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Review

COVID-19 Vaccines and Autoimmune Hematologic Disorders

1
Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS/CSIC), 41013 Sevilla, Spain
2
Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, 28046 Madrid, Spain
3
Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario Son Espases, 07210 Palma, Spain
4
Hematology Department, Hospital General de la Coruña, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
5
Hematology Department, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
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Hematology Department, Hospital Serranía de Ronda, 29400 Ronsa, Spain
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Department of Hematology, Gregorio Marañón General University Hospital (HGUGM) Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Gregorio Marañón, 28009 Madrid, Spain
8
Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, 18014 Granada, Spain
10
Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario de Burgos, 09006 Burgos, Spain
11
Grupo Español de PTI, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
All the authors from this group are included in Acknowledgments part.
Academic Editor: S. Louise Cosby
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060961
Received: 22 May 2022 / Revised: 12 June 2022 / Accepted: 15 June 2022 / Published: 16 June 2022
Worldwide vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has allowed the detection of hematologic autoimmune complications. Adverse events (AEs) of this nature had been previously observed in association with other vaccines. The underlying mechanisms are not totally understood, although mimicry between viral and self-antigens plays a relevant role. It is important to remark that, although the incidence of these AEs is extremely low, their evolution may lead to life-threatening scenarios if treatment is not readily initiated. Hematologic autoimmune AEs have been associated with both mRNA and adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The main reported entities are secondary immune thrombocytopenia, immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Evans syndrome, and a newly described disorder, so-called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). The hallmark of VITT is the presence of anti-platelet factor 4 autoantibodies able to trigger platelet activation. Patients with VITT present with thrombocytopenia and may develop thrombosis in unusual locations such as cerebral beds. The management of hematologic autoimmune AEs does not differ significantly from that of these disorders in a non-vaccine context, thus addressing autoantibody production and bleeding/thromboembolic risk. This means that clinicians must be aware of their distinctive signs in order to diagnose them and initiate treatment as soon as possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; vaccines; ITP; VITT; TTP; AIHA and Evans syndrome; antiphospholipid syndrome; catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome COVID-19; vaccines; ITP; VITT; TTP; AIHA and Evans syndrome; antiphospholipid syndrome; catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mingot-Castellano, M.E.; Butta, N.; Canaro, M.; Gómez del Castillo Solano, M.d.C.; Sánchez-González, B.; Jiménez-Bárcenas, R.; Pascual-Izquierdo, C.; Caballero-Navarro, G.; Entrena Ureña, L.; José González-López, T.; on behalf of the GEPTI. COVID-19 Vaccines and Autoimmune Hematologic Disorders. Vaccines 2022, 10, 961. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060961

AMA Style

Mingot-Castellano ME, Butta N, Canaro M, Gómez del Castillo Solano MdC, Sánchez-González B, Jiménez-Bárcenas R, Pascual-Izquierdo C, Caballero-Navarro G, Entrena Ureña L, José González-López T, on behalf of the GEPTI. COVID-19 Vaccines and Autoimmune Hematologic Disorders. Vaccines. 2022; 10(6):961. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060961

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mingot-Castellano, María E., Nora Butta, Mariana Canaro, María del Carmen Gómez del Castillo Solano, Blanca Sánchez-González, Reyes Jiménez-Bárcenas, Cristina Pascual-Izquierdo, Gonzalo Caballero-Navarro, Laura Entrena Ureña, Tomás José González-López, and on behalf of the GEPTI. 2022. "COVID-19 Vaccines and Autoimmune Hematologic Disorders" Vaccines 10, no. 6: 961. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060961

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