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Cellular and Humoral Immunity after the Third Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients

1
Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany
2
Department of Infectious Diseases, West German Centre of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany
3
Department of Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany
4
Department of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kilian Schober and Lucie Loyal
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060972
Received: 23 May 2022 / Revised: 15 June 2022 / Accepted: 17 June 2022 / Published: 18 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2)
Protecting vulnerable groups from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is mandatory. Immune responses after a third vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 are insufficiently studied in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We analyzed immune responses before and after a third vaccination in HSCT patients and healthy controls. Cellular immunity was assessed using interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) ELISpots. Furthermore, this is the first report on neutralizing antibodies against 11 variants of SARS-CoV-2, analyzed by competitive fluorescence assay. Humoral immunity was also measured by neutralization tests assessing cytopathic effects and by ELISA. Neither HSCT patients nor healthy controls displayed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2-specific IFN-γ or IL-2 responses after the third vaccination. However, after the third vaccination, cellular responses were 2.6-fold higher for IFN-γ and 3.2-fold higher for IL-2 in healthy subjects compared with HSCT patients. After the third vaccination, neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in healthy controls, but not in HSCT patients. Healthy controls vs. HSCT patients had 1.5-fold higher concentrations of neutralizing antibodies against variants and 1.2-fold higher antibody concentrations against wildtype. However, half of the HSCT patients exhibited neutralizing antibodies to variants of SARS-CoV-2, which increased only slightly after a third vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: ELISpot; variants of concern; vaccination response; T cells ELISpot; variants of concern; vaccination response; T cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thümmler, L.; Koldehoff, M.; Fisenkci, N.; Brochhagen, L.; Horn, P.A.; Krawczyk, A.; Lindemann, M. Cellular and Humoral Immunity after the Third Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients. Vaccines 2022, 10, 972. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060972

AMA Style

Thümmler L, Koldehoff M, Fisenkci N, Brochhagen L, Horn PA, Krawczyk A, Lindemann M. Cellular and Humoral Immunity after the Third Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients. Vaccines. 2022; 10(6):972. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060972

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thümmler, Laura, Michael Koldehoff, Neslinur Fisenkci, Leonie Brochhagen, Peter A. Horn, Adalbert Krawczyk, and Monika Lindemann. 2022. "Cellular and Humoral Immunity after the Third Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients" Vaccines 10, no. 6: 972. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060972

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