Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Biological Treatment of Severe Asthma

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 6488

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Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: asthma; lung immunology; COPD and COVID-19
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Dear Colleagues,

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder consisting of usually variable bronchial obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Several endotypes play a crucial role in the pathobiology of asthma, causing heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Within this context, many targets for biological treatment of severe asthma, such as immunoglobulins E (IgE), pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors, have been identified. Specifically, omalizumab (anti-IgE), mepolizumab (anti-IL-5), reslizumab (anti-IL-5), benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor) and dupilumab (anti-IL-4/IL-3 receptors) are available in clinical practice, providing excellent clinical and functional effects even in a real-life environment. Furthermore, other biologics that target innate cytokines, such as IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), are under development. The aim is implementing phenotype/endotype-specific treatments, in order to delineate a personalized therapeutic approach tailored on the patient and chosen on the basis of existing and emerging biomarkers

Dr. Corrado Pelaia
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • type2-asthma
  • IgE
  • IL-5
  • IL-4
  • IL-13
  • IL-33
  • TSLP
  • monoclonal antibodies
  • personalized medicine

Published Papers (1 paper)

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12 pages, 704 KiB  
Review
Biological Therapy of Severe Asthma with Dupilumab, a Dual Receptor Antagonist of Interleukins 4 and 13
by Corrado Pelaia, Giulia Pelaia, Claudia Crimi, Angelantonio Maglio, Giuseppe Armentaro, Cecilia Calabrese, Angela Sciacqua, Luca Gallelli and Alessandro Vatrella
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060974 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5820
Abstract
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are key cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of both immune-inflammatory and structural changes underlying type 2 asthma. IL-4 plays a pivotal role in Th2 cell polarization, immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis and eosinophil recruitment into the airways. IL-13 synergizes [...] Read more.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are key cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of both immune-inflammatory and structural changes underlying type 2 asthma. IL-4 plays a pivotal role in Th2 cell polarization, immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis and eosinophil recruitment into the airways. IL-13 synergizes with IL-4 in inducing IgE production and also promotes nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, eosinophil chemotaxis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and mucus secretion, as well as the proliferation of airway resident cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. The biological effects of IL-4 and IL-13 are mediated by complex signaling mechanisms activated by receptor dimerization triggered by cytokine binding to the α-subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4Rα). The fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody dupilumab binds to IL-4Rα, thereby preventing its interactions with both IL-4 and IL-13. This mechanism of action makes it possible for dupilumab to effectively inhibit type 2 inflammation, thus significantly reducing the exacerbation of severe asthma, the consumption of oral corticosteroids (OCS) and the levels of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO). Dupilumab has been approved not only for the add-on therapy of severe asthma, but also for the biological treatment of atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis. Full article
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