Special Issue "Exercise-induced Facial Rejuvenation and Orofacial Strength and Function"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Takashi Abe
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, School of Applied Science, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38577, USA
Interests: facial muscle training; facial rejuvenation; orofacial strength

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are several methods currently used for correcting signs of facial aging (e.g., the injection of botulinum toxin or dermal fillers). However, there is a growing interest in improving and/or delaying facial aging through facial exercises aimed at strengthening, moving and manipulating facial muscles.

The cosmetic industry is flooded with options for facial exercise protocols (i.e., several devices and masks for facial exercise or several types of voluntary facial exercise and movements) to improve facial soft tissue, facial wrinkles and sagging. Nonetheless, different types of facial exercise may elicit different effects on specific facial soft tissue (e.g., skin, adipose tissue, and muscle). At present, there are a limited number of studies investigating this topic. Therefore, it is important to work towards determining which exercise protocol is the most effective for producing changes in orofacial muscle strength and morphology and improving facial wrinkles and sagging.

This Special Issue, “Exercise-Induced Facial Rejuvenation and Orofacial Muscle Strength and Function”, aims to publish new data on the effect of exercise on facial rejuvenation via original research articles and short communications, and to share current knowledge in this area by means of review articles.

Dr. Takashi Abe
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • facial exercise training
  • facial muscle size
  • skin elasticity
  • facial soft tissue
  • orofacial strength and function
  • wrinkles and sagging
  • facial rejuvenation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue “Exercise-Induced Facial Rejuvenation and Orofacial Strength and Function”
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040097 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1664
Abstract
The desire to stay young and beautiful forever is a common aspiration for everyone [...] Full article

Research

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Article
To Play or Not to Play: Can an Instrument Really Impact Lip and Tongue Performance?
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020050 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
(1) Background: Increasing tongue and lip strength may help improve various speech and swallowing disorders, but it is unclear if instrumentalists who use these muscle groups for long periods of time have greater strength and endurance compared to controls. It is also unclear [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Increasing tongue and lip strength may help improve various speech and swallowing disorders, but it is unclear if instrumentalists who use these muscle groups for long periods of time have greater strength and endurance compared to controls. It is also unclear if instrumentalists can more accurately estimate various exercise intensities. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in lip and tongue strength and endurance between instrumentalists and non-instrumentalists (controls). A secondary purpose was to assess differences in ability to estimate various exercise intensities between the two groups. (2) Methods: Instrumentalists and controls’ maximum strength and endurance were measured using the IOPI Pro medical device. In addition, 40%, 60% and 80% of maximum strength were estimated in a randomized order. (3) Results: No significant differences were found between instrumentalists and controls in strength or endurance or the ability to estimate various intensities. Overall, participants were better at estimating tongue strength at moderate intensities and lip strength at higher intensities. (4) Conclusion: Tongue and lip strength and endurance and the ability to estimate exercise intensities are not impacted by years of instrumentalist training compared to healthy controls. Full article
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Article
A Practical Method for Assessing Lip Compression Strengthening in Healthy Adults
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010005 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4027
Abstract
There is no practical and accessible assessment method to evaluate lip muscle compression strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the standard method (i.e., Iowa Oral Performance Instrument) and a practical method in healthy adults. In order to [...] Read more.
There is no practical and accessible assessment method to evaluate lip muscle compression strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the standard method (i.e., Iowa Oral Performance Instrument) and a practical method in healthy adults. In order to achieve our research purpose, ninety-eight healthy adults (18–40 years) completed lip compression strength measurements (standard method) and lip grasping performance tests using a standard recyclable plastic water bottle (practical method). In the overall sample, the mean and standard deviation for standard method and practical method was 26.7 (7.0) kPa and 255 (119) g, respectively. For the overall sample (n = 98), there was a positive relationship between the two strength tasks [r = 0.56 (0.41, 0.68)]. When separated by sex, positive correlations were observed for men and women with no differences between the observed correlations [difference of 0.06 (−0.2646, 0.3917)]. This result indicates that those individuals who are strong in the standard task will often be strong in the practical task. Future research is needed to determine how well changes in each test track with each other in response to a lip strength training program. Full article
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Article
Assessments of Facial Muscle Thickness by Ultrasound in Younger Adults: Absolute and Relative Reliability
Cosmetics 2019, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6040065 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4429
Abstract
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and [...] Read more.
The absolute reliability (i.e., standard error of measurement and minimal difference) of a measurement is important to consider when assessing training effects. However, the absolute reliability for ultrasound measured facial muscle thickness had not been investigated. In order to examine the absolute and relative reliability of measuring facial muscles, 98 healthy, young, and middle-aged adults (18–40 years) had ultrasound measurements taken twice, separated by an average of three days. Six facial muscles were selected to determine the reliability of facial muscle thickness. The relative reliability (ICC3,1) ranged from 0.425 for the orbicularis oris (inferior) to 0.943 for the frontalis muscle. The absolute reliability (minimal difference) ranged from 0.25 mm for the orbicularis oculi to 1.82 mm for the masseter. The percentage minimal difference was 22%, 25%, 26%, 29%, 21%, and 10% for the frontalis, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris (superior), orbicularis oris (inferior), depressor anguli oris, and masseter, respectively. Our results indicated that the relative reliability was similar to that observed previously. The absolute reliability indicated that the measurement error associated with measuring muscle thickness of the face may be greater than that of the trunk/limb muscles. This may be related to the difficulty of accurately determining the borders of each muscle. Full article
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Review

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Review
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Size and Function: Exploring the Influence of Aging and Exercise Training
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020029 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The orbicularis oculi muscle is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids that blinks and closes the eyes. In this review, our aim was threefold: (1) to introduce the performance characteristics of blinking activity in young and older adults, (2) to discuss the influence [...] Read more.
The orbicularis oculi muscle is the sphincter muscle of the eyelids that blinks and closes the eyes. In this review, our aim was threefold: (1) to introduce the performance characteristics of blinking activity in young and older adults, (2) to discuss the influence of aging on the orbicularis oculi muscle in healthy adults, and (3) to provide information about the effect of facial exercise training on the orbicularis oculi muscle. To achieve the purpose of this review, a search using two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) and a search engine (Google Scholar) was conducted. The amplitude and peak velocity of spontaneously blinking behavior, which is an index of muscle function of the orbicularis oculi, appear to be affected by aging. The muscle thickness of the orbicularis oculi tends to be low in older adults, but there are issues that need to be examined further, such as differences in sex and measurement positions. There was no study on the effect of exercise training; however, the results of a highly trained man indicate that the orbicularis oculi muscles might elicit muscle hypertrophy through non-traditional resistance exercise. Full article
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Review
Effects of Chewing Training on Orofacial and Cognitive Function in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020023 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
Background: There is some evidence showing significant correlations between acute chewing gum and orofacial function, and between acute chewing gum and cognitive function; however, as far as we are aware, little is known about the chronic effects of chewing gum training on cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: There is some evidence showing significant correlations between acute chewing gum and orofacial function, and between acute chewing gum and cognitive function; however, as far as we are aware, little is known about the chronic effects of chewing gum training on cognitive and orofacial functions in healthy adults. Objectives: To evaluate the chronic effects of chewing gum training on orofacial and cognitive functions in healthy adults. Method: Searches of the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, BVS, CENTRAL, Scopus, and Google Scholar were conducted from inception to 14 January 2020. The inclusion criteria used were: clinical trial or randomized controlled trial lasting a minimum of four weeks, chewing gum intervention in at least one arm of the study, presence of a non-exercise control group, study population consisting of healthy adults, study outcomes consisting of orofacial function and/or cognitive function. Results: Starting from 5973 sources, a total of six articles met the inclusion criteria, and they were subjected to a systematic review. The main findings were that chewing gum training improved some variables related to orofacial function. No clear effect of chewing gum training on cognitive function was found. Conclusions: Chronic chewing gum training has an unclear positive effect on specific variables related to orofacial and cognitive function in healthy adults. Full article
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Review
Effects of Age, Sex, Disease, and Exercise Training on Lip Muscle Strength
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010018 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3805
Abstract
Lip muscle strength has been shown to influence daily functional activities such as facial expression, speech production, and eating. In this review, recent literature regarding lip strength and exercise training responses are summarized, highlighting the influence of sex, age, and disease (e.g., stroke). [...] Read more.
Lip muscle strength has been shown to influence daily functional activities such as facial expression, speech production, and eating. In this review, recent literature regarding lip strength and exercise training responses are summarized, highlighting the influence of sex, age, and disease (e.g., stroke). A search using five electronic databases was conducted. Twelve studies were identified from the search, which included five studies using healthy adults and seven studies using patients with diseases or chronic ailments. Regardless of the population, lip strength training multiple times a day for a relatively short term (<24 weeks) has resulted in improvements of lip muscle strength. This change in lip strength has been observed in both young and old participants. Although changes in strength have been observed in both men and women, we are unaware of any studies that have tested whether there are sex differences in this response. The same directional change can be expected for patients with stroke and patients with lip incompetence, but the magnitude of the training effect seems to be higher in healthy people. Full article
Review
Non-Traditional and Non-Invasive Approaches in Facial Rejuvenation: A Brief Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7010010 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4046
Abstract
While injectables, lasers, and surgical interventions have traditionally been used to reverse the changes associated with facial aging, other alternative therapies such as facial acupuncture and facial exercises are now being studied for facial rejuvenation. In this paper, we both summarize the concepts [...] Read more.
While injectables, lasers, and surgical interventions have traditionally been used to reverse the changes associated with facial aging, other alternative therapies such as facial acupuncture and facial exercises are now being studied for facial rejuvenation. In this paper, we both summarize the concepts of facial acupuncture and facial exercises, and review seven studies that evaluate the efficacy of these modalities. Data from these studies suggest that both facial acupuncture and facial exercises have the potential to improve the skin laxity, wrinkle length, muscle thickness, and pigmentary changes associated with aging. Patients frequently reported improvement and experienced very few side effects. However, further research is necessary before these modalities are widely accepted as effective by the medical community, though the results of these studies may ultimately make providers less hesitant when patients seek out these services. Full article
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