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Vaccines, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 152 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Patients from socially deprived and ethnic minority backgrounds associated with increased COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy are over-represented in the renal replacement therapy (RRT) population. A bespoke vaccination programme was designed with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, using clinical teams as trusted messengers, patient engagement, local safety, and efficacy data to ensure equitable access to this life-saving intervention. The results of the programme showed that the total uptake for a first dose of COVID-19 vaccination was high at 96.7% and there were no statistically significant differences in patients from ethnic minority groups or socially deprived backgrounds. The vaccination uptake was higher compared to the reference regional adult clinically extremely vulnerable population. This work can inform other initiatives to address health inequalities in RRT patients. View this paper
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20 pages, 5185 KiB  
Article
Impact of DNA Prime/Protein Boost Vaccination against Campylobacter jejuni on Immune Responses and Gut Microbiota in Chickens
by Noémie Gloanec, Daniel Dory, Ségolène Quesne, Véronique Béven, Typhaine Poezevara, Alassane Keita, Marianne Chemaly and Muriel Guyard-Nicodème
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060981 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Campylobacteriosis is reported to be the leading zoonosis in Europe, and poultry is the main reservoir of Campylobacter. Despite all the efforts made, there is still no efficient vaccine to fight this bacterium directly in poultry. Recent studies have reported interactions between the [...] Read more.
Campylobacteriosis is reported to be the leading zoonosis in Europe, and poultry is the main reservoir of Campylobacter. Despite all the efforts made, there is still no efficient vaccine to fight this bacterium directly in poultry. Recent studies have reported interactions between the chicken immune system and gut microbiota in response to Campylobacter colonisation. The present study was designed to analyse in more depth the immune responses and caecal microbiota following vaccination with a DNA prime/protein boost flagellin-based vaccine that induces some protection in specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens, as shown previously. These data may help to improve future vaccination protocols against Campylobacter in poultry. Here a vaccinated and a placebo group were challenged by C. jejuni at the age of 19 days. A partial reduction in Campylobacter loads was observed in the vaccinated group. This was accompanied by the production of specific systemic and mucosal antibodies. Transient relatively higher levels of Interleukin-10 and antimicrobial peptide avian β-defensin 10 gene expressions were observed in the vaccinated and placebo groups respectively. The analysis of caecal microbiota revealed the vaccination’s impact on its structure and composition. Specifically, levels of operational taxonomic units classified as Ruminococcaceae and Bacillaceae increased on day 40. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of DNA and mRNA Vaccines)
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14 pages, 2577 KiB  
Article
Broad Cross-Reactive IgA and IgG against Human Coronaviruses in Milk Induced by COVID-19 Vaccination and Infection
by Jiong Wang, Bridget E. Young, Dongmei Li, Antti Seppo, Qian Zhou, Alexander Wiltse, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Katherine Murphy, Kaili Widrick, Nicole Diaz, Joseline Cruz-Vasquez, Kirsi M. Järvinen and Martin S. Zand
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060980 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3504
Abstract
It is currently unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination can also induce IgG and IgA against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in lactating parents. Here we prospectively analyzed human milk (HM) and blood samples from lactating parents to measure the temporal patterns of [...] Read more.
It is currently unclear if SARS-CoV-2 infection or mRNA vaccination can also induce IgG and IgA against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in lactating parents. Here we prospectively analyzed human milk (HM) and blood samples from lactating parents to measure the temporal patterns of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific and anti-HCoV cross-reactive IgA and IgG responses. Two cohorts were analyzed: a vaccination cohort (n = 30) who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2), and an infection cohort (n = 45) with COVID-19 disease. Longitudinal HM and fingerstick blood samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination or, for infected subjects, at 5 time-points 14–28 days after confirmed diagnosis. The anti-spike(S) and anti-nucleocapsid(N) IgA and IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs were measured by multiplex immunoassay (mPlex-CoV). We found that vaccination significantly increased the anti-S IgA and IgG levels in HM. In contrast, while IgG levels increased after a second vaccine dose, blood and HM IgA started to decrease. Moreover, HM and blood anti-S IgG levels were significantly correlated, but anti-S IgA levels were not. SARS2 acute infection elicited anti-S IgG and IgA that showed much higher correlations between HM and blood compared to vaccination. Vaccination and infection were able to significantly increase the broadly cross-reactive IgG recognizing HCoVs in HM and blood than the IgA antibodies in HM and blood. In addition, the broader cross-reactivity of IgG in HM versus blood indicates that COVID-19 vaccination and infection might provide passive immunity through HM for the breastfed infants not only against SARS-CoV-2 but also against common cold coronaviruses. Full article
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11 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Immunization with Pooled Antigens for Clostridium perfringens Conferred Partial Protection against Experimental Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens
by Baohong Yuan, Zhifeng Sun, Mingmin Lu, Hyun Lillehoj, Youngsub Lee, Liheng Liu, Xianghe Yan, Danchen Aaron Yang and Charles Li
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060979 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a multifactorial and important enteric infectious disease etiologically caused by pathogenic C. perfringens infection, accounting for the estimated loss of around USD 6 billion in the global poultry industry. The increasing incidence of NE was found to be associated [...] Read more.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a multifactorial and important enteric infectious disease etiologically caused by pathogenic C. perfringens infection, accounting for the estimated loss of around USD 6 billion in the global poultry industry. The increasing incidence of NE was found to be associated with the voluntary reduction or withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from animal feed during recent years. Therefore, the development of effective vaccines specific to NE assumes a priority for the poultry industry. This study aimed to identify the potential C. perfringens proteins as vaccine targets for NE. Three recombinant C. perfringens proteins targeting five antigens were prepared: two chimeric proteins (alpha-toxin and NetB, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and a zinc metalloprotease (Zm)), and one single collagen adhesion protein (Cna). Their protection efficacies were evaluated with a potent challenge model of Eimeria maxima/C. perfringens dual infections using a netB+tpeL+ C. perfringens strain. Young chicks were immunized twice subcutaneously with adjuvanted C. perfringens proteins on Days 4 and 15. At six days after the second immunization, the chickens immunized with Cna, FBA, and Zm antigens, and alpha-toxin had much higher serum antibody titers than unvaccinated controls prior to the challenge. Following the challenge, the pooled antigen-immunized group demonstrated no mortality and the least lesion scores against virulent challenge. The results indicate that the immunization with multicomponent antigens, including C. perfringens housekeeping protein Cna, may confer partial protection. Full article
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10 pages, 703 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Mortality in Tocilizumab-Treated Severe COVID-19
by Konstantinos Pagkratis, Serafeim Chrysikos, Emmanouil Antonakis, Aggeliki Pandi, Chrysavgi Nikolaou Kosti, Eleftherios Markatis, Georgios Hillas, Antonia Digalaki, Sofia Koukidou, Eleftheria Chaini, Andreas Afthinos, Katerina Dimakou and Ilias C. Papanikolaou
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060978 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Purpose: Tocilizumab is associated with positive outcomes in severe COVID-19. We wanted to describe the characteristics of nonresponders to treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study in two respiratory departments investigating adverse outcomes at 90 days from diagnosis in subjects treated with [...] Read more.
Purpose: Tocilizumab is associated with positive outcomes in severe COVID-19. We wanted to describe the characteristics of nonresponders to treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study in two respiratory departments investigating adverse outcomes at 90 days from diagnosis in subjects treated with tocilizumab (8 mg/kg intravenously single dose) for severe progressive COVID-19. Results: Of 121 subjects, 62% were males, and 9% were fully vaccinated. Ninety-six (79.4%) survived, and 25 died (20.6%). Compared to survivors (S), nonsurvivors (NS) were older (median 57 versus 75 years of age), had more comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index 2 versus 5) and had higher rates of intubation/mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05). On admission, NS had a lower PO2/FiO2 ratio, higher blood ferritin, and higher troponin, and on clinical progression (day of tocilizumab treatment), NS had a lower PO2/FiO2 ratio, decreased lymphocytes, increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, increased ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), disease located centrally on computed tomography scan, and increased late c-reactive protein. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified age and LDH on deterioration as predictors of death; admission PO2/FiO2 ratio and LDH as predictors of intubation; PO2/FiO2 ratios, LDH, and central lung disease on radiology as predictors of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) (a < 0.05). The log-rank test of mortality yielded the same results (p < 0.001). ROC analysis of the above predictors in a separate validation cohort yielded significant results. Conclusions: Older age and high serum LDH levels are predictors of mortality in tocilizumab-treated severe COVID-19 patients. Hypoxia levels, LDH, and central pulmonary involvement radiologically are associated with intubation and NIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
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15 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
Self-Reported COVID-19 Vaccines’ Side Effects among Patients Treated with Biological Therapies in Saudi Arabia: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
by Lama T AlMutairi, Wesal Y Alalayet, Sondus I Ata, Khalidah A Alenzi and Yazed AlRuthia
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060977 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines among a mixed gender sample of patients on monoclonal antibody biologics (mAbs) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a prospective questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in which adult patients (≥18 [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines among a mixed gender sample of patients on monoclonal antibody biologics (mAbs) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a prospective questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in which adult patients (≥18 years) on mAbs who had received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine from three tertiary care centers in Saudi Arabia were included. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regressions were conducted to present the vaccine side effects and examine the association between the reported side effects and vaccine type. Results: Four-hundred and seventeen patients, with a mean age of 39 years, consented to participate. Approximately 82% and 18% of the participants received Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines, respectively, and nearly 71% received two doses of the vaccine. Diarrhea (9.59%), fever (51.32%), headache (32.13%), hypotension (13.67%), palpitation (9.11%), and temporary loss of smell (5.28%) were the most commonly reported side effects. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe for patients treated with mAbs. Future studies should examine the rates of side effects across different COVID-19 vaccines among patients on mAbs using more robust study designs and representative samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effectiveness, Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines)
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9 pages, 583 KiB  
Brief Report
Flu and COVID-19 Vaccination: What Happens to the Flu Shot When the Campaigns Overlap? Experience from a Large Italian Research Hospital
by Domenico Pascucci, Mario Cesare Nurchis, Alberto Lontano, Eleonora Marziali, Giuseppe Vetrugno, Andrea Cambieri, Umberto Moscato, Andrea Di Pilla, Gianfranco Damiani and Patrizia Laurenti
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060976 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Influenza represents a threat to global health and health care workers (HCWs) have an increased risk of contracting the influenza virus in the workplace. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought back the importance of influenza vaccination, as the influenza virus can circulate together with [...] Read more.
Influenza represents a threat to global health and health care workers (HCWs) have an increased risk of contracting the influenza virus in the workplace. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought back the importance of influenza vaccination, as the influenza virus can circulate together with SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this report is to describe the actual flu vaccination coverage among healthcare workers of a research hospital and the trend changes, with respect to the past flu vaccination campaigns, in light of the present pandemic and COVID-19 vaccination. A Pearson’s χ2 test was used to test the correlation of flu vaccination coverage, across all professional categories, between the last two years. A linear regression model was adopted to predict the total vaccination coverage of this year. A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.01) was observed in vaccination coverage among all the professional categories with a 50% reduction in vaccination trends between the last two years. Analyzing the data from the previous six flu vaccination campaigns, the expected value, according to the linear regression model, was estimated to be 38.5% while the observed value was 24%. The decrease in vaccination coverage may be due to the fear of the pandemic situation and especially to the uncertainty related to the consequences of a concurrent administration which may overload the immune system or may be more reactogenic. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an opportunity to promote and support large-scale influenza vaccination among HCWs through structured programs, adequate funding, and tailored communication strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
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15 pages, 2240 KiB  
Article
A Needs-Based Analysis of Teaching on Vaccinations and COVID-19 in German Medical Schools
by Franziska Baessler, Ali Zafar, Katharina Mengler, Ricarda Nadine Natus, Anne Josephine Dutt, Manuel Kuhlmann, Emre Çinkaya and Simon Hennes
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060975 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for improving public confidence in vaccines. Academic gaps and redundancies on vaccinations must be identified to revise the medical curriculum for up-to-date training of medical students. This cross-sectional survey assessed the status of vaccine-related teaching in general [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for improving public confidence in vaccines. Academic gaps and redundancies on vaccinations must be identified to revise the medical curriculum for up-to-date training of medical students. This cross-sectional survey assessed the status of vaccine-related teaching in general and specific to COVID-19 in medical schools across Germany. A total of 4313 medical students completed a questionnaire comprising items on national learning goals and perceived needs for teaching on vaccinations. Mixed methods were used to analyse data quantitatively for relative frequencies (%) and correlations between teaching items and semesters (Spearman’s rho), and qualitatively (content analysis). Our findings showed that 38.92% of the students were dissatisfied with teaching on vaccine-preventable diseases, but the perceived satisfaction increased in later semesters (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Moreover, 75.84% and 68.15% of the students were dissatisfied with teaching related to vaccine scepticism and vaccine-related communication strategies, respectively. Furthermore, 63.79% reported dissatisfaction with teaching on COVID-19 disease and 72.93% with teaching on COVID-19 vaccines. A total of 79.12% stated they educated others on COVID-19 and its vaccines and 75.14% felt responsible to do so. A majority of the medical students were dissatisfied with teaching on dealing with vaccine scepticism, communication strategies and COVID-19 vaccines. We recommend practice-oriented vaccine education, especially for teaching communication skills to medical students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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12 pages, 704 KiB  
Review
Biological Therapy of Severe Asthma with Dupilumab, a Dual Receptor Antagonist of Interleukins 4 and 13
by Corrado Pelaia, Giulia Pelaia, Claudia Crimi, Angelantonio Maglio, Giuseppe Armentaro, Cecilia Calabrese, Angela Sciacqua, Luca Gallelli and Alessandro Vatrella
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060974 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6194
Abstract
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are key cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of both immune-inflammatory and structural changes underlying type 2 asthma. IL-4 plays a pivotal role in Th2 cell polarization, immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis and eosinophil recruitment into the airways. IL-13 synergizes [...] Read more.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are key cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of both immune-inflammatory and structural changes underlying type 2 asthma. IL-4 plays a pivotal role in Th2 cell polarization, immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis and eosinophil recruitment into the airways. IL-13 synergizes with IL-4 in inducing IgE production and also promotes nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, eosinophil chemotaxis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and mucus secretion, as well as the proliferation of airway resident cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. The biological effects of IL-4 and IL-13 are mediated by complex signaling mechanisms activated by receptor dimerization triggered by cytokine binding to the α-subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4Rα). The fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody dupilumab binds to IL-4Rα, thereby preventing its interactions with both IL-4 and IL-13. This mechanism of action makes it possible for dupilumab to effectively inhibit type 2 inflammation, thus significantly reducing the exacerbation of severe asthma, the consumption of oral corticosteroids (OCS) and the levels of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO). Dupilumab has been approved not only for the add-on therapy of severe asthma, but also for the biological treatment of atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis. Full article
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13 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
The Health Belief Model Applied to COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Systematic Review
by Yam B. Limbu, Rajesh K. Gautam and Long Pham
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060973 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 113 | Viewed by 13616
Abstract
This study systematically analyzes the research that used the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical basis to examine the influence of HBM constructs on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Following PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched for quantitative [...] Read more.
This study systematically analyzes the research that used the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical basis to examine the influence of HBM constructs on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Following PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched for quantitative studies. Sixteen studies with 30,242 participants met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 33.23% (95% CI 24.71–41.39%). Perceived barriers and perceived benefits were the most common HBM constructs that were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. While perceived benefits was inversely associated, a positive association was found between perceived barriers and vaccine hesitancy. Other HBM constructs that were frequently examined and inversely associated were perceived susceptibility, cues to action, perceived severity, and self-efficacy. The most common HBM modifying factor that was directly associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was gender, followed by education, age, geographical locations, occupation, income, employment, marital status, race, and ethnicity; however, a few studies report inconsistent results. Other modifying variables that influenced vaccine hesitancy were knowledge of COVID-19, prior diagnosis of COVID-19, history of flu vaccination, religion, nationality, and political affiliation. The results show that HBM is useful in predicting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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14 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Cellular and Humoral Immunity after the Third Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients
by Laura Thümmler, Michael Koldehoff, Neslinur Fisenkci, Leonie Brochhagen, Peter A. Horn, Adalbert Krawczyk and Monika Lindemann
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060972 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Protecting vulnerable groups from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is mandatory. Immune responses after a third vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 are insufficiently studied in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We analyzed immune responses before and after a third vaccination [...] Read more.
Protecting vulnerable groups from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is mandatory. Immune responses after a third vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 are insufficiently studied in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We analyzed immune responses before and after a third vaccination in HSCT patients and healthy controls. Cellular immunity was assessed using interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) ELISpots. Furthermore, this is the first report on neutralizing antibodies against 11 variants of SARS-CoV-2, analyzed by competitive fluorescence assay. Humoral immunity was also measured by neutralization tests assessing cytopathic effects and by ELISA. Neither HSCT patients nor healthy controls displayed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN-γ or IL-2 responses after the third vaccination. However, after the third vaccination, cellular responses were 2.6-fold higher for IFN-γ and 3.2-fold higher for IL-2 in healthy subjects compared with HSCT patients. After the third vaccination, neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in healthy controls, but not in HSCT patients. Healthy controls vs. HSCT patients had 1.5-fold higher concentrations of neutralizing antibodies against variants and 1.2-fold higher antibody concentrations against wildtype. However, half of the HSCT patients exhibited neutralizing antibodies to variants of SARS-CoV-2, which increased only slightly after a third vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2)
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13 pages, 831 KiB  
Article
Pneumococcal Carriage in Infants Post-PCV10 Introduction in Pakistan: Results from Serial Cross-Sectional Surveys
by Shahira Shahid, Amala Khan, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Farah Khalid, Muhammad Farrukh Qazi, Sheraz Ahmed, Furqan Kabir, Aneeta Hotwani, Sahrish Muneer, Syed Asad Ali, Cynthia G. Whitney, Anita K. M. Zaidi and Fyezah Jehan
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060971 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2556
Abstract
The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3 + 0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014–2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of [...] Read more.
The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3 + 0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014–2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of Pakistan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected by random sampling of infants from two union councils of Matiari. Samples were then transported to the Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IDRL) at the Aga Khan University within 6–8 h of collection. Serotypes were established using sequential multiplex PCR. Of the 665 children enrolled across three surveys, 547 were culture-positive for pneumococcus. VT carriage decreased from 21.8% in 2014 to 12.7% in 2016 (p-value for trend <0.001). Those who were not vaccinated or partially vaccinated were found to be at higher risk of carrying a VT serotype ((aOR 2.53, 95% CI 1.39, 4.63 for non-vaccinated) and (aOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.82, 6.16 for partially vaccinated)). On the other hand, being enrolled in the most recent survey was negatively associated with VT carriage (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28, 0.93). We found that PCV10 was effective in decreasing the carriage of vaccine-type serotypes in Pakistani infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines against Pneumococcal Infection)
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14 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Coronavirus Vaccine (CovishieldTM) in Preventing SARS-CoV2 Infection, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, 2021
by Sharan Murali, Manikandanesan Sakthivel, Kamaraj Pattabi, Vettrichelvan Venkatasamy, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, Anita Shete, Alby John Varghese, Jaganathan Arjun, Chethrapilly Purushothaman Girish Kumar, Pragya D Yadav, Rima Sahay, Triparna Majumdar, Manisha Dudhmal, Azhagendran Sivalingam, Sudha Rani Dhanapal, Augustine Durai Samy, Vijayaprabha Radhakrishnan, Murali Mohan Muni Krishnaiah, Suresh Arunachalam, Punita Muni Krishna Gandhi, Elavarasu Govindasamy, Prabhakaran Chinnappan, Dhana Priya Vadhani Sekar, Prakash Marappan, Ezhil Pounraj, Parasuraman Ganeshkumar, Murugesan Jagadeesan, Manish Narnaware, Gagandeep Singh Bedi, Prabhdeep Kaur and Manoj Murhekaradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060970 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4677
Abstract
We estimated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccine against any COVID-19 infection among individuals ≥45 years in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A community-based cohort study was conducted from May to September 2021 in a selected geographic area in [...] Read more.
We estimated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccine against any COVID-19 infection among individuals ≥45 years in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A community-based cohort study was conducted from May to September 2021 in a selected geographic area in Chennai. The estimated sample size was 10,232. We enrolled 69,435 individuals, of which 21,793 were above 45 years. Two-dose coverage of Covishield in the 18+ and 45+ age group was 18% and 31%, respectively. Genomic analysis of 74 out of the 90 aliquots collected from the 303 COVID-19-positive individuals in the 45+ age group showed delta variants and their sub-lineages. The vaccine’s effectiveness against COVID-19 disease in the ≥45 age group was 61.3% (95% CI: 43.6–73.4) at least 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of Covishield. We demonstrated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine against the delta variant in the general population of Chennai. We recommend similar future studies considering emerging variants and newer vaccines. Two-dose vaccine coverage could be ensured to protect against COVID-19 infection. Full article
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17 pages, 2246 KiB  
Article
Early IgE Production Is Linked with Extrafollicular B- and T-Cell Activation in Low-Dose Allergy Model
by Dmitrii Borisovich Chudakov, Olga Dmitrievna Kotsareva, Maryia Vladimirovna Konovalova, Daria Sergeevna Tsaregorodtseva, Marina Alexandrovna Shevchenko, Anton Andreevich Sergeev and Gulnar Vaisovna Fattakhova
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060969 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Despite its paramount importance, the predominant association of early IgE production with harmless antigens, via germinal-center B- and T-cell subpopulations or extrafollicular activation, remains unresolved. The aim of this work was to clarify whether the reinforced IgE production following the subcutaneous immunization of [...] Read more.
Despite its paramount importance, the predominant association of early IgE production with harmless antigens, via germinal-center B- and T-cell subpopulations or extrafollicular activation, remains unresolved. The aim of this work was to clarify whether the reinforced IgE production following the subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice with low antigen doses in withers adipose tissue might be linked with intensified extrafollicular or germinal-center responses. The mice were immunized three times a week for 4 weeks in the withers region, which is enriched in subcutaneous fat and tissue-associated B cells, with high and low OVA doses and via the intraperitoneal route for comparison. During long-term immunization with both low and high antigen doses in the withers region, but not via the intraperitoneal route, we observed a significant accumulation of B220-CD1d-CD5-CD19+ B-2 extrafollicular plasmablasts in the subcutaneous fat and regional lymph nodes but not in the intraperitoneal fat. Only low antigen doses induced a significant accumulation of CXCR4+ CXCR5- CD4+ extrafollicular T helpers in the withers adipose tissue but not in the regional lymph nodes or abdominal fat. Only in subcutaneous fat was there a combination of extrafollicular helper accumulation. In conclusion, extrafollicular B- and T-cell activation are necessary for early IgE class switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergology & Immunology)
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13 pages, 772 KiB  
Article
Opposing Role of Trust as a Modifier of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake in an Indigenous Population
by Ruben Juarez, Krit Phankitnirundorn, May Okihiro and Alika K. Maunakea
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060968 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) were disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and remain significantly under-vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. To understand vaccine hesitancy, we surveyed 1124 adults residing in a region with one of the lowest vaccination rates in Hawaii during our COVID-19 testing [...] Read more.
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) were disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and remain significantly under-vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. To understand vaccine hesitancy, we surveyed 1124 adults residing in a region with one of the lowest vaccination rates in Hawaii during our COVID-19 testing program. Probit regression analysis revealed that race/ethnicity was not directly associated with the probability of vaccine uptake. Instead, a higher degree of trust in official sources of COVID-19 information increased the probability of vaccination by 20.68%, whereas a higher trust in unofficial sources decreased the probability of vaccination by 12.49% per unit of trust. These results revealed a dual and opposing role of trust on vaccine uptake. Interestingly, NHPIs were the only racial/ethnic group to exhibit a significant positive association between trust in and consumption of unofficial sources of COVID-19 information, which explained the vaccine hesitancy observed in this indigenous population. These results offer novel insight relevant to COVID-19 mitigation efforts in minority populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
14 pages, 2597 KiB  
Article
BNT162b2 Booster Vaccination Induced Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Variants among Hemodialysis Patients
by Michal Herman-Edelstein, Naomi Ben-Dor, Timna Agur, Tali Guetta, Annat Raiter, Eshcar Meisel, Weaam Alkeesh, Yaacov Ori, Benaya Rozen-Zvi and Boris Zingerman
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060967 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Background: The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, which evade immunity, has raised the urgent need for multiple vaccine booster doses for vulnerable populations. In this study, we aimed to estimate the BNT162b2 booster effectiveness against the spread of coronavirus variants in a hemodialysis [...] Read more.
Background: The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, which evade immunity, has raised the urgent need for multiple vaccine booster doses for vulnerable populations. In this study, we aimed to estimate the BNT162b2 booster effectiveness against the spread of coronavirus variants in a hemodialysis population. Methods: We compared humoral and cell-mediated immunity in 100 dialysis patients and 66 age-matched volunteers, before and 2–3 weeks following the first booster vaccine dose. Participants were assessed for anti-spike (RBD) antibody titer, neutralizing antibodies against B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants, spike-specific T-cell responses by FACS and infection outbreak after the first and second booster. Results: Anti-spike antibody titer was significantly increased following the booster, with reduced humoral and cellular response in the dialysis patients. Neutralizing antibody levels increased significantly after the booster dose, with an inferior effect (≤2 fold) against Omicron compared with the Delta variant. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation by Delta spike protein was preserved in 70% of PBMCs from the dialysis patients. A second booster dose tended to reduce breakthrough infections in the dialysis patients. Conclusions: Until the release of an updated vaccine, BNT162b2 booster doses will improve the humoral and cell-mediated immunity against variants. These findings support the importance of repetitive booster doses for hemodialysis patients. Full article
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16 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Facilitators and Barriers to Take up a COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Population-Based Random Telephone Survey
by Zixin Wang, Yuan Fang, Fuk-yuen Yu, Paul Shing-fong Chan, Siyu Chen and Fenghua Sun
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060966 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3168
Abstract
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were [...] Read more.
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date telephone directories. A total of 395 participants completed the telephone interview. Logistic regression models were fitted. Among the participants, 31.6% received a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, positive attitudes toward the booster dose, perceiving significant others would support them to receive the booster dose, and less uncertainty regarding the choice of the booster dose was associated with higher uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Concerns about poorer responses to the booster dose due to older age and the presence of chronic conditions were negatively associated with the dependent variable. In addition, the belief that governmental promotional materials could address their concern and were helpful for them to make decisions was associated with a higher COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake. Improving booster dose health promotion materials, modifying perceptions, involving significant others and reducing uncertainty are potentially useful strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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6 pages, 538 KiB  
Brief Report
Promising Efficacy of a Third Dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Patients Treated with Anti-CD20 Antibody Who Failed 2-Dose Vaccination
by Yohei Funakoshi, Kimikazu Yakushijin, Goh Ohji, Wataru Hojo, Hironori Sakai, Marika Watanabe, Akihito Kitao, Yoshiharu Miyata, Yasuyuki Saito, Shinichiro Kawamoto, Katsuya Yamamoto, Mitsuhiro Ito, Taiji Koyama, Yoshinori Imamura, Naomi Kiyota, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yasuko Mori and Hironobu Minami
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060965 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Anti-CD20 antibodies react with CD20 expressed not only on malignant B cells, but also on normal B cells. It has been reported that patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies had an insufficient response to two-dose mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. To investigate the efficacy of a [...] Read more.
Anti-CD20 antibodies react with CD20 expressed not only on malignant B cells, but also on normal B cells. It has been reported that patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies had an insufficient response to two-dose mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. To investigate the efficacy of a third dose in these patients, we investigated serum IgG antibody titers for the S1 protein after a third vaccination in 22 patients treated with the anti-CD20 antibody who failed two-dose vaccination. Results showed that overall, 50% of patients seroconverted. Although no patient who received the third dose within 1 year of the last anti-CD20 antibody administration showed an increase in S1 antibody titer, 69% of patients who received the third dose more than 1 year after the last anti-CD20 antibody administration seroconverted. Our data show that a third dose of vaccination is effective in improving the seroconversion rate in patients treated with the anti-CD20 antibody who failed standard two-dose vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The COVID Vaccine)
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6 pages, 863 KiB  
Case Report
Manifestation of Subclinical Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis after COVID-19 Vaccination as Supraclavicular Lymphadenopathy
by Han Gyu Cha, Dong Gyu Kim and Joon Ho Choi
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060964 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 10053
Abstract
Lymphadenopathy after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is a common side effect that usually resolves within several days to weeks, and only observation is recommended. However, for prolonged lymphadenopathy, other possibilities, including malignancy or other lymphoproliferative diseases, may be considered. Herein, we report [...] Read more.
Lymphadenopathy after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is a common side effect that usually resolves within several days to weeks, and only observation is recommended. However, for prolonged lymphadenopathy, other possibilities, including malignancy or other lymphoproliferative diseases, may be considered. Herein, we report the case of a 66-year-old woman who experienced prolonged ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node enlargement after the second dose of the ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccine, which was eventually diagnosed as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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32 pages, 5269 KiB  
Article
Natural History of Sudan ebolavirus to Support Medical Countermeasure Development
by Caroline Carbonnelle, Marie Moroso, Delphine Pannetier, Sabine Godard, Stéphane Mély, Damien Thomas, Aurélie Duthey, Ophélie Jourjon, Orianne Lacroix, Béatrice Labrosse, Hervé Raoul, Karen L. Osman, Francisco J. Salguero, Yper Hall, Carol L. Sabourin, Michael J. Merchlinsky, James P. Long, Lindsay A. Parish and Daniel N. Wolfe
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060963 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) is one of four members of the Ebolavirus genus known to cause Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in humans, which is characterized by hemorrhagic fever and a high case fatality rate. While licensed therapeutics and vaccines are available in limited number [...] Read more.
Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) is one of four members of the Ebolavirus genus known to cause Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in humans, which is characterized by hemorrhagic fever and a high case fatality rate. While licensed therapeutics and vaccines are available in limited number to treat infections of Zaire ebolavirus, there are currently no effective licensed vaccines or therapeutics for SUDV. A well-characterized animal model of this disease is needed for the further development and testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, twelve cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were challenged intramuscularly with 1000 PFUs of SUDV and were followed under continuous telemetric surveillance. Clinical observations, body weights, temperature, viremia, hematology, clinical chemistry, and coagulation were analyzed at timepoints throughout the study. Death from SUDV disease occurred between five and ten days after challenge at the point that each animal met the criteria for euthanasia. All animals were observed to exhibit clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in human cases which included: viremia, fever, dehydration, reduced physical activity, macular skin rash, systemic inflammation, coagulopathy, lymphoid depletion, renal tubular necrosis, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis. The results from this study will facilitate the future preclinical development and evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics for SUDV. Full article
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15 pages, 6710 KiB  
Article
Positive Attribute Framing Increases COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Intention for Unfamiliar Vaccines
by Kirsten Barnes and Ben Colagiuri
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060962 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Positive framing has been proposed as an intervention to increase COVID-19 vaccination intentions. However, available research has examined fictitious or unfamiliar treatments. This pre-registered study (aspredicted#78369) compared the effect of standard negatively framed EU patient information leaflets (PILs), with new positively framed PILs, [...] Read more.
Positive framing has been proposed as an intervention to increase COVID-19 vaccination intentions. However, available research has examined fictitious or unfamiliar treatments. This pre-registered study (aspredicted#78369) compared the effect of standard negatively framed EU patient information leaflets (PILs), with new positively framed PILs, on booster intentions (measured pre- and post-intervention) for AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines. A representative sample of 1222 UK-based adults was randomised to one of six groups in a factorial design with framing (Positive vs. Negative) and vaccine familiarity (same (as previous), familiar, unfamiliar) as factors. The benefit of positive framing was hypothesised to be strongest for the least familiar vaccine (Moderna). Framing was moderated by familiarity, where only the unfamiliar vaccine showed a benefit of positive relative to negative Framing. Framing and familiarity also interacted with baseline Intention with the effect of framing on the unfamiliar vaccine especially pronounced at low baseline Intent. Conversely, standard negative framing appeared to increase intentions for familiar vaccines at low baseline intent. Findings provide important evidence that positive framing could improve vaccine uptake globally when switches or new developments require individuals to receive less familiar vaccines. Positive framing of familiar vaccines, however, should be treated with caution until better understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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23 pages, 1326 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccines and Autoimmune Hematologic Disorders
by María Eva Mingot-Castellano, Nora Butta, Mariana Canaro, María del Carmen Gómez del Castillo Solano, Blanca Sánchez-González, Reyes Jiménez-Bárcenas, Cristina Pascual-Izquierdo, Gonzalo Caballero-Navarro, Laura Entrena Ureña, Tomás José González-López and on behalf of the GEPTI
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060961 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6685
Abstract
Worldwide vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the detection of hematologic autoimmune complications. Adverse events (AEs) of this nature had been previously observed in association with other vaccines. The underlying mechanisms are not totally understood, although mimicry between viral and self-antigens plays a relevant [...] Read more.
Worldwide vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the detection of hematologic autoimmune complications. Adverse events (AEs) of this nature had been previously observed in association with other vaccines. The underlying mechanisms are not totally understood, although mimicry between viral and self-antigens plays a relevant role. It is important to remark that, although the incidence of these AEs is extremely low, their evolution may lead to life-threatening scenarios if treatment is not readily initiated. Hematologic autoimmune AEs have been associated with both mRNA and adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The main reported entities are secondary immune thrombocytopenia, immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Evans syndrome, and a newly described disorder, so-called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). The hallmark of VITT is the presence of anti-platelet factor 4 autoantibodies able to trigger platelet activation. Patients with VITT present with thrombocytopenia and may develop thrombosis in unusual locations such as cerebral beds. The management of hematologic autoimmune AEs does not differ significantly from that of these disorders in a non-vaccine context, thus addressing autoantibody production and bleeding/thromboembolic risk. This means that clinicians must be aware of their distinctive signs in order to diagnose them and initiate treatment as soon as possible. Full article
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14 pages, 2731 KiB  
Article
Adenovirus DNA Polymerase Loses Fidelity on a Stretch of Eleven Homocytidines during Pre-GMP Vaccine Preparation
by Zara Hannoun, Edmund G. Wee, Alison Crook, Stefano Colloca, Stefania Di Marco and Tomáš Hanke
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060960 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
In this study, we invented and construct novel candidate HIV-1 vaccines. Through genetic and protein engineering, we unknowingly constructed an HIV-1-derived transgene with a homopolymeric run of 11 cytidines, which was inserted into an adenovirus vaccine vector. Here, we describe the virus rescue, [...] Read more.
In this study, we invented and construct novel candidate HIV-1 vaccines. Through genetic and protein engineering, we unknowingly constructed an HIV-1-derived transgene with a homopolymeric run of 11 cytidines, which was inserted into an adenovirus vaccine vector. Here, we describe the virus rescue, three rounds of clonal purification and preparation of good manufacturing practise (GMP) starting material assessed for genetic stability in five additional virus passages. Throughout these steps, quality control assays indicated the presence of the transgene in the virus genome, expression of the correct transgene product and immunogenicity in mice. However, DNA sequencing of the transgene revealed additional cytidines inserted into the original 11-cytidine region, and the GMP manufacture had to be aborted. Subsequent analyses indicated that as little as 1/25th of the virus dose used for confirmation of protein expression (106 cells at a multiplicity of infection of 10) and murine immunogenicity (108 infectious units per animal) met the quality acceptance criteria. Similar frameshifts in the expressed proteins were reproduced in a one-reaction in vitro transcription/translation employing phage T7 polymerase and E. coli ribosomes. Thus, the most likely mechanism for addition of extra cytidines into the ChAdOx1.tHIVconsv6 genome is that the adenovirus DNA polymerase lost its fidelity on a stretch of 11 cytidines, which informs future adenovirus vaccine designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation HIV Antiretroviral Therapy and Vaccine Candidates)
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10 pages, 847 KiB  
Article
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Immunogenicity and Immunological Response Following COVID-19 Infection in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis
by Wisit Prasithsirikul, Tanawin Nopsopon, Phanupong Phutrakool, Pawita Suwanwattana, Piyawat Kantagowit, Wannarat Pongpirul, Anan Jongkaewwattana and Krit Pongpirul
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060959 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (HD) were found to have a decreased immune response following mRNA COVID-19 immunization. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was a promising COVID-19 vaccine that performed well in the general population, but the evidence on immunogenicity in ESRD with [...] Read more.
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (HD) were found to have a decreased immune response following mRNA COVID-19 immunization. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 was a promising COVID-19 vaccine that performed well in the general population, but the evidence on immunogenicity in ESRD with HD patients was limited. Moreover, the immunological response to COVID-19 infection was inconclusive in patients with ESRD and HD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination and the immunological response after COVID-19 infection in ESRD patients with HD. The blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up after each shot or recovery. All participants were measured for anti-spike IgG by the ELISA method, using Euroimmun. This study found a significant increase in anti-spike IgG after 1 month of two-shot ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination, followed by a significant decrease after 3 months. On the other hand, the anti-spike IgG was maintained in the post-recovery group. There was no significant difference in the change of anti-spike IgG between the one-shot ChAdOx1 nCoV-19-vaccinated and post-recovery groups for both 1-month and 3-month follow-ups. The seroconversion rate for the vaccinated group was 60.32% at 1 month after one-shot vaccination and slightly dropped to 58.73% at the 3-month follow-up, then was 92.06% at 1 month after two-shot vaccination and reduced to 82.26% at the 3-month follow-up. For the recovered group, the seroconversion rate was 95.65% at 1 month post-recovery and 92.50% at 3-month follow-up. This study demonstrated the immunogenicity of two-dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in ESRD patients with HD for humoral immunity. After COVID-19 infection, the humoral immune response was strong and could be maintained for at least three months. Full article
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11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Campaign: Risk Perception, Emotional States, and Vaccine Hesitancy in a Sample of Adolescents’ Vaccinated Parents in Southern Italy
by Giulia Savarese, Luna Carpinelli, Anna De Chiara, Claudio Giordano, Matilde Perillo, Domenico Fornino, Francesco De Caro, Mario Capunzo and Giuseppina Moccia
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060958 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Background: The international strategic plan for COVID-19 vaccines remains the practical option for the protection of health. However, vaccine hesitancy remains an obstacle to full population vaccination, with rapid developments in COVID-19 vaccines and concerns about efficacy acting as influencing factors. Aim: The [...] Read more.
Background: The international strategic plan for COVID-19 vaccines remains the practical option for the protection of health. However, vaccine hesitancy remains an obstacle to full population vaccination, with rapid developments in COVID-19 vaccines and concerns about efficacy acting as influencing factors. Aim: The present study investigated the perception of vaccine hesitancy among parents of adolescents in order to explore the reasons and related emotional states. Methods: In January–March 2022, an online questionnaire was administered to a sample of parents who brought their children to the vaccine center of a local health unit, ASL Salerno (Campania, Italy). Results: The participants were 1105 parents (F = 64.6%; mean age = 47.37 years, SD = 7.52) of adolescents (F = 47.6%; mean age = 14.83 years, SD = 1.72). All parents had received the COVID-19 vaccine. Regarding the vaccination schedule, 46.8% believed that children receive more vaccinations than they should; 25.1% believed that it is better to develop immunity rather than get vaccinated; 41.2% believed that their child could have side effects; 29.6% were very concerned that vaccines were unsafe, while 35.3% believed vaccines do not prevent disease; 21.5% were very reluctant about pediatric vaccines; and 23.8% did not trust the information received. Conclusions: In order to increase vaccination and reduce the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy, it is essential to support the value of vaccination among all parents and make information more accessible and usable through competent pediatricians. Full article
13 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Knowledge Gap regarding Influenza and Influenza Vaccination in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China
by Huimin Yin, Qingqing You, Jing Wu and Lianji Jin
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060957 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
In the context of the COVID-19 global pandemic, promoting influenza knowledge and vaccine helps reduce the risk of dual pandemics and relieve the pressure on healthcare systems. Due to the low rate of influenza vaccination in China, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to [...] Read more.
In the context of the COVID-19 global pandemic, promoting influenza knowledge and vaccine helps reduce the risk of dual pandemics and relieve the pressure on healthcare systems. Due to the low rate of influenza vaccination in China, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate whether a knowledge gap regarding influenza and influenza vaccine exists between Chinese groups of different socioeconomic statuses and then explore the possible factors influencing knowledge level. A total of 951 valid questionnaires were collected online in this study. Variance analysis shows a knowledge gap regarding influenza and influenza vaccination between different socioeconomic status groups. Correlation analysis shows that internet media, social media, public communication, and interpersonal communication are positively associated with the knowledge level. Multilevel regression analysis shows a significant interaction between internet media and educational level. This study finds that internet media use helps narrow the knowledge gap between groups with different education levels. This article recommends a multi-channel promotion of influenza and vaccine knowledge and better pertinence between contents and readers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Vaccination and Public Health)
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12 pages, 2105 KiB  
Article
Immunogenicity Evaluating of the Multivalent COVID-19 Inactivated Vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 Variants
by Yuntao Zhang, Wenjie Tan, Zhiyong Lou, Baoying Huang, Weimin Zhou, Yuxiu Zhao, Jin Zhang, Hongyang Liang, Na Li, Xiujuan Zhu, Ling Ding, Yancen Guo, Zhenyu He, Yao He, Zhanhui Wang, Bo Ma, Meng Ma, Suhua Zhao, Zhen Chang, Xue Zhao, Xiaotong Zheng, Guizhen Wu, Hui Wang and Xiaoming Yangadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060956 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
It has been reported that the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused more than 286 million cases and 5.4 million deaths to date. Several strategies have been implemented globally, such as social distancing and the development of the vaccines. Several severe acute respiratory syndrome [...] Read more.
It has been reported that the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused more than 286 million cases and 5.4 million deaths to date. Several strategies have been implemented globally, such as social distancing and the development of the vaccines. Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have appeared, such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. With the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus and the rapidly changing mutants, the development of a broad-spectrum multivalent vaccine is considered to be the most effective way to defend against the constantly mutating virus. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the multivalent COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. Mice were immunized by multivalent COVID-19 inactivated vaccine, and the neutralizing antibodies in serum were analyzed. The results show that HB02 + Delta + Omicron trivalent vaccine could provide broad spectrum protection against HB02, Beta, Delta, and Omicron virus. Additionally, the different multivalent COVID-19 inactivated vaccines could enhance cellular immunity. Together, our findings suggest that the multivalent COVID-19 inactivated vaccine can provide broad spectrum protection against HB02 and other virus variants in humoral and cellular immunity, providing new ideas for the development of a broad-spectrum COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in COVID-19 Vaccines Development)
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7 pages, 270 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccination and Ukrainian Refugees in Poland during Russian–Ukrainian War—Narrative Review
by Wojciech Malchrzak, Mateusz Babicki, Dagmara Pokorna-Kałwak, Zbigniew Doniec and Agnieszka Mastalerz-Migas
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060955 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
The outbreak of the Russian–Ukrainian war contributed to the largest migration movement in the 21st century. As a result, over 3 million refugees, mainly women, children and the elderly, arrived in Poland in a short space of time. Despite the ongoing war, it [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the Russian–Ukrainian war contributed to the largest migration movement in the 21st century. As a result, over 3 million refugees, mainly women, children and the elderly, arrived in Poland in a short space of time. Despite the ongoing war, it is important to remember that the COVID-19 pandemic is still present in the world, and before the outbreak of the war, Ukraine was struggling with its fifth wave. Furthermore, Ukraine has one of the lowest vaccination rates in Europe, not exceeding 40%. It is, therefore, reasonable to suspect that the vast majority of migrants have not been vaccinated. This situation may pose a significant epidemiological risk. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate steps to determine the vaccination status of refugees and to supplement the vaccination with both the core and booster doses. In response to these needs, the government of Poland, like many other countries, has made it possible to provide free COVID-19 vaccination to persons fleeing war. In the face of massive migration, the overriding priority should be to ensure adequate medical care for refugees, including free COVID-19 vaccinations. However, it seems that the lack of willingness to vaccinate among Ukrainians is also replicated on migration. It seems reasonable that appropriate steps should be taken to increase awareness and confidence in vaccination, which may ultimately translate into increased vaccination uptake. Analyzing previous experiences, it is advisable to consider that the first step should be to promote vaccination and remind refugees of the possibility of free COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, refugees should be encouraged to be vaccinated during every contact with health care workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine and Vaccination: On Field Research)
16 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Design, Characterization, and Immune Augmentation of Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanovesicles as a Potential Delivery System for Recombinant HBsAg Protein
by Mohammed Ali Bakkari, Sivakumar S. Moni, Abdulrahman Alshammari, Ahmad Salawi, Muhammad H. Sultan, Osama A. Madkhali, Saad S. Alqahtani, Mohammad Firoz Alam, Emad Sayed Shaheen and Mohamed Eltaib Elmobark
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060954 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Recombinant HBsAg-loaded docosahexaenoic acid nanovesicles were successfully developed, lyophilized (LRPDNV) and characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The zetapotential (ZP) of LRPDNV was −60.4 ± 10.4 mV, and its polydispersity (PDI) was 0.201, with a % PDI of 74.8. The particle sizes of LRPDNV [...] Read more.
Recombinant HBsAg-loaded docosahexaenoic acid nanovesicles were successfully developed, lyophilized (LRPDNV) and characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The zetapotential (ZP) of LRPDNV was −60.4 ± 10.4 mV, and its polydispersity (PDI) was 0.201, with a % PDI of 74.8. The particle sizes of LRPDNV were 361.4 ± 48.24 z. d.nm and 298.8 ± 13.4 r.nm. The % mass (r.nm) of LRPDNV in a colloidal injectable system was 50, its mobility value was −3.417 µm cm/Vs, while the conductivity of the particles was 0.728 (mS/cm). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed smooth morphological characteristics of discrete spherical LRPDNV. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of LRPDNV revealed that LRPDNV is thermostable. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed a discrete crystalline structure of LRPDNV at . Nuclear magnet resonance (NMR) studies (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrum showed the discrete structure of LRPDNV. The immunogenicity study was performed by antibody induction technique. The anti-HBs IgG levels were elevated in Wistar rats; the antibody induction was observed more in the product (LRPDNV) treatment group when compared to the standard vaccine group. The level of antibodies on the 14th and 30th day was 6.3 ± 0.78 U/mL and 9.24 ± 1.76 U/mL in the treatment and standard vaccine groups, respectively. Furthermore, the antibody level on the 30th day in the treatment group was 26.66 ± 0.77 U/mL, and in the standard vaccine group, the antibody level was 23.94 ± 1.62 U/mL. The LRPDNV vaccine delivery method released HBsAg sustainably from the 14th to the 30th day. The results of this study indicate the successful formulation of DHA nanovesicles which have great potential as an adjuvant system for the delivery of recombinant HBsAg protein. Full article
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16 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
A New Live Auxotrophic Vaccine Induces Cross-Protection against Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mice
by Miriam Moscoso, Juan A. Vallejo, Maria P. Cabral, Patricia García, Víctor Fuentes-Valverde, Eva Gato, Jorge Arca-Suárez, Pablo Aja-Macaya and Germán Bou
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060953 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
The development of a whole-cell vaccine from bacteria auxotrophic for D-amino acids present in the bacterial cell wall is considered a promising strategy for providing protection against bacterial infections. Here, we constructed a prototype vaccine, consisting of a glutamate racemase-deficient mutant, for preventing [...] Read more.
The development of a whole-cell vaccine from bacteria auxotrophic for D-amino acids present in the bacterial cell wall is considered a promising strategy for providing protection against bacterial infections. Here, we constructed a prototype vaccine, consisting of a glutamate racemase-deficient mutant, for preventing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. The deletion mutant lacks the murI gene and requires exogenous addition of D-glutamate for growth. The results showed that the K. pneumoniae ΔmurI strain is attenuated and includes a favourable combination of antigens for inducing a robust immune response and conferring an adequate level of cross-protection against systemic infections caused by K. pneumoniae strains, including some hypervirulent serotypes with elevated production of capsule polysaccharide as well as multiresistant K. pneumoniae strains. The auxotroph also induced specific production of IL-17A and IFN-γ. The rapid elimination of the strain from the blood of mice without causing disease suggests a high level of safety for administration as a vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Attenuated Vaccine)
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12 pages, 1562 KiB  
Article
Appraisal of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance in the Romanian Pregnant Population
by Cosmin Citu, Veronica Daniela Chiriac, Ioana Mihaela Citu, Oana Maria Gorun, Bogdan Burlea, Felix Bratosin, Daniela-Eugenia Popescu, Adrian Ratiu, Oana Buca and Florin Gorun
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060952 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Widespread COVID-19 vaccination is crucial for limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimizing the risk of novel variants arising in the general population, especially in pregnant women. According to the publicly available research data, vaccination intentions vary significantly by country, with Romania among [...] Read more.
Widespread COVID-19 vaccination is crucial for limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimizing the risk of novel variants arising in the general population, especially in pregnant women. According to the publicly available research data, vaccination intentions vary significantly by country, with Romania among the European countries with the lowest vaccination rates. Thus, we sought to determine the scale of acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign among pregnant women in Romania, as well as the variables affecting their choices. A cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of the Timisoara Municipal Emergency Hospital in Romania, where participants were asked to complete an online survey including standardized and unstandardized questionnaires indicating their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and the reasons for their willingness. Out of the 500 women who were requested to participate, there was a total of 345 validated questionnaires, with 184 vaccinated and 161 unvaccinated pregnant women. The statistically significant determinant factors for COVID-19 vaccination acceptance were the urban area of residence (OR = 0.86), having a higher level of education (OR = 0.81), the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 0.54), trusting the government (OR = 0.83), being a frequent traveler (OR = 0.76), fearing the severity of COVID-19 (OR = 0.68), the higher availability of COVID-19 vaccines nearby (OR = 0.87), and seeing more people getting vaccinated (OR = 0.75). As there are no increased risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 immunization in pregnant women, the variables identified in this research are crucial in determining the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines that should be addressed in this vulnerable group to increase vaccination rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Factors Associated with Vaccine Hesitancy)
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