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Antibiotics, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Maternal and First Year of Life Dispensations of Antibiotics and Antiasthmatics
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030084
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Antibiotics are the most frequent prescription drugs used by pregnant women. Our objective was to investigate if the dispensation of antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children less than 1 year of age is associated with prenatal antibiotic exposure. A secondary aim was to explore
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Antibiotics are the most frequent prescription drugs used by pregnant women. Our objective was to investigate if the dispensation of antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children less than 1 year of age is associated with prenatal antibiotic exposure. A secondary aim was to explore the incidence of dispensed antibiotics in pregnancy and dispensed antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children. We conducted an observational study using the Peer Academic Detailing study database to select patients eligible for match in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, a total of 7747 mother-and-child pairs. Details on antibiotic and antiasthmatic pharmacy dispensations were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database. One quarter (1948 of 7747) of the mothers in the study had been dispensed antibiotics during pregnancy. In their first year of life, 17% (1289) of the children had had an antibiotic dispensation, 23% (1747) an antiasthmatic dispensation, and 8% (619) of the children had had both. We found a significant association between dispensed antibiotics in pregnancy and dispensed antibiotics to the child during their first year of life; OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.002–1.351). The association was stronger when the mothers were dispensed antibiotics at all, independent of the pregnancy period; OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.32–1.94). We conclude that the probability for dispensation of antibiotics was increased in children when mothers were dispensed antibiotics, independent of pregnancy. Diagnostic challenges in the very young and parental doctor-seeking behavior may, at least in part, contribute to the association between dispensations in mothers and children below the age of one year. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Natural Products from Actinobacteria Associated with Fungus-Growing Termites
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030083
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The chemical analysis of insect-associated Actinobacteria has attracted the interest of natural product chemists in the past years as bacterial-produced metabolites are sought to be crucial for sustaining and protecting the insect host. The objective of our study was to evaluate the phylogeny
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The chemical analysis of insect-associated Actinobacteria has attracted the interest of natural product chemists in the past years as bacterial-produced metabolites are sought to be crucial for sustaining and protecting the insect host. The objective of our study was to evaluate the phylogeny and bioprospecting of Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. We characterized 97 Actinobacteria from the gut, exoskeleton, and fungus garden (comb) of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis and used two different bioassays to assess their general antimicrobial activity. We selected two strains for chemical analysis and investigated the culture broth of the axenic strains and fungus-actinobacterium co-cultures. From these studies, we identified the previously-reported PKS-derived barceloneic acid A and the PKS-derived rubterolones. Analysis of culture broth yielded a new dichlorinated diketopiperazine derivative and two new tetracyclic lanthipeptides, named rubrominins A and B. The discussed natural products highlight that insect-associated Actinobacteria are highly prolific natural product producers yielding important chemical scaffolds urgently needed for future drug development programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinomycetes: The Antibiotics Producers)
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Open AccessArticle Demographic and Psychological Factors Associated with Feelings of Antibiotic Entitlement in New Zealand
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030082
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Patients’ expectations of being prescribed antibiotics can have an important influence on inappropriate prescribing. Therefore, it is important to understand the drivers of patients’ antibiotic expectations. The 2015/16 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study measured sense of entitlement to antibiotics in a nationally
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Patients’ expectations of being prescribed antibiotics can have an important influence on inappropriate prescribing. Therefore, it is important to understand the drivers of patients’ antibiotic expectations. The 2015/16 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study measured sense of entitlement to antibiotics in a nationally representative sample of New Zealanders (n = 13,484). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with the statement “If I go to my doctor/GP with a minor illness (e.g., sore throat, cough, runny nose, etc.), I think that I should be prescribed antibiotics by default.” Eighty percent of participants showed low feelings of antibiotic entitlement, while 18.5% exhibited moderate and 3.7% high feelings of entitlement. People of ethnic minority, lower socio-economic status, and with diabetes expressed higher expectations of being prescribed antibiotics. This may be partially based on a higher risk of rheumatic fever or other complications. Men, religious people, those with lower educational attainment and self-rated health, but greater psychological distress and feelings of control over their health exhibited higher feelings of antibiotic entitlement. Those high on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Narcissism, but low on Agreeableness and Openness, also showed greater feelings of entitlement. Our findings help identify key characteristics of those more likely to express inappropriate expectations of antibiotic prescription. Full article
Open AccessReview Phenoxymethylpenicillin Versus Amoxicillin for Infections in Ambulatory Care: A Systematic Review
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030081
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, and commonly for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Narrow-spectrum phenoxymethylpenicillin is the antibiotic of choice for RTIs in the Scandinavian countries, while broader spectrum amoxicillin is used in most other European countries. This review summarizes the knowledge
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Most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, and commonly for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Narrow-spectrum phenoxymethylpenicillin is the antibiotic of choice for RTIs in the Scandinavian countries, while broader spectrum amoxicillin is used in most other European countries. This review summarizes the knowledge of the effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin versus amoxicillin for infections treated in ambulatory care. We searched PubMed/Medline and Embase for trials comparing the clinical effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin and amoxicillin. The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services’ checklist was used to assess risk of bias. In total, 1687 studies were identified, and 18 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One additional study was found as a reference. The randomized controlled trials revealed no significant differences in clinical effect in acute sinusitis (three RCTs), GAS tonsillitis (11 RCTs) and Lyme borreliosis (two RCTs). One RCT on community-acquired pneumonia found amoxicillin to be superior, while the results were conflicting in the two RCTs on acute otitis. The results suggest that non-Scandinavian countries should consider phenoxymethylpenicillin as the treatment of choice for RTIs because of its narrower spectrum. More studies should be conducted on the clinical effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin versus amoxicillin for acute otitis and lower RTIs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles as a Method of Increasing Their Antibacterial Action
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030080
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
In this article, a series of silver-containing dressings are prepared by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS), and their antibacterial properties are investigated. The antibacterial activity of the dressings containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Gram-positive, and Gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus,
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In this article, a series of silver-containing dressings are prepared by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS), and their antibacterial properties are investigated. The antibacterial activity of the dressings containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Gram-positive, and Gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Moraxella spp.) has been determined. Based on the plasmon resonance frequency of these nanoparticles, the frequency of laser irradiation of the dressing was chosen. The gauze bandage examined showed pronounced antibacterial properties, especially to Staphylococcus aureus strain. When 470 nm laser radiation, with a power of 5 mW, was applied for 5 min, 4 h after inoculating the Petri dish, and placing a bandage containing silver nanoparticles on it, the antibacterial effect of the latter significantly increased—both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The structure and chemical composition of the silver-containing nanocomposite were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The synthesized AgNPs demonstrate narrow and monomodal particle size distribution with an average size of 1.75 nm. Atoms of metal in Ag/bandage system are mainly in Ag0 state, and the oxidized atoms are in the form of Ag-Ag-O groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview Silver and Antibiotic, New Facts to an Old Story
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030079
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
The therapeutic arsenal against bacterial infections is rapidly shrinking, as drug resistance spreads and pharmaceutical industry are struggling to produce new antibiotics. In this review we cover the efficacy of silver as an antibacterial agent. In particular we recall experimental evidences pointing to
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The therapeutic arsenal against bacterial infections is rapidly shrinking, as drug resistance spreads and pharmaceutical industry are struggling to produce new antibiotics. In this review we cover the efficacy of silver as an antibacterial agent. In particular we recall experimental evidences pointing to the multiple targets of silver, including DNA, proteins and small molecules, and we review the arguments for and against the hypothesis that silver acts by enhancing oxidative stress. We also review the recent use of silver as an adjuvant for antibiotics. Specifically, we discuss the state of our current understanding on the potentiating action of silver ions on aminoglycoside antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview State-of-the-Art, and Perspectives of, Silver/Plasma Polymer Antibacterial Nanocomposites
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030078
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Urgent need for innovative and effective antibacterial coatings in different fields seems to have triggered the development of numerous strategies for the production of such materials. As shown in this short overview, plasma based techniques arouse considerable attention that is connected with the
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Urgent need for innovative and effective antibacterial coatings in different fields seems to have triggered the development of numerous strategies for the production of such materials. As shown in this short overview, plasma based techniques arouse considerable attention that is connected with the possibility to use these techniques for the production of advanced antibacterial Ag/plasma polymer coatings with tailor-made functional properties. In addition, the plasma-based deposition is believed to be well-suited for the production of novel multi-functional or stimuli-responsive antibacterial films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates in Baltimore, Maryland, 2016: The Importance of Sentinel Surveillance in the Era of Multi-Drug-Resistant Gonorrhea
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030077
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
The increasing rates of gonorrhea infections and the global emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) threaten the successful management of gonorrhea. In the era of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), surveillance projects are urgently needed to monitor prevalence and trends in
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The increasing rates of gonorrhea infections and the global emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) threaten the successful management of gonorrhea. In the era of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), surveillance projects are urgently needed to monitor prevalence and trends in the antimicrobial susceptibility of NG. In this study, we retrospectively determined the susceptibility profile of NG isolates to previously and currently prescribed antimicrobials. NG isolates collected in Baltimore, Maryland between January and October 2016 were evaluated by the E-test method and/or molecular methods for susceptibility to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and penicillin. One-hundred and forty-three NG isolates from African-American males (98.6%), primarily heterosexual (88.8%), ranging in age from 15 to 69 years of age were included in the study. Ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 44.1% of isolates. Plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin and tetracycline resistance was detected in 22.4% and 10.1% of isolates, respectively. Three isolates (2.1%) displayed high-level resistance to azithromycin (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 μg/mL). Forty-three percent of isolates were resistant or had decreased susceptibility to three antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and penicillin). All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. Overall, the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant NG in Baltimore continues to evolve, and the emergence of azithromycin resistance in this population emphasizes the need for continued sentinel surveillance programs to monitor susceptibility trends and aid in treatment recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessArticle Silver Nanoparticles and Polyphenol Inclusion Compounds Composites for Phytophthora cinnamomi Mycelial Growth Inhibition
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030076
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Phytophthora cinnamomi, responsible for “root rot” or “dieback” plant disease, causes a significant amount of economic and environmental impact. In this work, the fungicide action of nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles and polyphenol inclusion compounds, which feature enhanced bioavailability and water solubility,
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Phytophthora cinnamomi, responsible for “root rot” or “dieback” plant disease, causes a significant amount of economic and environmental impact. In this work, the fungicide action of nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles and polyphenol inclusion compounds, which feature enhanced bioavailability and water solubility, was assayed for the control of this soil-borne water mold. Inclusion compounds were prepared by an aqueous two-phase system separation method through extraction, either in an hydroalcoholic solution with chitosan oligomers (COS) or in a choline chloride:urea:glycerol deep eutectic solvent (DES). The new inclusion compounds were synthesized from stevioside and various polyphenols (gallic acid, silymarin, ferulic acid and curcumin), in a [6:1] ratio in the COS medium and in a [3:1] ratio in the DES medium, respectively. Their in vitro response against Phytophthora cinnamomi isolate MYC43 (at concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 µg·mL−1) was tested, which found a significant mycelial growth inhibition, particularly high for the composites prepared using DES. Therefore, these nanocomposites hold promise as an alternative to fosetyl-Al and metalaxyl conventional systemic fungicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Usage in Animal Production: A Review of the Literature with a Focus on Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030075
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production is a key contributor to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide. As consumption of animal protein and associated animal production is forecast to increase markedly over coming years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), accurate monitoring of AMU has
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Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production is a key contributor to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide. As consumption of animal protein and associated animal production is forecast to increase markedly over coming years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), accurate monitoring of AMU has become imperative. We summarized data from 89 scientific studies reporting AMU data in animal production published in English since 1998, identified through the ‘ISI Web of Knowledge’ search engine. The aims were as follows: (a) to describe methodologies and metrics used to quantify AMU; (b) to summarize qualitative (on-farm prevalence of use) and quantitative (amounts of antimicrobial active principle) data, in order to identify food animal species at the highest risk of AMU; and (c) to highlight data gaps from LMICs. Only 17/89 (19.1%) studies were conducted in LMICs. Sixty (67.3%) reported quantitative data use, with ‘daily doses per animal-time’ being the most common metric. AMU was greatest in chickens (138 doses/1000 animal-days [inter quartile range (IQR) 91.1–438.3]), followed by swine (40.2 [IQR 8.5–120.4]), and dairy cattle (10.0 [IQR 5.5–13.6]). However, per kg of meat produced, AMU was highest in swine, followed by chickens and cattle. Our review highlights a large deficit of data from LMICs, and provides a reference for comparison with further surveillance and research initiatives aiming to reduce AMU in animal production globally. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Yōko, T., et al. Actinomycetes, an Inexhaustible Source of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 45
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030074
Received: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] Full article
Open AccessCommunication Where Did They Come from—Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogenic Escherichia coli in a Cemetery Environment?
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030073
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Human burial in cemeteries facilitates the decomposition of corpses without posing a public health danger. However, the role of cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of drug-resistant pathogens has not been studied. Thus, we investigated cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of multi-drug resistant (MDR)
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Human burial in cemeteries facilitates the decomposition of corpses without posing a public health danger. However, the role of cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of drug-resistant pathogens has not been studied. Thus, we investigated cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogenic Escherichia coli. E. coli isolates were obtained from water samples (collected from surface water bodies and boreholes in three cemeteries) after isolation using the Colilert® 18 system. Pathogenic potentials of the isolates were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reactions targeting seven virulence genes (VGs) pertaining to six E. coli pathotypes. The resistance of isolates to eight antibiotics was tested using the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. The mean E. coli concentrations varied from <1 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL to 2419.6 MPN/100 mL with 48% of 100 isolates being positive for at least one of the VGs tested. Furthermore, 87% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, while 72% of the isolates displayed multi-drug resistance. Half of the MDR isolates harboured a VG. These results suggest that cemeteries are potential reservoirs of MDR pathogenic E. coli, originating from surrounding informal settlements, which could contaminate groundwater if the cemeteries are in areas with shallow aquifers. Full article
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Open AccessReview DnaG Primase—A Target for the Development of Novel Antibacterial Agents
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030072
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
The bacterial primase—an essential component in the replisome—is a promising but underexploited target for novel antibiotic drugs. Bacterial primases have a markedly different structure than the human primase. Inhibition of primase activity is expected to selectively halt bacterial DNA replication. Evidence is growing
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The bacterial primase—an essential component in the replisome—is a promising but underexploited target for novel antibiotic drugs. Bacterial primases have a markedly different structure than the human primase. Inhibition of primase activity is expected to selectively halt bacterial DNA replication. Evidence is growing that halting DNA replication has a bacteriocidal effect. Therefore, inhibitors of DNA primase could provide antibiotic agents. Compounds that inhibit bacterial DnaG primase have been developed using different approaches. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current literature on DNA primases as novel drug targets and the methods used to find their inhibitors. Although few inhibitors have been identified, there are still challenges to develop inhibitors that can efficiently halt DNA replication and may be applied in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial DNA Replication and Replication Inhibitors)
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Open AccessReview Patient and Prescriber Views of Penicillin Allergy Testing and Subsequent Antibiotic Use: A Rapid Review
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030071
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
About 10% of U.K. patients believe that they are allergic to penicillin and have a “penicillin allergy label” in their primary care health record. However, around 90% of these patients may be mislabelled. Removing incorrect penicillin allergy labels can help to reduce unnecessary
[...] Read more.
About 10% of U.K. patients believe that they are allergic to penicillin and have a “penicillin allergy label” in their primary care health record. However, around 90% of these patients may be mislabelled. Removing incorrect penicillin allergy labels can help to reduce unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic use. A rapid review was undertaken of papers exploring patient and/or clinician views and experiences of penicillin allergy testing (PAT) services and the influences on antibiotic prescribing behaviour in the context of penicillin allergy. We reviewed English-language publications published up to November 2017. Limited evidence on patients’ experiences of PAT highlighted advantages to testing as well as a number of concerns. Clinicians reported uncertainty about referral criteria for PAT. Following PAT and a negative result, a number of clinicians and patients remained reluctant to prescribe and consume penicillins. This appeared to reflect a lack of confidence in the test result and fear of subsequent reactions to penicillins. The findings suggest lack of awareness and knowledge of PAT services by both clinicians and patients. In order to ensure correct penicillin allergy diagnosis, clinicians and patients need to be supported to use PAT services and equipped with the skills to use penicillins appropriately following a negative allergy test result. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Hydrogel-Based Diagnostic Approach for the Point-of-Care Based Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030070
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
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Abstract
Eleven primer pairs were developed for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The sensitivity and specificity of these primers were evaluated by Real Time (RT)-PCR melt curve analyses with DNA from 145 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 40 other Neisseria or non-Neisseria species.
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Eleven primer pairs were developed for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The sensitivity and specificity of these primers were evaluated by Real Time (RT)-PCR melt curve analyses with DNA from 145 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 40 other Neisseria or non-Neisseria species. Three primer pairs were further evaluated in a hydrogel-based RT-PCR detection platform, using DNA extracted from 50 N. gonorrhoeae cultures. We observed 100% sensitivity and specificity in the hydrogel assay, confirming its potential as a point-of-care test (POCT) for N. gonorrhoeae diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
Open AccessReview Biogenic Nanosilver against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria (MDRB)
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030069
Received: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are extremely dangerous and bring a serious threat to health care systems as they can survive an attack from almost any drug. The bacteria’s adaptive way of living with the use of antimicrobials and antibiotics caused them to modify and
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Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are extremely dangerous and bring a serious threat to health care systems as they can survive an attack from almost any drug. The bacteria’s adaptive way of living with the use of antimicrobials and antibiotics caused them to modify and prevail in hostile conditions by creating resistance to known antibiotics or their combinations. The emergence of nanomaterials as new antimicrobials introduces a new paradigm for antibiotic use in various fields. For example, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the oldest nanomaterial used for bactericide and bacteriostatic purposes. However, for just a few decades these have been produced in a biogenic or bio-based fashion. This review brings the latest reports on biogenic AgNPs in the combat against MDRB. Some antimicrobial mechanisms and possible silver resistance traits acquired by bacteria are also presented. Hopefully, novel AgNPs-containing products might be designed against MDR bacterial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Juglans regia Leaf Extract and Evaluation of Their Physico-Chemical and Antibacterial Properties
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030068
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using Juglans regia (J. regia) leaf extract, as both reducing and stabilizing agents through microwave irradiation method. The effects of a 1% (w/v) amount of leaf extract (0.1–0.9 mL) and an
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using Juglans regia (J. regia) leaf extract, as both reducing and stabilizing agents through microwave irradiation method. The effects of a 1% (w/v) amount of leaf extract (0.1–0.9 mL) and an amount of 1 mM AgNO3 solution (15–25 mL) on the broad emission peak (λmax) and concentration of the synthesized Ag NPs solution were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated the main functional groups existing in the J. regia leaf extract. Dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs. Fabricated Ag NPs with the mean particle size and polydispersity index and maximum concentration and zeta potential of 168 nm, 0.419, 135.16 ppm and −15.6 mV, respectively, were obtained using 0.1 mL of J. regia leaf extract and 15 mL of AgNO3. The antibacterial activity of the fabricated Ag NPs was assessed against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and was found to possess high bactericidal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview The Pros and Cons of the Use of Laser Ablation Synthesis for the Production of Silver Nano-Antimicrobials
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030067
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known for their antimicrobial effects and several groups are proposing them as active agents to fight antimicrobial resistance. A wide variety of methods is available for nanoparticle synthesis, affording a broad spectrum of chemical and physical properties. In this
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known for their antimicrobial effects and several groups are proposing them as active agents to fight antimicrobial resistance. A wide variety of methods is available for nanoparticle synthesis, affording a broad spectrum of chemical and physical properties. In this work, we report on AgNPs produced by laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS), discussing the major features of this approach. Laser ablation synthesis is one of the best candidates, as compared to wet-chemical syntheses, for preparing Ag nano-antimicrobials. In fact, this method allows the preparation of stable Ag colloids in pure solvents without using either capping and stabilizing agents or reductants. LASiS produces AgNPs, which can be more suitable for medical and food-related applications where it is important to use non-toxic chemicals and materials for humans. In addition, laser ablation allows for achieving nanoparticles with different properties according to experimental laser parameters, thus influencing antibacterial mechanisms. However, the concentration obtained by laser-generated AgNP colloids is often low, and it is hard to implement them on an industrial scale. To obtain interesting concentrations for final applications, it is necessary to exploit high-energy lasers, which are quite expensive. In this review, we discuss the pros and cons of the use of laser ablation synthesis for the production of Ag antimicrobial colloids, taking into account applications in the food packaging field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview Bacteriophages: Protagonists of a Post-Antibiotic Era
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030066
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Despite their long success for more than half a century, antibiotics are currently under the spotlight due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The development of new alternative treatments is of particular interest in the fight against bacterial resistance. Bacteriophages (phages) are natural
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Despite their long success for more than half a century, antibiotics are currently under the spotlight due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The development of new alternative treatments is of particular interest in the fight against bacterial resistance. Bacteriophages (phages) are natural killers of bacteria and are an excellent tool due to their specificity and ecological safety. Here, we highlight some of their advantages and drawbacks as potential therapeutic agents. Interestingly, phages are not only attractive from a clinical point of view, but other areas, such as agriculture, food control, or industry, are also areas for their potential application. Therefore, we propose phages as a real alternative to current antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophages: Alternatives to Antibiotics and Beyond)
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Open AccessReview Silver Camphor Imine Complexes: Novel Antibacterial Compounds from Old Medicines
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030065
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of bacterial resistance to available antimicrobials has prompted the search for novel antibacterial compounds to overcome this public health problem. Metal-based complexes have been much less explored than organic compounds as antimicrobials, leading to investigations of the antimicrobial properties of selected
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The emergence of bacterial resistance to available antimicrobials has prompted the search for novel antibacterial compounds to overcome this public health problem. Metal-based complexes have been much less explored than organic compounds as antimicrobials, leading to investigations of the antimicrobial properties of selected complexes in which silver may occupy the frontline due to its use as medicine since ancient times. Like silver, camphor has also long been used for medicinal purposes. However, in both cases, limited information exists concerning the mechanisms of their antimicrobial action. This work reviews the present knowledge of the antimicrobial properties of camphor-derived silver complexes, focusing on recent research on the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of complexes based on silver and camphor imines. Selected examples of the structure and antimicrobial activity relationships of ligands studied so far are presented, showing the potential of silver camphorimine complexes as novel antimicrobials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessReview Antibiotic Targets in Gonococcal Cell Wall Metabolism
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030064
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
The peptidoglycan cell wall that encloses the bacterial cell and provides structural support and protection is remodeled by multiple enzymes that synthesize and cleave the polymer during growth. This essential and dynamic structure has been targeted by multiple antibiotics to treat gonococcal infections.
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The peptidoglycan cell wall that encloses the bacterial cell and provides structural support and protection is remodeled by multiple enzymes that synthesize and cleave the polymer during growth. This essential and dynamic structure has been targeted by multiple antibiotics to treat gonococcal infections. Up until now, antibiotics have been used against the biosynthetic machinery and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting enzymatic activities involved in peptidoglycan breakdown has not been explored. Given the major antibiotic resistance problems we currently face, it is crucial to identify other possible targets that are key to maintaining cell integrity and contribute to disease development. This article reviews peptidoglycan as an antibiotic target, how N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to currently available antibiotics, and the potential of continuing to target this essential structure to combat gonococcal infections by attacking alternative enzymatic activities involved in cell wall modification and metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Surveillance for Antimicrobial Resistance in Gonorrhea: The Alberta Model, 2012–2016
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030063
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Alberta established a surveillance system in 2001 to monitor resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhea. A retrospective review of gonorrhea cases during the last five years was conducted. All cases of gonorrhea were reportable to public health by testing laboratories
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Alberta established a surveillance system in 2001 to monitor resistance to antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhea. A retrospective review of gonorrhea cases during the last five years was conducted. All cases of gonorrhea were reportable to public health by testing laboratories and clinicians. Specimens were primarily submitted for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT); three sentinel sites obtained specimens for culture and NAAT. The Provincial Laboratory for Public Health conducted E-tests on isolates for multiple antibiotics. A proportion of isolates and NAAT specimens were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for sequence typing (ST). Data were combined and analyzed using SAS version 9.4. Between 2012 and 2016, 13,132 gonorrhea cases were reported; 22.0% (n = 2891) had isolates available for susceptibility testing. All culture positive isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Decreased susceptibility (0.5 ug/mL) to cefixime was reported in four cases in 2014. Resistance to azithromycin (≥2 ug/mL) ranged between 0.4% and 1.8%. Many (n = 509) unique STs were identified; the most prevalent sequence groups (SG) were SG-7638 (n = 367), SG-5985 (n = 145), and SG-11299 (n = 127). The Alberta model for maintaining surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in gonorrhea employs culture and NAAT specimens, providing information crucial to informing provincial treatment guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessReview Acyltransferases as Tools for Polyketide Synthase Engineering
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030062
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyketides belong to the most valuable natural products, including diverse bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, antifungal agents, immunosuppressants and others. Their structures are assembled by polyketide synthases (PKSs). Modular PKSs are composed of modules, which involve sets of domains catalysing the
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Polyketides belong to the most valuable natural products, including diverse bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, antifungal agents, immunosuppressants and others. Their structures are assembled by polyketide synthases (PKSs). Modular PKSs are composed of modules, which involve sets of domains catalysing the stepwise polyketide biosynthesis. The acyltransferase (AT) domains and their “partners”, the acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), thereby play an essential role. The AT loads the building blocks onto the “substrate acceptor”, the ACP. Thus, the AT dictates which building blocks are incorporated into the polyketide structure. The precursor- and occasionally the ACP-specificity of the ATs differ across the polyketide pathways and therefore, the ATs contribute to the structural diversity within this group of complex natural products. Those features make the AT enzymes one of the most promising tools for manipulation of polyketide assembly lines and generation of new polyketide compounds. However, the AT-based PKS engineering is still not straightforward and thus, rational design of functional PKSs requires detailed understanding of the complex machineries. This review summarizes the attempts of PKS engineering by exploiting the AT attributes for the modification of polyketide structures. The article includes 253 references and covers the most relevant literature published until May 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinomycetes: The Antibiotics Producers)
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Open AccessReview Production of β-Lactamase Inhibitors by Streptomyces Species
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030061
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
β-Lactamase inhibitors have emerged as an effective alternative to reduce the effects of resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. The Streptomyces genus is known for being an exceptional natural source of antimicrobials and β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, which is largely applied in clinical
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β-Lactamase inhibitors have emerged as an effective alternative to reduce the effects of resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. The Streptomyces genus is known for being an exceptional natural source of antimicrobials and β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, which is largely applied in clinical practice. To protect against the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, new antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors need to be discovered and developed. This review will cover an update about the main β-lactamase inhibitors producers belonging to the Streptomyces genus; advanced methods, such as genetic and metabolic engineering, to enhance inhibitor production compared with wild-type strains; and fermentation and purification processes. Moreover, clinical practice and commercial issues are discussed. The commitment of companies and governments to develop innovative strategies and methods to improve the access to new, efficient, and potentially cost-effective microbial products to combat the antimicrobial resistance is also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinomycetes: The Antibiotics Producers)
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Open AccessReview Epidemiological Trends of Antibiotic Resistant Gonorrhoea in the United Kingdom
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030060
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial infections, globally and in the United Kingdom. The levels of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhoea reported in recent years represent a critical public health issue. From penicillins to cefixime, the gonococcus has become resistant to
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Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial infections, globally and in the United Kingdom. The levels of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhoea reported in recent years represent a critical public health issue. From penicillins to cefixime, the gonococcus has become resistant to all antibiotics that have been previously used against it, in each case only a matter of years after introduction as a first-line therapy. After each instance of resistance emergence, the treatment recommendations have required revision, to the point that only a few antibiotics can reliably be prescribed to treat infected individuals. Most countries, including the UK, now recommend that gonorrhoea be treated with a dual therapy combining ceftriaxone and azithromycin. While this treatment is still currently effective for the vast majority of cases, there are concerning signs that this will not always remain the case, and there is no readily apparent alternative. Here, we review the use of antibiotics and epidemiological trends of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhoea from surveillance data over the past 15 years in the UK and describe how surveillance could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication The Growing Threat of Gonococcal Blindness
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030059
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is now a reality, as well as the consequences of untreatable infections. Gonococcal eye infections result in blindness if not properly treated; they accounted for the vast majority of infections in children in homes for the blind in the pre-antibiotic era.
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Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is now a reality, as well as the consequences of untreatable infections. Gonococcal eye infections result in blindness if not properly treated; they accounted for the vast majority of infections in children in homes for the blind in the pre-antibiotic era. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the eyes of infants born to mothers with gonorrhea and can also infect the eyes of adults. Changes in sexual practices may account for the rise in adult gonococcal eye infections, although some cases seem to have occurred with no associated genital infection. As gonorrhea becomes increasingly difficult to treat, the consequences for the treatment of gonococcal blindness must be considered as well. Monocaprin was shown to be effective in rapidly killing N. gonorrhoeae, and is non-irritating in ocular models. Repeated passage in sub-lethal monocaprin induces neither resistance in gonococci nor genomic mutations that are suggestive of resistance. Here, we show that 1 mM monocaprin kills 100% of N. gonorrhoeae in 2 min, and is equally effective against N. meningitidis, a rare cause of ophthalmia neonatorum that is potentially lethal. Monocaprin at 1 mM also completely kills Staphylococcus aureus after 60 min, and 25 mM kills 80% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 360 min. Previously, 1 mM monocaprin was shown to eliminate Chlamydia trachomatis in 5 min. Monocaprin is, therefore, a promising active ingredient in the treatment and prophylaxis of keratitis, especially considering the growing threat of gonococcal blindness due to antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessArticle Trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Resistance over a Ten-Year Surveillance Period, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2008–2017
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030058
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: In South Africa, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed through a syndromic approach at primary healthcare centres (PHCs). Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the predominant cause of male urethritis syndrome. We describe antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae during a ten-year surveillance
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Background: In South Africa, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed through a syndromic approach at primary healthcare centres (PHCs). Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the predominant cause of male urethritis syndrome. We describe antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae during a ten-year surveillance period at a large PHC in Johannesburg. Methods: Neisseria gonorrhoeae was cultured from genital discharge swab specimens obtained from consenting adult patients presenting at the Alexandra Health Centre in Johannesburg between 2008 and 2017. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Etest™ (cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin) or agar dilution (penicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin). Results: During the period of surveillance, high-level resistance prevalence increased from 30% to 51% for penicillin (p-value for trend < 0.001), 75% to 83% for tetracycline (p-value for trend = 0.008), and 25% to 69% for ciprofloxacin (p-value for trend < 0.001). Analysis did not reveal high-level resistance to spectinomycin or a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep for extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and the prevalence of intermediate-resistance to azithromycin was less than 5%. Conclusions: High prevalence resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin in N. gonorrhoeae obviates their use in future national treatment algorithms for genital discharge. It is essential to continue monitoring for emerging resistance to currently recommended antimicrobial therapy in this rapidly evolving pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
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Open AccessArticle General Practitioners’ Views on the Acceptability and Applicability of Using Quality Indicators as an Intervention to Reduce Unnecessary Prescription of Antibiotics in Four South American Countries
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030057
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
As part of the quality improvement program “Health Alliance for Prudent Prescribing, Yield And Use of anti-microbial Drugs In the Treatment of respiratory tract infections” (HAPPY AUDIT) South America, we planned to implement an intervention based on the use of quality indicators as
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As part of the quality improvement program “Health Alliance for Prudent Prescribing, Yield And Use of anti-microbial Drugs In the Treatment of respiratory tract infections” (HAPPY AUDIT) South America, we planned to implement an intervention based on the use of quality indicators as a means to influence General Practitioners’ (GPs) prescribing decision. Knowledge on the acceptability and applicability of an intervention is crucial to decide whether the intervention is suitable and will achieve the expected outcomes. This study explores GPs’ views about the acceptability and applicability of using quality indicators as an intervention to influence their prescribing decision in patients with suspected Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs) across four countries in South-America. In March 2015, GPs that were participating in HAPPY AUDIT South America were invited to participate in focus groups. A discussion guide covering the domains acceptability and applicability was used. Data was analyzed through systematic text condensation with an inductive approach. 171 GPs were invited and 48% participated. Acceptability ranged from totally acceptable to slightly acceptable. This spectrum of GPs views on acceptability was influenced by themes concerning applicability. In conclusion, there is a positive attitude towards the use of quality indicators. Nonetheless, applicability challenges have to be taken into consideration and solved if we are to achieve a large effect with the implementation of this intervention. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: São-José, C. Engineering of Phage-Derived Lytic Enzymes: Improving Their Potential as Antimicrobials. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 29
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030056
Received: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Tunable Silver-Functionalized Porous Frameworks for Antibacterial Applications
Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030055
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
Healthcare-associated infections and the rise of drug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges to existing antibiotic therapies. Silver nanocomposites are a promising solution to the current crisis, however their therapeutic application requires improved understanding of underpinning structure-function relationships. A family of chemically and structurally modified
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Healthcare-associated infections and the rise of drug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges to existing antibiotic therapies. Silver nanocomposites are a promising solution to the current crisis, however their therapeutic application requires improved understanding of underpinning structure-function relationships. A family of chemically and structurally modified mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were synthesized as porous host matrices to tune the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and porosimetry demonstrate that functionalization by a titania monolayer and the incorporation of macroporosity both increase silver nanoparticle dispersion throughout the silica matrix, thereby promoting Ag2CO3 formation and the release of ionic silver in simulated tissue fluid. The Ag2CO3 concentration within functionalized porous architectures is a strong predictor for antibacterial efficacy against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including C. difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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