant polyamines in human milk were spermidine and spermine, and putrescine in infant formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
Introducing Tempeh as a New Plant-Based Protein Food Item on the Danish Market
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112865 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Decreasing meat consumption has resulted in a need for new high-quality protein sources. Tempeh is relatively unknown in Denmark and might be capable of meeting this need. The aim of the study was to describe the success criteria for introducing locally produced tempeh [...] Read more.
Decreasing meat consumption has resulted in a need for new high-quality protein sources. Tempeh is relatively unknown in Denmark and might be capable of meeting this need. The aim of the study was to describe the success criteria for introducing locally produced tempeh and to investigate the sensory quality of three types of tempeh. Only 24% of the consumers in the survey (n = 395) used meat alternatives, which might be explained by a low level of satisfaction with availability. Tempeh was known by 26%—the less meat eaten, the greater the knowledge of tempeh. Twenty-three per cent of the consumers had positive attitudes towards tempeh. The three types of tempeh had markedly different sensory profiles. Nevertheless, the home use test showed that they could be used interchangeably in different recipes. In addition, the consumers were more positive about recipes in which tempeh did not resemble meat compared with meat-inspired recipes. In conclusion, introducing locally produced tempeh on the Danish market is possible but would require further knowledge of the product. In addition, tempeh should be sold as a tasty, high-quality protein food item in its own right. Recipes using tempeh should reflect this and not mimic meat recipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Evaluation of Marrubium vulgare Growing Wild in Tunisia for Its Potential as a Dietary Supplement
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112864 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Marrubium vulgare L., known as horehound, is a widespread and widely known plant that is used in beer breweries and also as a traditional remedy in Tunisia. In this study, methanolic extracts of plants harvested from five different locations were investigated for their [...] Read more.
Marrubium vulgare L., known as horehound, is a widespread and widely known plant that is used in beer breweries and also as a traditional remedy in Tunisia. In this study, methanolic extracts of plants harvested from five different locations were investigated for their antioxidant activities using three assays (ferric reducing power, radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay) as well as the total phenolic content. The mineral composition of the plant was also investigated concerning the following elements: Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, Mn, K, and three heavy metals, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Marrubiin, the major bioactive diterpenoid lactone, was quantified by NMR in the samples. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their radical scavenging activity was investigated. The toxicity of essential oils was evaluated against Artemia salina (the brine shrimp larva). The essential oil showed a weak radical scavenging activity and low toxicity. Data obtained from the five different locations showed that the antioxidant activity, as well as the total phenolic and marrubiin content, were strongly affected by the harvest sites. The metal content in the samples showed differences with the harvest location, but there was always a great abundance of calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Full article
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Article
Nutritional Characteristics of Black Lentil from Soleto: A Single-Flower Vetch Landrace of Apulia Region (Southern Italy)
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112863 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Archaeological remains and historical documents demonstrate that a single-flower vetch has been cultivated in Italy from the early stages of agriculture. Some Italian communities have perpetuated the custom to eat its seeds still to the present. This is the case of people living [...] Read more.
Archaeological remains and historical documents demonstrate that a single-flower vetch has been cultivated in Italy from the early stages of agriculture. Some Italian communities have perpetuated the custom to eat its seeds still to the present. This is the case of people living in some villages of the southern Apulia region. In consequence of the high resemblance of the single-flower vetch (Vicia articulata Hornem.) seeds with those of lentils, the Apulian landrace is locally named “lenticchia nera di Soleto” (black lentil from Soleto). The evaluation of seed nutritional traits of this landrace revealed good macronutrient contents (proteins and starch, 28.4 and 42.4 g/100 g respectively), low trypsin inhibitor levels (4.08 TIU/mg), short cooking times after soaking (24–25 min) and a lack of broken seeds at the end of cooking. The coat content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) of the Apulian black lentil was comparable with that of the lentil cv. Beluga (68.23 vs. 66.14 mg GAE/g, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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