Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 September 2021) | Viewed by 36902

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Guest Editor
CREA - Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, Via Manziana, 30 00189 Rome, Italy
Interests: wheat; minor cereals; cereal quality; gluten; gluten intolerances; gluten-free; pasta; cereals processing; bioactive compounds; functional foods; plant biotechnology; breeding for quality
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CREA - Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing, Via Manziana, 30 00189 Rome, Italy
Interests: wheat; cereal quality; pasta; cereals processing; cereal technology; bioactive compounds; functional foods; malt; beer; cereal pathology; vegetable milks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Dear Colleagues,

Dry pasta is one of the most popular staple foods worldwide due to its convenience in terms of affordability, versatility, long shelf life, as well as sensory and nutritional value. As such, it represents a suitable carrier for health-promoting substances providing specific physiological functions.

This Special Issue deals with the continuum aspects, “from seed to fork”, that could have an impact on the nutritional, sensory, and technological aspects of pasta. In this Special Issue, we aim to publish innovative research and review papers on physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics, nutritional value, functional and technological properties of pasta, and pasta-making processes. New raw materials, new functional ingredients, up-cycling of waste materials, in vivo experiments to test the effect of assumption of the supplemented pasta, and innovative packaging systems will also be addressed in this Special Issue. Predictions of pasta quality adopting chemometrics as well as multi-variate and statistical data analysis approaches are welcomed.

Finally, in the medium term, the international pasta market is expected to stay negative unless tangible product innovations are introduced, particularly regarding the technological innovations aimed at improving the products’ health benefits. This Special Issue aims to provide a fundamental understanding and present the current strategies to improve the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of pasta.

 

Dr. Laura Gazza
Dr. Francesca Nocente
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Pasta
  • Whole-meal
  • Gluten-free
  • Wheat sensitivity
  • Nutritional value of pasta
  • Functional pasta
  • Sensory and technological quality
  • Physico-chemical characteristics
  • Current tools for pasta quality prediction
  • Omics of pasta qualities

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential
by Laura Gazza and Francesca Nocente
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162448 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the production of novel pasta formulations in order to obtain high nutritional and healthy products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

19 pages, 5872 KiB  
Article
Date, Apple, and Pear By-Products as Functional Ingredients in Pasta: Cooking Quality Attributes and Physicochemical, Rheological, and Sensorial Properties
by Brahim Bchir, Romdhane Karoui, Sabine Danthine, Christophe Blecker, Souhail Besbes and Hamadi Attia
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101393 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the impact of incorporating pear, date, and apple by-products on pasta properties. Pasta properties including cooking quality, texture, color, rheology, thermal gelling, and microstructural characteristics were evaluated. Common wheat flour was substituted by 0, 2.5, 5, 7, and [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the impact of incorporating pear, date, and apple by-products on pasta properties. Pasta properties including cooking quality, texture, color, rheology, thermal gelling, and microstructural characteristics were evaluated. Common wheat flour was substituted by 0, 2.5, 5, 7, and 10 g/100 g of by-products. To choose the best-suited substitute of flour for the preparation of pasta, the sensorial properties of pasta were investigated. Interrelationships between all the physicochemical parameters were investigated using multiple factor analysis. We also studied the impact of storage (7, 15, and 30 days) on the physicochemical proprieties of pasta. The results revealed that the chemical composition of pasta elaborated with by-products was characterized by higher energy (~386 Kcal) and fiber content (~13%) than the control pasta. Generally, materials added to the durum wheat pasta reduce optimum cooking time, adhesiveness, and extensibility, and enhance the swelling index, cooking loss, cooking water absorption, water activity, firmness, and tenacity of pasta. Cooked pasta samples were significantly (p < 0.05) darker (L*) and greener (-a*) than the control pasta. Increasing the rate of by-products from 2.5% to 10% principally altered the texture and structure of pasta. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the inclusion of by-products into pasta leads to a disruption of the protein matrix. A practical formulation (2.5% of by-products) can be selected, since a significant difference was detected between overall acceptability scores. Grouping the variables in the principal component analysis plot showed that pasta samples can be divided into three groups. Each group was correlated by a specific variable. A significant modification of the physical parameters of pasta was observed after 30 days of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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14 pages, 1237 KiB  
Article
Gluten-Free Pasta Enriched with Fish By-Product for Special Dietary Uses: Technological Quality and Sensory Properties
by Andrea Aínsa, Alba Vega, Adrian Honrado, Pedro Marquina, Pedro Roncales, José A. Beltrán Gracia and Juan B. Calanche Morales
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123049 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
Gluten-free pasta enriched with fish can support a nutritive and suitable option for people with celiac disease that allows achieving the benefits of fish consumption, especially the consumption of Ω-3 fatty acids; however, this requires that the pasta has adequate technological and sensory [...] Read more.
Gluten-free pasta enriched with fish can support a nutritive and suitable option for people with celiac disease that allows achieving the benefits of fish consumption, especially the consumption of Ω-3 fatty acids; however, this requires that the pasta has adequate technological and sensory properties. For this purpose, four optimal formulations, obtained with an iterative process, were analyzed to determine the effect of the different ingredients (yellow corn flour, white corn flour, and rice flour) in gluten-free pasta compared to commercial wheat pasta. An evaluation of the color, texture, and technological properties were conducted, and the pasta was sensorially characterized. The enriched gluten-free pasta required shorter cooking times (≈3 min) and was characterized by lower hardness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and fracturability, and had higher values of adhesiveness than wheat pasta. In addition, the incorporation of yellow corn gives gluten-free pasta a similarity in color to commercial pasta, with a value of ∆E between 5.5 and 8.0. Regarding the sensory analysis, gluten-free pasta was characterized by slight fishy aromas and flavors with some aftertaste compared to commercial pasta. Finally, the use of different cereals to obtain gluten-free pasta could be a good and feasible alternative despite the technological and sensory modifications observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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11 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
In Vivo and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Fresh Pasta Produced Using Semolina-Based or Wholemeal Semolina-Based Liquid Sourdough
by Simonetta Fois, Piero Pasqualino Piu, Manuela Sanna, Tonina Roggio and Pasquale Catzeddu
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102507 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
The use of wholemeal flour and sourdough fermentation in different food matrices has received considerable attention in recent years due to its resulting health benefits. In this study, a semolina-based and a wholemeal semolina-based sourdough were prepared and added to the formulation of [...] Read more.
The use of wholemeal flour and sourdough fermentation in different food matrices has received considerable attention in recent years due to its resulting health benefits. In this study, a semolina-based and a wholemeal semolina-based sourdough were prepared and added to the formulation of gnocchetti-type fresh pasta. Four types of gnocchetti were made, using semolina plus semolina-based sourdough (SS), semolina plus wholemeal semolina-based sourdough (SWS), semolina alone (S), and semolina plus wholemeal semolina (WS). The latter two were used as controls. The digestibility of starch was studied both in vitro and in vivo, and the glycemic response (GR) and glycemic load (GL) were determined. Starch digestibility, both in vivo and in vitro, was higher in wholemeal semolina than semolina pasta and the resulting GR values (mg dL−1 min−1) were also higher (2209 and 2277 for WS and SWS; 1584 and 1553 for S and SS, respectively). The use of sourdough significantly reduced the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content and increased the inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) content. The addition of sourdough to the formulation had no effect on the GR values, but led to a reduction of the GL of the pasta. These are the first data on the GR and GL of fresh pasta made with sourdough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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12 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Glycemic Index of Six Different Samples of Commercial and Experimental Pasta Differing in Wheat Varieties and Production Processes
by Amalia Pandolfo, Bernardo Messina and Giuseppe Russo
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092221 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2585
Abstract
Pasta is a staple food of the Mediterranean Diet, and it is traditionally made of durum wheat semolina. In Sicily, durum wheat production and its transformation into semolina, bread, and pasta are well-developed economic sectors. For pasta, there is a wide supply of [...] Read more.
Pasta is a staple food of the Mediterranean Diet, and it is traditionally made of durum wheat semolina. In Sicily, durum wheat production and its transformation into semolina, bread, and pasta are well-developed economic sectors. For pasta, there is a wide supply of commercial brands, whether coming from conventional industrial manufacturing or from medium to small and local handcrafted production. Both conventional durum wheat and local durum wheat landraces, such as Timilia and Russello, are used for pasta production, but local landraces are, for the most, transformed into handcrafted pasta. The market of local landraces durum wheat pasta has risen in recent decades, in Sicily and in Italy as well, boosted by a perceived high nutritional and healthy value of these wheat derivatives. In particular, a popular and scientifically unproven idea suggests that a reduced glycemic response might be elicited by these pasta landraces. Therefore, to test this hypothesis, the main objective of the present study was the evaluation of the glycemic index (GI) of four samples of Timilia and Russello handcrafted pasta and two samples of conventional durum wheat pasta. The study enrolled fourteen healthy weight male and female volunteers aged from 18 to 46; eight test sessions were performed twice a week, every session testing a pasta sample (six sessions) or the glucose solution chosen as reference food (two sessions). The standard methodology for GI measurement was followed during each step of the study. The six tested pasta samples were characterized regarding their composition (protein, fiber, and starch content) and their whole production processes (milling method and milling diagram of flour or semolina, drying temperature, and diagram of pasta shape). The six tested pasta samples showed GI values ranging from low (34.1) to intermediate (63.1). Timilia and Russello pasta are the first GI calculations available. The two samples made of conventional grains showed lower values of GI (34.1 and 37.8). The results do not support the popular idea of a reduced glycemic response elicited by Timilia and Russello wheat landrace pasta; the tested samples showed GI values in the range of 56.2 to 63.1. However, some consideration should be made of factors other than wheat varieties and related to production processes that may have affected the final GIs of the pastas. Even if the study is not designed to discriminate among factors related to wheat varieties or processes used to produce different pasta, it is a preliminary step in the characterization of the healthy potential of the local wheat landraces, popularly called ancient grain. A future implementation of the local wheat landraces supply chain should pay attention to all the factors above, from a better seed identity certification to the production process in order to further improve the healthy value of these staples of the Mediterranean Diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
15 pages, 2003 KiB  
Article
Innovative Development of Pasta with the Addition of Fish By-Products from Two Species
by Andrea Ainsa, Adrián Honrado, Pedro L. Marquina, Pedro Roncalés, José Antonio Beltrán and Juan B. Calanche M.
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081889 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3936
Abstract
The fish industry generates by-products that are still nutrient-rich. Its incorporation in pasta production could be an interesting option to get functional food. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the nutritional composition, technological properties and sensory quality of two pastas [...] Read more.
The fish industry generates by-products that are still nutrient-rich. Its incorporation in pasta production could be an interesting option to get functional food. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the nutritional composition, technological properties and sensory quality of two pastas containing tuna and sea bass by-products, separately. Durum wheat semolina and fish by-product concentrates were used in pasta manufacturing. Fatty acids profile, optimal cooking time, texture profile analysis, color, weight gain, swelling index, cooking losses and moisture were determined and compared with a non-containing fish reference. A sensory analysis was also carried out. In general, results showed a higher content of fatty acids in tuna pasta than in sea bass pasta. The texture profile analysis (TPA) showed lower hardness and fracturability in the fish pasta. Cohesiveness was higher in the tuna pasta while sea bass pasta was brighter. Fish incorporation caused a decrease in weight gain and swelling index and an increase in cooking losses. Sensory analysis established differences in homogeneity, typical aroma, fish flavor, fish odor and elasticity. It was concluded that the use of these by-products results in a more nutritious pasta although tuna content should be reduced (<3%) to improve its sensory profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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15 pages, 1641 KiB  
Article
Innovative Milling Processes to Improve the Technological and Nutritional Quality of Parboiled Brown Rice Pasta from Contrasting Amylose Content Cultivars
by Federica Taddei, Elena Galassi, Francesca Nocente and Laura Gazza
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061316 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
The demand for gluten-free products, including pasta, is increasing and rice pasta accounts for the largest share of this market. Usually, the production of rice pasta requires additives or specific technological processes able to improve its texture, cooking quality, and sensory properties. In [...] Read more.
The demand for gluten-free products, including pasta, is increasing and rice pasta accounts for the largest share of this market. Usually, the production of rice pasta requires additives or specific technological processes able to improve its texture, cooking quality, and sensory properties. In this work, two rice cultivars, with different amylose content, were subjected to parboiling, micronization, and flour air fractionation to obtain brown rice pasta, without any supplement but rice itself. In particular, two types of pasta (spaghetti shape) were produced, one from 100% micronized wholemeal, and the other from refined rice flour replaced with 15% of the air-fractionated fine fraction. Regardless of the cultivar, pasta from wholemeal micronized flour showed higher protein and fiber content than refined flour enriched with fine fraction, whereas no differences were revealed in resistant starch and antioxidant capacity. Pasta from the high amylose content genotype showed the highest resistant starch content and the lowest predicted glycemic index along with sensorial characteristics as good as durum semolina pasta in fine fraction enriched pasta. Besides the technological processes, pasta quality was affected the most by the genotype, since pasta obtained from high amylose cv Gladio resulted in the best in terms of technological and sensory quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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10 pages, 2791 KiB  
Article
Traditional and Non-Conventional Pasta-Making Processes: Effect on In Vitro Starch Digestibility
by Rossella Dodi, Letizia Bresciani, Beatrice Biasini, Marta Cossu, Francesca Scazzina, Federica Taddei, Maria Grazia D’Egidio, Margherita Dall’Asta and Daniela Martini
Foods 2021, 10(5), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050921 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2457
Abstract
Pasta is a carbohydrate-rich food with a low glycemic index (GI) and is one of the main sources of slowly digestible starch (SDS). The presence of bran fractions (BFs) in pasta may enhance its health potential, owing to the content of fiber, micronutrients, [...] Read more.
Pasta is a carbohydrate-rich food with a low glycemic index (GI) and is one of the main sources of slowly digestible starch (SDS). The presence of bran fractions (BFs) in pasta may enhance its health potential, owing to the content of fiber, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds; however, at the same time, BF may affect starch digestibility. In this study, the bioaccessibility of starch in pasta made with BF-enriched semolina (BF pasta), or only with micronized debranned kernel (DK pasta), and a control pasta made with traditional semolina was evaluated by applying two different in vitro models. The control pasta showed a percentage of SDS about four-fold higher than that of the BF pasta and 1.5-fold higher than that of the DK pasta (p < 0.05). The amount of starch released during simulated gastrointestinal digestion was slightly lower, but not significantly different, for the control pasta than for both the BF and DK pasta. These results suggest that the presence of a higher amount of dietary fiber in BF pasta can affect the structure of the food matrix, interfering with the formation of the gluten network, water absorption, and starch granule accessibility, while micronization could enhance starch digestibility due to starch gelatinization. These findings emphasize the need to optimize the process for producing fiber-rich pasta without affecting its low starch digestibility and, consequently, its GI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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11 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
Potential Application of Resistant Starch Sorghum in Gluten-Free Pasta: Nutritional, Structural and Sensory Evaluations
by Mariasole Cervini, Alice Gruppi, Andrea Bassani, Giorgia Spigno and Gianluca Giuberti
Foods 2021, 10(5), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050908 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
Gluten-free (GF) pasta samples containing rice flour replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15 g/100 g (w/w) of a resistant starch ingredient from annealed sorghum starch (annRS) were formulated. The highest total dietary fiber and RS contents (p < [...] Read more.
Gluten-free (GF) pasta samples containing rice flour replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15 g/100 g (w/w) of a resistant starch ingredient from annealed sorghum starch (annRS) were formulated. The highest total dietary fiber and RS contents (p < 0.05) were measured in uncooked pasta with 15 g/100 g of annRS addition (15-annRS). After cooking, the 15-annRS pasta was characterized by an RS content of 5.8 g/100 g dry matter, confirming the thermal resistance of annRS. The use of annRS positively influenced the optimal cooking time, the cooking loss, the firmness, and the stickiness of the cooked samples, with not remarkably change in color after cooking. The starch hydrolysis index values decreased as the level of annRS increased. Despite a significant decrease in the overall sensory with increasing levels of annRS, all samples were characterized by a value > 5, which is considered the limit of acceptability. The use of annRS in GF pasta up to 15 g/100 g can contribute to creating GF products with high total dietary fiber content, slowly digestible starch properties, and without drastically compromising the sensory attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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11 pages, 933 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Technological Quality of High Protein Pasta
by Maria Cristina Messia, Francesca Cuomo, Luisa Falasca, Maria Carmela Trivisonno, Elisa De Arcangelis and Emanuele Marconi
Foods 2021, 10(3), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030589 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4167
Abstract
Pasta has an important role in human nutrition for its high content of complex carbohydrates and its widespread use. It can be an efficient delivery system or carrier of non-traditional raw material, including additional health-promoting ingredients. The partial replacement of semolina with high-protein [...] Read more.
Pasta has an important role in human nutrition for its high content of complex carbohydrates and its widespread use. It can be an efficient delivery system or carrier of non-traditional raw material, including additional health-promoting ingredients. The partial replacement of semolina with high-protein raw materials leads to the improvement of the biological value of pasta proteins. In order to obtain pasta with high nutritional protein value and with excellent cooking properties, various recipes have been formulated with different percentages of semolina and unconventional high-protein raw materials (peas and soy isolate proteins, egg white, whey proteins and Spirulina platensis). High-protein pasta was produced using a pasta making pilot plant and the nutritional quality (protein content and quality) and sensorial properties were assessed. All experimental pastas showed optimal performances. Pasta prepared with pea protein isolate, whey proteins and Spirulina platensis showed improved chemical score and digestible indispensable amino acid scores, an eye-catching color, and an excellent cooking quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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9 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
Using Einkorn and Tritordeum Brewers’ Spent Grain to Increase the Nutritional Potential of Durum Wheat Pasta
by Francesca Nocente, Chiara Natale, Elena Galassi, Federica Taddei and Laura Gazza
Foods 2021, 10(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030502 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3422
Abstract
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to [...] Read more.
Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to produce four macaroni pasta formulations enriched with BSG at ratios of 5 g and 10 g/100 g of semolina. Einkorn BSG showed the highest values for all the parameters analyzed—proteins, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—except for β-glucan. TDF increased up to 42 and 68% in pasta samples enriched with 10% of BSG from tritordeum and einkorn, respectively. The replacement of 10% of semolina with BSG from both cereals significantly increased the β-glucan content and TAC values. Finally, the addition of BSG from einkorn and tritordeum affected to a minimal extent the sensory properties of cooked pasta, which showed higher values of optimal cooking time and cooking loss, but lower total organic matter compared to semolina pasta. Results from the sensorial judgment fell in the good quality ranges for durum wheat pasta; the incorporation of 10% of einkorn BSG resulted in the best compromise in terms of technological, nutritional and sensorial aspects of enriched pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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13 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Usefulness of Hulled Wheats Grown in Polish Environment for Wholegrain Pasta-Making
by Aneta Bobryk-Mamczarz, Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz and Leszek Rachoń
Foods 2021, 10(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020458 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3586
Abstract
The best pasta raw material is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Recently, old wheat species have also attracted interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate their usefulness for industrial pasta production. The technological characteristics of grains and [...] Read more.
The best pasta raw material is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Recently, old wheat species have also attracted interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate their usefulness for industrial pasta production. The technological characteristics of grains and the organoleptic characteristics of pasta obtained from hulled emmer (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) were determined and compared to durum wheat, as a standard pasta raw material, and common wheat (T. aestivum). All wheats were grown under identical conditions. The hardness of kernels was assessed using the practical size index, wheat hardness index, torque moment, milling work of 50 g of flour, semolina yield, and starch damage. The technological and nutritional values of semolina, i.e., protein and ash content, wet gluten yield and quality, and falling number, were determined. Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics of cooked pasta were analysed in terms of appearance, colour, taste, smell, and consistency. The milling parameters of emmer were comparable to those of durum wheat; moreover, the content of protein, gluten, and ash was higher in emmer. Spelt was found to be similar to common wheat. Hulled wheats, especially emmer, show good quality parameters and can be an alternative raw material for industrial pasta production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Pasta with High Nutritional and Health Potential)
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