Special Issue "Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Academy History of Health Care Art, 00193 Rome, Italy
2. Visiting Professor, Dermatology Department, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
Interests: skin pharmacology; cosmetic formulation and production; natural polymers; nanocomposites; nanobiotechnology; natural ingredients; history of health care
Prof. Dr. Maria Beatrice Coltelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy
Interests: biopolymeric structural and functional materials for cosmetic applications and their packaging; biocompatibility in personal care applications; materials with improved end-of-life (recyclable, compostable); coatings for functionalized surfaces; nanotechnology and nanomaterials applied to bioplastics and biopolymers; biobased alternatives for materials and functional molecules
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The adoption of sustainable development strategies has become a must in our society to avert the current situation with pollution and the consequent environmental and social disaster. One of the aspects to address this is to utilize the great quantity of unexploited waste material due to fishery byproducts and plant biomass. Given that the quantity of this recovered material is estimated at around 300 million tons per year, only 20% is used, nearly exclusively, in the production of energy. On the other hand, chitin and lignin, if well characterized and used in their nanodimensions, have shown to be useful in producing various nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocomposites which may be used in different industrial fields such as agriculture and in electronics, household items, cosmetics, and medical devices. Given the different electrical charges that may cover their surface, these polymers may be complexed using a gelation method to generate micro/nanoparticles able to encapsulate different active ingredients. In turn, the obtained nanocapsules may be embedded into nanoemulsions/gels or into nonwoven tissues/films suitable for cosmetic treatments produced by electrospinning or casting technologies, respectively. It is worth underlining that the special ecofriendly tissues obtained from these natural polymers could be used to produce innovative and biodegradable single-use surgical masks and menstrual products, baby nappies, and wet wipes to reduce the actual volume of non-biodegradable plastic waste, which has further increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is interesting, in fact, to underline that both chitin and lignin, along with their complexes, are easily metabolized into compounds that can be utilized by human as well as plant cells as food and/or energy, being both skin- and environmentally friendly.

This Special Issue aims to gather research and review papers to increase the knowledge and use of these natural polymers and their derived compounds and discover new ways of producing innovative and smart products to be used as cosmeceuticals.

Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti
Prof. Dr. Maria Beatrice Coltelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Biobased and Eco-Compatible Beauty Films Coated with Chitin Nanofibrils, Nanolignin and Vitamin E
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020027 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
A stable water-based suspension containing chitin nanofibrils (CN), chitin nanofibrils complexed with nanolignin and the latter containing Vitamin E was prepared starting from CN nanosuspension and nanostructured powders. The water-based coating was deposited by a spray technique on three different renewable and biodegradable [...] Read more.
A stable water-based suspension containing chitin nanofibrils (CN), chitin nanofibrils complexed with nanolignin and the latter containing Vitamin E was prepared starting from CN nanosuspension and nanostructured powders. The water-based coating was deposited by a spray technique on three different renewable and biodegradable films consisting of biodegradable polyesters and starch to prepare possible beauty mask prototypes. After drying, the films were extracted with water to control their potential release on the wet skin and different amounts of released materials were obtained. The results were discussed considering the composition and morphology of the adopted substrates and their interactions with the coating. The eco-compatibility of these films is related to the absence of preservatives and their easy biodegradability in several environmental conditions, decreasing their burden on solid waste management with respect to fossil-based versions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
Biocomposite Materials Based on Chitosan and Lignin: Preparation and Characterization
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8010024 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
In this study, bioactive composite systems based on natural polymers (chitosan and lignin) were prepared in this study. The structural, mechanical, and morphological properties of chitosan-based materials containing various amounts of lignin filler were investigated. The infra-red IR spectroscopy data confirmed the formation [...] Read more.
In this study, bioactive composite systems based on natural polymers (chitosan and lignin) were prepared in this study. The structural, mechanical, and morphological properties of chitosan-based materials containing various amounts of lignin filler were investigated. The infra-red IR spectroscopy data confirmed the formation of chemical bonds between the components of the obtained composites. The mechanical properties of film samples were studied in air and in physiological solution. It was demonstrated that the breaking elongation values of the obtained film samples in the wet state were higher (150–160%) than the corresponding (average) value of a pure chitosan film (100%). The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy data demonstrated that the introduction of lignin had caused significant changes in the surface morphology of films. The appearance of a strongly pronounced texture and porosity facilitated cell proliferation on the surface of composites, i.e., the bioactivity of film samples was enhanced with an increasing lignin content in the chitosan matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Article
Preliminary Studies on an Innovative Bioactive Skin Soluble Beauty Mask Made by Combining Electrospinning and Dry Powder Impregnation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7040096 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
The world of cosmetics is now aiming at biobased materials which are skin-compatible and can be used to generate more sustainable beauty masks with enhanced bioactivity. This work presents, in this line of interest, the combination of two innovative technologies, namely electrospinning and [...] Read more.
The world of cosmetics is now aiming at biobased materials which are skin-compatible and can be used to generate more sustainable beauty masks with enhanced bioactivity. This work presents, in this line of interest, the combination of two innovative technologies, namely electrospinning and dry powder impregnation, to generate biobased skin soluble electrospun pullulan carriers dry impregnated with chitin nanofibrils-nanolignin-glycyrrethinic acid (CLA) complexes, as effective biobased and skin compatible beauty masks. The scalability of the pullulan electrospun carrier and bioactive complexes impregnation were optimized and the morphology evaluated. Subsequently, skin compatibility and mask effectiveness were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that cell viability was optimal for both impregnated and neat pullulan fibers. Additionally, the CLA impregnated pullulan fibers were able to upregulate the endogenous antimicrobial molecule HBD-2. Preliminary studies in vivo indicated that the beauty mask containing the CLA complexes significantly decreased area, length and depth of forehead and crow’s feet wrinkles, and significantly increased moisturizing levels in the skin. The developed beauty mask was also seen to increase skin firmness, while it did not show skin irritation after the test. The work demonstrates that the combination of these two technologies may open new alternatives to more sustainable bioactive cosmetic products for the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Review

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Review
Insect Chitin-Based Nanomaterials for Innovative Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals
Cosmetics 2021, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8020040 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Chitin and its derivatives are attracting great interest in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields, thanks to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, as well as their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The classical source of chitin, crustacean waste, is no longer sustainable and fungi, a possible alternative, [...] Read more.
Chitin and its derivatives are attracting great interest in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields, thanks to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, as well as their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The classical source of chitin, crustacean waste, is no longer sustainable and fungi, a possible alternative, have not been exploited at an industrial scale yet. On the contrary, the breeding of bioconverting insects, especially of the Diptera Hermetia illucens, is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Therefore, their exoskeletons, consisting of chitin as a major component, represent a waste stream of facilities that could be exploited for many applications. Insect chitin, indeed, suggests its application in the same fields as the crustacean biopolymer, because of its comparable commercial characteristics. This review reports several cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications based on chitin and its derivatives. In this context, chitin nanofibers and nanofibrils, produced from crustacean waste, have proved to be excellent cosmeceutical active compounds and carriers of active ingredients in personal care. Consequently, the insect-based chitin, its derivatives and their complexes with hyaluronic acid and lignin, as well as with other chitin-derived compounds, may be considered a new appropriate potential polymer to be used in cosmetic and cosmeceutical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Review
Smart and Sustainable Hair Products Based on Chitin-Derived Compounds
Cosmetics 2021, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics8010020 - 09 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1674
Abstract
According to previous research studies, consumers worldwide are searching for new natural-oriented hair products that are both skin and environmentally friendly. Worldwide waste and air pollution, with the consequent environmental disasters, represent the greatest risk to human health and economy, further increased by [...] Read more.
According to previous research studies, consumers worldwide are searching for new natural-oriented hair products that are both skin and environmentally friendly. Worldwide waste and air pollution, with the consequent environmental disasters, represent the greatest risk to human health and economy, further increased by the COVID-19 pandemic. Among others, non-biodegradable molecules are present in hair products (fossil-based additives, surfactants, etc.) and macromolecules (plastics). Plastics waste is considered the most serious problem, representing a forecast amount of 460 million tons per year by 2030, 12% of which is reused or recycled. Most plastics consumed, therefore, go to landfills and incineration, also if their recycling is considered an important driver of industrial profitability. Thus, the use of biopolymers represents an interesting alternative to produce biodegradable goods and tissues. After an introduction to the worldwide waste problem and the hair structure, the present review proposes the possibility to make biodegradable tissues that, realized by chitin nanofibrils and nano-lignin as natural polymers, may be used to produce an innovative and smart cosmetic hairline. Chitin-derived compounds are considered interesting polymers to produce non-woven tissues able to repair the hair damages provoked by the aggressiveness of both the environment and some aggressive cosmetic treatments, such as setting, bleaching, permanent waving, and oxidative coloring. The possible activity, that positively charged polymers such as chitin could have, has been speculated, interfering with the constitution and organization of the hair fibrils’ structure, which is negatively charged. The possibility of selecting biopolymers for their packaging is also discussed. Moreover, the use of these biopolymers, obtained from forestry-agro-food waste, may be of help to safeguard the further consumption of natural raw materials, necessary for future generations, also maintaining the earth’s biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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Review
Trends in Surgical and Beauty Masks for a Cleaner Environment
Cosmetics 2020, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7030068 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
The surgical face mask (SFM) is a sheet medical device covering the mouth, nose and chin to protect the medical staff from the spread of respiratory droplets produced by the infective coughing or sneezing of hospitalized patients. On the other hand the beauty [...] Read more.
The surgical face mask (SFM) is a sheet medical device covering the mouth, nose and chin to protect the medical staff from the spread of respiratory droplets produced by the infective coughing or sneezing of hospitalized patients. On the other hand the beauty face mask (BFM) has been made by the same sheet but with a different aim—to protect the skin from pollution, acting as a hydrating and rejuvenation agent. Currently, both masks are made principally by non-biodegradable tissues, utilized to avoid the increasing great pollution invading our planet. Due to the diffusion of the current COVID-19 infection rate and the increasing consumption of skin care and beauty products, the waste of these masks, made principally by petrol-derived polymers, is creating further intolerable waste-invaded land and oceans. After an introduction to the aims, differences and market of the various masks, their productive means and ingredients are reported. These news are believed necessary to give the reader the working knowledge of these products, in the context of the bioeconomy, to better understand the innovative tissues proposed and realized by the biobased and biodegradable polymers. Thus, the possibility of producing biodegradable SFMs and BFMs, characterized for their effective antimicrobial and skin repairing activities or hydrating and antiaging activity, respectively. These innovative smart and biodegradable masks are requested from the majority of consumers oriented towards a future green environment. Giving this new sense of direction to their production and consumption, it will be possible to reduce the current waste, ranging worldwide at about 2 billion tons per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin Nanofibrils and Nanolignin for Advanced Cosmeceuticals)
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