Special Issue "Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mohamad Goldust
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. Martin Kassir
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Worldwide laser institute, Dallas, TX, USA
Interests: aesthetic dermatology; aesthetic surgery
Prof. Dr. George Kroumpouzos
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
2. Department of Dermatology, Medical School of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil
3. GK Dermatology, PC, South Weymouth, MA 02190, USA
Interests: cosmetic dermatology; aesthetic surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cosmetic surgery and aesthetic procedures have become a billion dollar industry owing to the rising demand of the population to stay young. They are becoming increasingly popular across all sections of the population. Due to ever-growing number of submissions in this field, the editors of Cosmetics have set up an Issue dedicated to this field. For this Special Issue, we invite research articles on various aspects of cosmetic and aesthetic dermatology.

Dr. Mohamad Goldust
Guest Editor

Dr. Martin Kassir
Dr. George Kroumpouzos
co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aesthetic dermatology
  • cosmetic dermatology
  • aesthetic surgery

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Potential of 2-aza-8-Oxohypoxanthine as a Cosmetic Ingredient
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030060 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
In this study, we verified the effects of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH) on human epidermal cell proliferation by performing DNA microarray analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which measures mitochondrial respiration in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells. Gene expression levels [...] Read more.
In this study, we verified the effects of 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH) on human epidermal cell proliferation by performing DNA microarray analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which measures mitochondrial respiration in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells. Gene expression levels were determined by DNA microarray analysis of 177 genes involved in skin aging and disease. AOH showed a significant increase in cell viability at concentrations between 7.8 and 31.3 μg/mL and a significant decrease at concentrations above 250 μg/mL. DNA microarray analysis showed that AOH significantly increased the gene expression of CLDN1, DSC1, DSG1, and CDH1 (E-cadherin), which are involved in intercellular adhesion and skin barrier functioning. AOH also up-regulated the expression of KLK5, KLK7, and SPIMK5, which are proteases involved in stratum corneum detachment. Furthermore, AOH significantly stimulated the expression of KRT1, KRT10, TGM1, and IVL, which are considered general differentiation indicators, and that of SPRR1B, a cornified envelope component protein. AOH exerted a cell activation effect on human epidermal cells. Since AOH did not cause cytotoxicity, it was considered that the compound had no adverse effects on the skin. In addition, it was found that AOH stimulated the expression levels of genes involved in skin barrier functioning by DNA microarray analysis. Therefore, AOH has the potential for practical use as a cosmetic ingredient. This is the first report of efficacy evaluation tests performed for AOH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Article
Outcome Using Either Intradermal Botox Injection or Endoscopic Thoracic Sympathectomy for Patients with Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis: A Comparative Study
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020041 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, negatively impacts patients both physically and psychologically. It may be primary or secondary: the primary form is a benign condition, with its growing prevalence reaching 5% recently. Its medical treatments are transitory. Objectives: Comparison of the outcomes of patients [...] Read more.
Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, negatively impacts patients both physically and psychologically. It may be primary or secondary: the primary form is a benign condition, with its growing prevalence reaching 5% recently. Its medical treatments are transitory. Objectives: Comparison of the outcomes of patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH) after intradermal Botox injection (IBI) versus endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). Methods: Forty patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. Patients in the IBI group received an intradermal injection of a botulinum toxin A. Patients in the EST group received endoscopic electrocautery of the sympathetic chain. The patients were evaluated biweekly for 12 weeks, and patient satisfaction by outcome was evaluated using a 4-point satisfaction score. Results: At 12 weeks, 60% of the IBI group patients had maintained an improvement. Meanwhile, 40% of the patients were improved compared to pre-intervention scores, despite deterioration after remarkable improvement. On the other hand, 80% of ETS group patients maintained their Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) up until the end of follow-up. Patient satisfaction scores were significantly higher for the IBI group compared to the ETS group. Conclusions: Intradermal Botox injection is a simple, safe, non-invasive, and effective therapeutic modality for PPH and achieved higher patient satisfaction compared to ETS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Article
Comparative Efficacy of Fractional CO2 Laser and Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser in Combination Therapy with Tranexamic Acid in Refractory Melasma: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020037 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Melasma manifests as hyperpigmented macules and patches, usually affecting the face, neck, and rarely upper limbs. This study evaluated comparative efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser with a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser in combination therapy with tranexamic acid in refractory melasma. A total [...] Read more.
Melasma manifests as hyperpigmented macules and patches, usually affecting the face, neck, and rarely upper limbs. This study evaluated comparative efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser with a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser in combination therapy with tranexamic acid in refractory melasma. A total of 30 patients with refractory melasma were included in this study. The fractional CO2 laser (power: 30 w, pulse energy: 30 mJ, tip type: 300, pulse rate: 100/cm2) was used on one side of the patients’ face and three passes of the Q-Switched Nd:YAG (QSNY) laser (Wavelength: 1064 nm, pulse energy: 750 mJ, fluence: 1.50  J/cm2, spot size: 4 mm × 4 mm, hand piece: fractional) were used on the opposite side of the same patient’s face for six sessions. During the course of laser therapy, all patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily. Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and physician’s satisfaction and patient’s satisfaction were analyzed. Thirty patients (mean age 39.97) were included. Patient global assessment (PtGA) in the fractional CO2 laser group was significantly better than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group at 4th, 8th and 12th weeks (p-value < 0.001). According to PtGA, the improvement was significant in both groups over time. Physician global assessment (PGA) at the 8th and 12th weeks, and physician satisfaction (PS) at the 8th week, in the fractional CO2 laser group was significantly better than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group (p-value < 0.05). The PGA in both groups significantly reduced over time. The MASI score significantly decreased in both groups over time. The MASI score in the fractional CO2 laser group decreased more than the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser group over time (p < 0.001). The most common side effects reported were erythema and discomfort, which subsided in less than 24 h. A fractional CO2 laser with oral tranexamic acid is an effective and well tolerated therapeutic method for the treatment of patients with refractory melasma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Article
Periorbital Hyperpigmentation—Dark Circles under the Eyes; Treatment Suggestions and Combining Procedures
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020026 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a frequent concern among both young and adult patients. The etiology is multifactorial with a genetic background. Prevalence is higher in darker skin types. It has been estimated as high as 30% in a recent Indian study. Females are [...] Read more.
Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a frequent concern among both young and adult patients. The etiology is multifactorial with a genetic background. Prevalence is higher in darker skin types. It has been estimated as high as 30% in a recent Indian study. Females are often more disappointed by POH than males. Treatment has to consider underlying pathologies and patients’ needs. We present our treatment algorithm for POH. In this study, 74 patients with POH, 64 females (86.5%) and 10 males (13.3%), were treated. Of these, 39 patients (53%) had a family history of POH. The age range of patients was 18−57 years (average: 36.1 years). In case of tear trough deformity, soft tissue augmentation was used by injection of hyaluronic acid gel, calcium hydroxylapatite, or autologous fat. Blepharoplasty with partial fat pad resection or repositioning via arcus marginalis release was used to correct severe orbital fat herniation and excess of the lower lid skin. Melanin hyperpigmentation of the skin was improved by sessions of Q-switched 1064 and 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Small vessels (capillaries and veins) were targeted by a 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Sessions of intense pulsed light (IPL) or CO2 fractional laser were employed to improve skin texture and fine lines. Topical hyaluronic acid-based formulations may be used as adjuvant self-treatment by patients. For pigmented and mixed-type POH, ultraviolet light protection is recommended as a maintenance treatment. By the use of various technologies, treatment can be individually tailored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Article
Melanogenesis Effect of 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin in B16F10 Melanoma Cells
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040094 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The increased interest in anti-whitening dyes has enhanced the research interest to identify efficient melanogenic activators. Melanogenesis is the process of melanin production by melanocytes in the hair follicles and skin, which is mediated by several enzymes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), [...] Read more.
The increased interest in anti-whitening dyes has enhanced the research interest to identify efficient melanogenic activators. Melanogenesis is the process of melanin production by melanocytes in the hair follicles and skin, which is mediated by several enzymes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2. This study investigated the melanogenesis-stimulating effect of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4MUMB) and its synthetic derivatives, 7-acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (7A4MC) and 4-methylheriniarin (4MH) in B16F10 melanoma cells. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, followed by the assessment of the melanin content and the intracellular TYR activity. Finally, the expression levels of the key enzymes involved in melanogenesis were investigated. 7A4MC increased melanin production in B16F10 cells relative to that by 4MUMB and 4MH treated cells in a dose-dependent manner without significant cytotoxicity. Concomitantly, 7A4MC significantly increased TYR activity and enhanced the expression of MITF, which significantly induced the expression of TRP-1, TRP-2, and TYR. Furthermore, 7A4MC stimulated melanogenesis via increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and reduced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT). These results confirmed the melanogenesis-inducing effects of 7A4MC and indicated its potential use as an anti-hair bleaching agent in cosmetics industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Review

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Review
Carbon Dioxide Laser Vulvovaginal Rejuvenation: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2021, 8(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8030056 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) causes significant symptomatic aggravation that affects the quality of life (QoL). Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), the hallmark of GSM, is managed with topical non-hormonal therapy, including moisturizers and lubricants, and topical estrogen application. Patients not responding/being unsatisfied with previous [...] Read more.
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) causes significant symptomatic aggravation that affects the quality of life (QoL). Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), the hallmark of GSM, is managed with topical non-hormonal therapy, including moisturizers and lubricants, and topical estrogen application. Patients not responding/being unsatisfied with previous local estrogen therapies are candidates for a noninvasive modality. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser therapy, especially the fractionated type (FrCO2), has drawn considerable attention over the past two decades as a non-invasive treatment for GSM. This systematic review describes the accumulated evidence from 40 FrCO2 laser studies (3466 participants) in GSM/VVA. MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane databases were searched through April 2021. We analyze the effects of FrCO2 laser therapy on symptoms, sexual function, and QoL of patients with GSM/VVA. As shown in this review, FrCO2 laser therapy for GSM shows good efficacy and safety. This modality has the potential to advance female sexual wellness. Patient satisfaction was high in the studies included in this systematic review. However, there is a lack of level I evidence, and more randomized sham-controlled trials are required. Furthermore, several clinical questions, such as the number of sessions required that determine cost-effectiveness, should be addressed. Also, whether FrCO2 laser therapy may exert a synergistic effect with systemic and/or local hormonal/non-hormonal treatments, energy-based devices, and other modalities to treat GMS requires further investigation. Lastly, studies are required to compare FrCO2 laser therapy with other energy-based devices such as erbium:YAG laser and radiofrequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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Review
Hair Transplantation Surgery Versus Other Modalities of Treatment in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Narrative Review
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8010025 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness and its incidence has increased over the past few years with an earlier age of onset being widely reported all over the world. Although it is reported more often in men, it affects [...] Read more.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness and its incidence has increased over the past few years with an earlier age of onset being widely reported all over the world. Although it is reported more often in men, it affects women as well. With the growing cosmetic concern of patients, emphasis has shifted from the more traditional treatment options such as finasteride and minoxidil to surgical options such as hair transplantation. This review briefly highlights all of the treatment options available for AGA so far. A special focus is on current data available on hair transplantation surgeries and the various methods, merits and demerits and limitations of surgery. The literature research considered published journal articles (scientific reviews) from 1990 to date. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) and the reference lists of respective articles. Only articles available in English were considered for this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aesthetic and Cosmetic Dermatology)
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