Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (22 July 2022) | Viewed by 66857

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Tamworth Centre for Crop Improvement, Head of Cereal Chemistry, Tamworth 2340, Australia
Interests: cereal chemistry of durum wheat and wheat breeding for quality; the chemistry and biochemistry of durum wheat; functional foods in pasta; food science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Durum wheat is used around the world for a variety of food products such as pasta, couscous, bulgur, bread, and cookies, to name a few. Developments in processing, breeding, new functional pasta, testing methods, and other technologies have been responsible for significant changes in durum-wheat-derived food products. The objective of this Special Issue is to summarize recent developments using a cross-disciplinary approach. You are cordially invited to submit review articles and original research papers related to couscous innovations, specialty durum wheat and impacts on foods, advances in quality assessment of durum grain and derived food products, wholegrain/wholemeal pasta processing methods and uses, grain processing and impact on phytonutrient availability in pasta, trends and innovations in bulgur, bread, other durum-derived food products, durum wheat milling innovations and impact on product quality, functional food pasta trends, changes in durum wheat quality through a breeding-historical perspective, extruded pasta products. and other relevant topics.

Dr. Mike Sissons
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pasta
  • couscous
  • wholegrain
  • novel durum wheat
  • phytonutrients
  • functional foods
  • durum milling
  • durum bread

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Durum Wheat Products—Recent Advances
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223660 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Durum wheat is widely used in various products, including long and short dried pasta, fresh and sheeted pasta, couscous, bulgur and baked bread [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Artisanal Pasta from the Occitanie Region in France
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203208 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Artisanal pasta made from wheat or underutilized cereal flours has grown in popularity with the expansion of the local and short food chains. Artisanal pasta makers do not use the same raw materials or production processes, leading to great variability in the final [...] Read more.
Artisanal pasta made from wheat or underutilized cereal flours has grown in popularity with the expansion of the local and short food chains. Artisanal pasta makers do not use the same raw materials or production processes, leading to great variability in the final product. The purpose of the study is to determine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of artisanal pasta made from durum wheat flour. Seven brands of fusilli pasta manufactured in the Occitanie region (France) were selected and analyzed in terms of their physicochemical composition (protein and ash content in dry samples), cooking properties (optimal cooking time, water absorption, and cooking loss), sensory characteristics (Pivot profile), and consumer appreciation. Differences in the physicochemical characteristics of the dry pasta samples partly explain the variations in pasta characteristics measured after cooking. The Pivot profile varied among pasta brands, but no major differences in hedonic properties were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first time that artisanal pasta made from flour has been characterized in terms of its physicochemical and sensory properties, which highlights the diversity of products on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
The Use of Durum Wheat Oil in the Preparation of Focaccia: Effects on the Oxidative Stability and Physical and Sensorial Properties
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172679 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Durum wheat oil is an innovative oil that could be considered the “second life” of durum wheat milling by-products. In this study, we proposed the use of this oil in the reformulation of a traditional Italian greased flat bread, namely focaccia, whose [...] Read more.
Durum wheat oil is an innovative oil that could be considered the “second life” of durum wheat milling by-products. In this study, we proposed the use of this oil in the reformulation of a traditional Italian greased flat bread, namely focaccia, whose typical sensorial features are due to the presence of relevant amounts of oil in its formulation. The chemical, physical, and sensorial features of focaccia with durum wheat oil (DWO) were compared with those of focaccia prepared with olive oil (OO) and sunflower oil (SO). The results showed the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in DWO, followed by SO. DWO was more resistant to oxidation than SO (induction time 86.2 and 66.3 min, respectively), due to its higher content of tocotrienols (1020 and 70.2 mg/kg in DWO and SO, respectively), but was less resistant than OO, richer in monounsaturated fatty acids, and contained phenolic compounds. The volatile oxidation markers, namely hexanal and nonanal, were less prevalent in OO and DWO than in SO. Texture and color were positively influenced by the use of durum wheat oil, allowing the nutritional improvement of this flat bread in a sustainable and circular manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 829 KiB  
Article
Effect of Durum Wheat Oil on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Features of Biscuits
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091282 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Lipids play an important role in defining the overall quality of biscuits, particularly in terms of resistance to oxidation, as well as for their influence on textural and sensorial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of durum wheat [...] Read more.
Lipids play an important role in defining the overall quality of biscuits, particularly in terms of resistance to oxidation, as well as for their influence on textural and sensorial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of durum wheat oil on the physico-chemical and sensory features of biscuits. Control biscuits (C) prepared with the commonly used sunflower oil were compared with samples prepared with durum wheat oil at 50% (D50) and 100% replacement levels (D100). The reformulated biscuits were very rich in tocols, especially tocotrienols (982.9, 635.2, and 64.1 mg/kg on lipid fraction weight in D100, D50, and C, respectively). The higher content of antioxidants extended the resistance to the oxidation of biscuits (induction time = 53.61, 70.87, and 79.92 h in C, D50, and D100, respectively). D100 showed the lowest amounts of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidized triacylglycerols, and the lowest amounts of the volatile markers of lipid oxidation (hexanal and nonanal). The use of durum wheat oil did not affect the sensorial and textural properties, compared to C. This study suggests that durum wheat oil could be effectively used in biscuit-making to decrease the oxidative phenomena and increase the bioactives of the end-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Quality and Sensory Profile of Durum Wheat Pasta Enriched with Carrot Waste Encapsulates
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081130 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Consumer knowledge about pasta quality differs around the world. Modern consumers are more sophisticated compared to past times, due to the availability of information on pasta types and quality. Therefore, this study investigated the nutritional, physical, textural, and morphological quality of durum wheat [...] Read more.
Consumer knowledge about pasta quality differs around the world. Modern consumers are more sophisticated compared to past times, due to the availability of information on pasta types and quality. Therefore, this study investigated the nutritional, physical, textural, and morphological quality of durum wheat pasta enriched with carrot waste encapsulates (10 and 20% freeze-dried encapsulate (FDE) and 10 and 20% spray-dried encapsulate (SDE)), as well as determining consumer preferences for this type of product. Replacement of semolina with FDE and SDE contributed to changes in the pasta nutritional quality, which was reflected in the increased protein, fat, and ash content. Additionally, changes in cooking quality, color, and texture were within satisfactory limits. The uncooked pasta enriched with 10 and 20% SDE was characterized by a lighter yellow intensity with color saturation, as well as an imperceptible waxy appearance compared to the control and enriched pasta with 10 and 20% FDE. After cooking, the yellow color was more intense in all the enriched pasta samples which can be linked to the raw cereal which was significantly greater in the control in comparison to the FDE and SDE containing samples. Overall, carrot waste can be a promising material for the food industry to produce high-quality pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2532 KiB  
Article
Drying Behavior of Bulgur and Its Effect on Phytochemical Content
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071062 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of two types of dryers (hot air oven and vacuum dryer) and the yellow berry percentage (1.75%, 36.25%, 43.25%) on the drying process and phytochemical content of bulgur. Results showed that the Midilli [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of two types of dryers (hot air oven and vacuum dryer) and the yellow berry percentage (1.75%, 36.25%, 43.25%) on the drying process and phytochemical content of bulgur. Results showed that the Midilli model successfully described the moisture diffusion during drying at 60 °C in all bulgur samples, where an increase in yellow berry percentage generated an increase in moisture content. Effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 7.05 × 10−11 to 7.82 × 10−11 (m2.s−1) and from 7.73 × 10−11 to 7.82 × 10−11 (m2.s−1) for the hot air oven and vacuum dryer, respectively. However, it decreased significantly with a decrease of yellow berry percentage. It was concluded that the vacuum dryer provided faster and more effective drying than the hot air oven. Total polyphenol (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), and yellow pigment contents (YPC) of bulgur were investigated. TPC ranged between 0.54 and 0.64 (mg GAE/g dm); TFC varied from 0.48 to 0.61 (mg QE/g dm). The YPC was found to be between 0.066 and 0.079 (mg ß-carotene/100g dm). Yellow berry percentage positively and significantly affected the TPC, TFC, and YPC contents due to the hard separation of the outer layers from the starchy grain during the debranning step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Wheat Germ and Lipid Oxidation: An Open Issue
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071032 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Wheat germ (WG)’s shelf life after the milling process is incredibly short because of the presence of enzymes that aggravate the oxidation process; thus, stabilization is required in order to exploit the nutrients and bioactive compounds within WG. The critical point for the [...] Read more.
Wheat germ (WG)’s shelf life after the milling process is incredibly short because of the presence of enzymes that aggravate the oxidation process; thus, stabilization is required in order to exploit the nutrients and bioactive compounds within WG. The critical point for the oxidation process is the mechanical treatment used to separate WG from the kernel, which exposes the lipid fraction to the air. Showing the connection between the quality of durum wheat, considering its storage management, and wheat germ oil (WGO), extracted with a cold press, solvent and supercritical CO2, is the aim of the study. The acidity and peroxide values were analyzed to evaluate lipid oxidation, while fatty acids, tocols, sterols and policosanols were evaluated for WGO characterization. The first fundamental step to control lipid oxidation is raw material management. Subsequently, the tempering phase of durum wheat, which is applied before the degermination process, is the most critical point for oxidation to develop because of the increase in moisture in the caryopsis and the activation of lipase and lipoxygenase. This represents a paradox: in order to stabilize the germ with degermination, first it seems inevitable to carry out a process that destabilizes it. To retains its highest quality, this will lead to a better use of the whole grain by reducing WG and by-product waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
15 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Effect of Kernel Size and Its Potential Interaction with Genotype on Key Quality Traits of Durum Wheat
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122992 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of kernel size and its potential interaction with genotype on durum wheat quality with emphases on kernel physical characteristics, milling performance, and color-related quality parameters. Wheat samples of seven genotypes, selected from the 2018 Canadian [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of kernel size and its potential interaction with genotype on durum wheat quality with emphases on kernel physical characteristics, milling performance, and color-related quality parameters. Wheat samples of seven genotypes, selected from the 2018 Canadian durum variety registration trial, were segregated into large (LK), medium (MK), and small-sized kernels (SK). In general, the kernel size greatly affected the durum wheat milling performance. Within a given size fraction, a strong impact of genotype was shown on the test weight of SK and the milling yields of MK and LK. Particularly, the MK fraction, segregated from the genotypes with superior milling quality, had a higher semolina yield than LK from the genotypes of inferior milling quality, inferring the importance of intrinsic physicochemical properties of durum kernels in affecting milling quality. SK exhibited inferior milling quality regardless of the genotypes selected. A strong impact of genotype was shown for the total yellow pigment (TYP) content and yellowness of semolina, while the kernel size had a significant impact on the brightness and redness of the semolina and pasta. Despite SK possessing much higher TYP, the semolina and pasta prepared from SK were lower in brightness and yellowness but with elevated redness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Role of Hydrocolloids in the Structure, Cooking, and Nutritional Properties of Fiber-Enriched, Fresh Egg Pasta Based on Tiger Nut Flour and Durum Wheat Semolina
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102510 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of fresh egg tagliatelle labeled as a “source of fiber” based on tiger nut flour and wheat semolina. An attempt to improve the quality attributes and cooking properties of the obtained product was made [...] Read more.
The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of fresh egg tagliatelle labeled as a “source of fiber” based on tiger nut flour and wheat semolina. An attempt to improve the quality attributes and cooking properties of the obtained product was made by means of structuring agents. More specifically, a combination of three hydrocolloids (carboximethylcellulose, CMC; xanthan gum, XG; and locust bean gum, LBG) was tested. A Box–Behnken design with randomized response surface methodology was used to determine a suitable combination of these gums to achieve fewer cooking losses, higher water gain and swelling index values, and better texture characteristics before and after cooking. Positive effects on textural characteristics were observed when incorporating XG into the pasta formulation. Cooking and fiber loss also significantly diminished with the XG-CMC combination over 0.8%. No significant effect was found for the other evaluated parameters. A synergistic interaction between LBG and XG was only significant for the water absorption index. The cooked pasta was considered a source of fiber in all cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

22 pages, 660 KiB  
Review
Impact of Quality Improvement and Milling Innovations on Durum Wheat and End Products
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121796 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
There are long-standing established intrinsic quality requirements of end products made from durum wheat semolina, with color, textural, and cooking properties of pasta and couscous representing persistent key attributes for consumers. Over time, traditional efforts to advance development in these areas with respect [...] Read more.
There are long-standing established intrinsic quality requirements of end products made from durum wheat semolina, with color, textural, and cooking properties of pasta and couscous representing persistent key attributes for consumers. Over time, traditional efforts to advance development in these areas with respect to raw material, equipment, and process improvements have been influenced by growing awareness of issues around food safety, health and nutrition, and climate change, necessitating that development strategies incorporate specific considerations relating to safety, traceability, and sustainability. We examined improvements in durum wheat quality and innovations in milling and the resulting impact on product quality in light of these considerations, which are now fundamental to the planning and development of any food process, as required by consumers and regulators alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
16 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
Increasing the Versatility of Durum Wheat through Modifications of Protein and Starch Composition and Grain Hardness
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111532 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Although durum wheat (Triticum durum L. ssp. durum Desf.) has traditionally been used to make a range of food products, its use has been restricted due to the absence of the D-genome glutenin proteins, the relatively low variability in starch composition, and [...] Read more.
Although durum wheat (Triticum durum L. ssp. durum Desf.) has traditionally been used to make a range of food products, its use has been restricted due to the absence of the D-genome glutenin proteins, the relatively low variability in starch composition, and its very hard grain texture. This review focuses on the manipulation of the starch and protein composition and modification of the hardness of durum wheat in order to improve its technological and nutritional value and expand its utilization for application to a wider number of end products. Starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in a 3:1 ratio, and their manipulation has been explored for achieving starch with modified composition. In particular, silencing of the genes involved in amylose and amylopectin synthesis has made it possible to isolate durum wheat lines with amylose content varying from 2–3% up to 75%. This has created opportunities for new products with different properties and enhanced nutritional value. Durum-made bread has generally inferior quality to bread made from common wheat. Attempts to introduce the Glu-D1 subunits 1Dx5 + 1Dy10 and 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 produced stronger dough, but the former produced excessively strong, inelastic doughs, and loaf volume was either inferior or not affected. In contrast, the 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 sometimes improved bread loaf volume (LV) depending on the glutenin subunit background of the genotype receiving these genes. Further breeding and selection are needed to improve the dough extensibility to allow higher LV and better texture. The versatility of durum wheat has been greatly expanded with the creation of soft-textured durum via non-GMO introgression means. This soft durum mills like soft hexaploid wheat and has similar baking properties. The pasta quality is also not diminished by the soft-textured kernels. The Glu-D1 locus containing the subunits 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 has also been introgressed to create higher quality soft durum bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 12496 KiB  
Review
Durum Wheat Couscous Grains: An Ethnic Mediterranean Food at the Interface of Traditional Domestic Preparation and Industrial Manufacturing
Foods 2022, 11(7), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070902 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4417
Abstract
Couscous is the product prepared from durum wheat semolina that agglomerates by adding water and undergoes physical and thermal treatment. Couscous is a traditional food from Mediterranean countries consumed for many centuries. Between ancestral domestic practices and industrial performance, the diversity of methods [...] Read more.
Couscous is the product prepared from durum wheat semolina that agglomerates by adding water and undergoes physical and thermal treatment. Couscous is a traditional food from Mediterranean countries consumed for many centuries. Between ancestral domestic practices and industrial performance, the diversity of methods for couscous processing meets the needs of different consumers, whether they are concerned about preserving family culinary traditions or discovering innovative foods that respond to changing consumption patterns. In this work, we present the story of durum wheat couscous through several complementary visions and approaches: a “historical and societal“ approach to discover the origins of couscous, its migrations and its unifying role in Mediterranean societies; a “physicochemical” approach to describe the role of wheat components at the heart of couscous grains; a “technological” approach to compare domestic and industrial production of couscous; a “food science” approach to understand organoleptic characteristics of couscous grains; and a “consumer” approach to understand the motivations associated with the consumption of couscous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1197 KiB  
Review
Pasta-Making Process: A Narrative Review on the Relation between Process Variables and Pasta Quality
Foods 2022, 11(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030256 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 18505
Abstract
Pasta is an increasingly popular food worldwide and different formulations have been developed to improve its nutritional profile. Semolina that is high both in protein and gluten content is recognized as the ideal raw material to produce conventional dry pasta. When alternative raw [...] Read more.
Pasta is an increasingly popular food worldwide and different formulations have been developed to improve its nutritional profile. Semolina that is high both in protein and gluten content is recognized as the ideal raw material to produce conventional dry pasta. When alternative raw materials are used, an understanding of the relationship between processing variables and pasta quality is crucial in order to optimize the redesign of the production process. This review aims to: (1) investigate the main challenges of the pasta-making process, highlighting the processing variables that most affect pasta quality; and (2) indicate the unknown factors that influence the pasta-making process and which need to be studied. After overviewing the last twenty years of research in the pasta sector, the interplay/relationship between processing variables and pasta quality is examined, together with the main innovations proposed for each step of pasta processing. An analysis of all the variables involved in the process and their influence on each other will elucidate how to optimize certain parameters to ensure the production of pasta with the desired characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 534 KiB  
Review
Development of Novel Pasta Products with Evidence Based Impacts on Health—A Review
Foods 2022, 11(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010123 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5962
Abstract
Pasta made from durum wheat is a widely consumed worldwide and is a healthy and convenient food. In the last two decades, there has been much research effort into improving the nutritional value of pasta by inclusion of nonconventional ingredients due to the [...] Read more.
Pasta made from durum wheat is a widely consumed worldwide and is a healthy and convenient food. In the last two decades, there has been much research effort into improving the nutritional value of pasta by inclusion of nonconventional ingredients due to the demand by health-conscious consumers for functional foods. These ingredients can affect the technological properties of the pasta, but their health impacts are not always measured rather inferred. This review provides an overview of pasta made from durum wheat where the semolina is substituted in part with a range of ingredients (barley fractions, dietary fibre sources, fish ingredients, herbs, inulin, resistant starches, legumes, vegetables and protein extracts). Impacts on pasta technological properties and in vitro measures of phytonutrient enhancement or changes to starch digestion are included. Emphasis is on the literature that provides clinical or animal trial data on the health benefits of the functional pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1417 KiB  
Review
Assessing the Rheological Properties of Durum Wheat Semolina: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122947 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
Empiric rheology is considered a useful tool for assessing the technological quality of wheat. Over the decades, several tests have been adapted from common to durum wheat, and new approaches have been proposed to meet the needs of the players of the durum [...] Read more.
Empiric rheology is considered a useful tool for assessing the technological quality of wheat. Over the decades, several tests have been adapted from common to durum wheat, and new approaches have been proposed to meet the needs of the players of the durum wheat value chain. Breeders are looking for reliable methods to test the functional quality of wheat lines at early stages, where there are limited amounts of sample; millers need fast and reliable methods for checking wheat quality right at the point of the receiving station; and pasta-makers are looking for suitable methods to predict end product quality. This review provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the rheological tests currently used to evaluate the quality of durum wheat semolina, with the emphasis on Europe. Moreover, the relationships among the parameters obtained from different rheological approaches are extrapolated from the literature and integrated with the data obtained from 74 samples of durum wheat semolina. Although numerous efforts have been made to propose rapid and reliable tests for semolina characterization, the ideal test has yet to be proposed, indicating that researchers and pasta companies need to focus on perfecting the way to assess the quality of durum wheat and pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1119 KiB  
Review
Glycemic Index Values of Pasta Products: An Overview
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112541 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 8144
Abstract
Durum wheat pasta is considered a low-glycemic index (GI) food. In recent years, the interest in developing enriched pasta has increased. Since both the formulation and processing technologies may affect the GI, this study aimed to investigate the GI values of pasta products [...] Read more.
Durum wheat pasta is considered a low-glycemic index (GI) food. In recent years, the interest in developing enriched pasta has increased. Since both the formulation and processing technologies may affect the GI, this study aimed to investigate the GI values of pasta products (pp) reported in the literature until 2020. GI values of pp analyzed following the ISO guidelines were included in this survey. A total of 95 pp were identified and, according to their formulation, classified into 10 categories (n, mean GI): category n 1: 100% refined wheat (35, 55); category n 2: 100% whole wheat (6, 52); category n 3: other cereal-based products (8, 52); category n 4: containing egg (5, 52); category n 5: gluten free (11, 60); category n 6: containing legumes (9, 46); category n 7: noodles and vermicelli (9, 56); category n 8: containing vegetable or algae (6, 51); category n 9: containing other ingredients (5, 37); category n 10: stuffed (1, 58). Overall, pasta is confirmed to be a medium–low-GI food, even if a high variability among or within each category emerged. The formulation of enriched pp able to elicit a controlled glycemic response could represent a strategy to improve the nutritional value of pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop