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Article

The Health Belief Model Applied to COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Systematic Review

1
Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA
2
Department of Anthropology, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar 470003, India
3
Department of Decision Sciences and Economics, College of Business, Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katie B. Biello
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060973
Received: 26 May 2022 / Revised: 14 June 2022 / Accepted: 16 June 2022 / Published: 18 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
This study systematically analyzes the research that used the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical basis to examine the influence of HBM constructs on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Following PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched for quantitative studies. Sixteen studies with 30,242 participants met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 33.23% (95% CI 24.71–41.39%). Perceived barriers and perceived benefits were the most common HBM constructs that were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. While perceived benefits was inversely associated, a positive association was found between perceived barriers and vaccine hesitancy. Other HBM constructs that were frequently examined and inversely associated were perceived susceptibility, cues to action, perceived severity, and self-efficacy. The most common HBM modifying factor that was directly associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was gender, followed by education, age, geographical locations, occupation, income, employment, marital status, race, and ethnicity; however, a few studies report inconsistent results. Other modifying variables that influenced vaccine hesitancy were knowledge of COVID-19, prior diagnosis of COVID-19, history of flu vaccination, religion, nationality, and political affiliation. The results show that HBM is useful in predicting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: health belief model; COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; systematic review; perceived severity; perceived susceptibility; perceived benefits; perceived barriers; cues to action; self-efficacy health belief model; COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; systematic review; perceived severity; perceived susceptibility; perceived benefits; perceived barriers; cues to action; self-efficacy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Limbu, Y.B.; Gautam, R.K.; Pham, L. The Health Belief Model Applied to COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Systematic Review. Vaccines 2022, 10, 973. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060973

AMA Style

Limbu YB, Gautam RK, Pham L. The Health Belief Model Applied to COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Systematic Review. Vaccines. 2022; 10(6):973. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060973

Chicago/Turabian Style

Limbu, Yam B., Rajesh K. Gautam, and Long Pham. 2022. "The Health Belief Model Applied to COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: A Systematic Review" Vaccines 10, no. 6: 973. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060973

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