Special Issue "COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 12823

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Zixin Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Interests: inter-disciplinary behavioral health research; mental health research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 vaccination and other behavioral preventive measures can help to eradicate the ongoing pandemic. Globally, efforts are greatly needed to increase vaccine access, justice and equity. This Special Issue will gather original reports, reviews and meta-analysis focusing on the insights from global public health applied to the context of COVID-19 vaccination. The interests of this Special Issue include but are not limited to: (1) access and issues related to the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines, (2) COVID-19 vaccination access, acceptance and uptake among disadvantaged groups (e.g., ethnic and sexual minority groups, children, elderly, slum communities) or in contexts where evidence is lacking, (3) evaluation of COVID-19 vaccination programs or interventions, and (4) impacts of COVID-19 vaccination on people’s behavior, physical and mental health

Dr. Zixin Wang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccination
  • inequalities
  • disadvantaged groups
  • booster dose
  • program evaluation

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Attitudes toward Receiving COVID-19 Booster Dose in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: A Cross-Sectional Study of 3041 Fully Vaccinated Participants
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081270 (registering DOI) - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 350
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccines are crucial to control the pandemic and avoid COVID-19 severe infections. The rapid evolution of COVID-19 variants such as B.1.1.529 is alarming, especially with the gradual decrease in serum antibody levels in vaccinated individuals. Middle Eastern countries were less likely to [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccines are crucial to control the pandemic and avoid COVID-19 severe infections. The rapid evolution of COVID-19 variants such as B.1.1.529 is alarming, especially with the gradual decrease in serum antibody levels in vaccinated individuals. Middle Eastern countries were less likely to accept the initial doses of vaccines. This study was directed to determine COVID-19 vaccine booster acceptance and its associated factors in the general population in the MENA region to attain public herd immunity. We conducted an online survey in five countries (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan) in November and December 2021. The questionnaire included self-reported information about the vaccine type, side effects, fear level, and several demographic factors. Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to associate the fear level with the type of COVID-19 vaccine. Logistic regression was performed to confirm the results and reported as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. The final analysis included 3041 fully vaccinated participants. Overall, 60.2% of the respondents reported willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster dose, while 20.4% were hesitant. Safety uncertainties and opinions that the booster dose is not necessary were the primary reasons for refusing the booster dose. The willingness to receive the booster dose was in a triangular relationship with the side effects of first and second doses and the fear (p < 0.0001). Females, individuals with normal body mass index, history of COVID-19 infection, and influenza-unvaccinated individuals were significantly associated with declining the booster dose. Higher fear levels were observed in females, rural citizens, and chronic and immunosuppressed patients. Our results suggest that vaccine hesitancy and fear in several highlighted groups continue to be challenges for healthcare providers, necessitating public health intervention, prioritizing the need for targeted awareness campaigns, and facilitating the spread of evidence-based scientific communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Article
Safety Messaging Boosts Parental Vaccination Intention for Children Ages 5–11
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081205 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 242
Abstract
The COVID-19 vaccination rate among children ages 5–11 is low in the U.S., with parental vaccine hesitancy being the primary cause. Current work suggests that safety and side effect concerns are the primary reasons for such vaccine hesitancy. This study explores whether this [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 vaccination rate among children ages 5–11 is low in the U.S., with parental vaccine hesitancy being the primary cause. Current work suggests that safety and side effect concerns are the primary reasons for such vaccine hesitancy. This study explores whether this hesitancy can be mitigated with information interventions. Based on theories of health decision making and persuasion, we designed four information interventions with varying contents and lengths. We wrote two messages on vaccine safety (a detailed safety-long message and a succinct safety-short message), explaining the vaccine’s lower dosage, low rate of side effects, and the rigorous approval process. We also had two messages on protection effects (protect-family, protect-child). We combined these four messages with a vaccine-irrelevant control message and compared their effects on parental vaccine intention. We measured the parental vaccination intention using a 0–6 Likert scale question. Among the four intervention groups, we found that the short version of the safety message increased the average vaccination intention by over 1 point compared to the control arm, while the other three interventions failed to show significance. Specifically, these effects are particularly pronounced (around 2 points) for Republican parents who had a much lower initial intention to vaccinate their children. Our study highlights the importance of concise and to-the-point information rendering in promoting public health activities and therefore has important policy implications for raising vaccination intentions among parents, especially those leaning towards more conservative political affiliation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
COVID-19 Booster Uptake among First Responders and Their Household Members May Be Lower than Anticipated
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071011 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccination status varies widely among law enforcement and emergency medical services professionals. Though at high risk of exposure, these first responders have demonstrated significant vaccine hesitancy, with only 70% reportedly vaccinated. We sought to understand whether similar vaccine hesitancy exists [...] Read more.
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccination status varies widely among law enforcement and emergency medical services professionals. Though at high risk of exposure, these first responders have demonstrated significant vaccine hesitancy, with only 70% reportedly vaccinated. We sought to understand whether similar vaccine hesitancy exists for first responders and their household contacts around COVID-19 boosters. (2) Methods: In a prospective longitudinal cohort of first responders and their household contacts, survey data was collected, including demographics, medical history, COVID-19 exposure risks, and vaccination and/or booster status. The statistical analysis focused on primary vaccination and booster rates of both the first responders and their household contacts. (3) Results: Across 119 study participants, 73% reported having received some combination of vaccine and/or booster, and 26% were unvaccinated. Vaccinated individuals were older, reported less prior exposure to COVID-19 and had more comorbidities. Only 23% reported having received a COVID-19 booster. Pairing of the data for household contacts demonstrated a 60% agreement to receive primary vaccination but only a 20% agreement for boosters within households. (4) Conclusions: This study provides insight into the vaccination and booster rates of first responders and household contacts. Focused efforts to enhance vaccinations is essential for the protection and maintenance of this critical workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake Were Different between Chinese Diabetic Inpatients with and without Chronic Complications: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10070994 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
The health of people with chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) complications will worsen following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions and factors related to COVID-19 vaccination uptake between subgroups of DM inpatients with and without chronic complications in China. A [...] Read more.
The health of people with chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) complications will worsen following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions and factors related to COVID-19 vaccination uptake between subgroups of DM inpatients with and without chronic complications in China. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for data analysis. Of the 645 participants, those without any complications reported significantly higher uptake of at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (43.2% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001). For people with chronic DM complications, a perception of higher risk and severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that doctors would suggest they receive COVID-19 vaccination, and a belief that relatives’ vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. For their counterparts without chronic complications, a perception of severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that receiving COVID-19 vaccination could reduce the risk of infection, and a belief that relatives’ vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. Concerns about the safety and the side effects of vaccination were negatively associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of DM patients. Different strategies might be applied to promote COVID-19 vaccination uptake in DM patients with and without chronic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Facilitators and Barriers to Take up a COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Population-Based Random Telephone Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060966 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were [...] Read more.
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date telephone directories. A total of 395 participants completed the telephone interview. Logistic regression models were fitted. Among the participants, 31.6% received a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, positive attitudes toward the booster dose, perceiving significant others would support them to receive the booster dose, and less uncertainty regarding the choice of the booster dose was associated with higher uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Concerns about poorer responses to the booster dose due to older age and the presence of chronic conditions were negatively associated with the dependent variable. In addition, the belief that governmental promotional materials could address their concern and were helpful for them to make decisions was associated with a higher COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake. Improving booster dose health promotion materials, modifying perceptions, involving significant others and reducing uncertainty are potentially useful strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Safety and Immunogenicity of the BBIBP-CorV Vaccine in Adolescents Aged 12 to 17 Years in the Thai Population: An Immunobridging Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050807 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Adolescents can develop a severe form of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially with underlying comorbidities. No study has examined the efficacy or effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents. This single-center, prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Adolescents can develop a severe form of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially with underlying comorbidities. No study has examined the efficacy or effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents. This single-center, prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents using the immunobridging approach at Chulabhorn Hospital. The key eligibility criterion was a healthy clinical condition or stable pre-existing comorbidity. The anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) antibody concentration at 4 weeks after dose 2 of the vaccine was compared between participants aged 12 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 30 years. Safety profiles included adverse events within 7 days after each dose of the vaccine and any adverse events through 1 month after dose 2 of the vaccine. In the adolescent and adult cohorts, the geometric mean concentration of anti-RBD antibody was 102.9 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL (95% CI, 91.0–116.4) and 36.9 BAU/mL (95% CI, 30.9–44.0), respectively. The geometric mean ratio of the adolescent cohort was 2.79 (95% CI, 2.25–3.46, p < 0.0001) compared with the adult cohort, meeting the non-inferiority criterion. The reactogenicity was slightly lower in the adolescent than in the adult cohort. No serious adverse events occurred. The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears safe and effective in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Governmental Incentives, Satisfaction with Health Promotional Materials, and COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Random Telephone Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050732 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccination is proven to be effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated the impacts of incentives and health promotional materials provided by the government on the completion of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccination is proven to be effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated the impacts of incentives and health promotional materials provided by the government on the completion of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date Hong Kong telephone directories. A total of 440 participants completed the telephone interview. Logistic regression models were fitted. Among the participants, 58.4% had completed the primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Most participants believed that incentives provided by the government had almost no impact on increasing their motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination, and less than half thought that vaccination promotional materials produced by the government could address their concerns and help them make decisions. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, we found perceived higher impacts of the incentives and belief that vaccination promotional materials produced by the government could address their concern and were helpful for them to make decisions to be associated with a higher rate of completion of primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Perceptions supporting COVID-19 vaccination and less decisional conflict regarding the choice of vaccine were also positively associated with the dependent variable. Government should develop incentives and health promotional materials tailored to the needs of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The COVID-19 Vaccination Behavior and Correlates in Diabetic Patients: A Health Belief Model Theory-Based Cross-Sectional Study in China, 2021
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050659 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
The population with diabetes is more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, and have a significantly higher coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) mortality rate. Previous studies have shown low willingness for the COVID-19 vaccination, and there are limited reports on the behavior and [...] Read more.
The population with diabetes is more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, and have a significantly higher coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) mortality rate. Previous studies have shown low willingness for the COVID-19 vaccination, and there are limited reports on the behavior and relevance of the COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to determine the uptake behavior and associated factors of the COVID-19 vaccine. In our cross-sectional questionnaire-based clinical study, 645 diabetes patients affiliated with two affiliated hospitals of Changzhi Medical College completed the questionnaire between June to October 2021. The health belief model (HBM) was used in examining factors influencing vaccination behavior. After adjusting for covariates with significant differences in social background characteristics, a multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors related to uptake in COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 162 vaccinated and 483 unvaccinated eligible diabetic patients were recruited. Patients who believed that the COVID-19 syndrome is severe (aOR3.67, 95%CI 1.88–7.17; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination can significantly reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (aOR3.48, 95%CI 1.80–6.73; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination is beneficial to themselves and others (aOR 4.53, 95%CI 1.71–11.99; p = 0.002), think that relatives’ vaccination status has a positive impact on their vaccination behavior (aOR 5.68, 95%CI 2.83–11.39; p < 0.001), and were more likely to be vaccinated; worrying about the adverse health effects of COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 0.18, 95%CI 0.09–0.35; p < 0.001) was negatively correlated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior. Health care workers should provide targeted informative interventions based on the safety and protective effects theory of HBM to improve vaccination behavior in patients with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Article
Social Capital, Urbanization Level, and COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake in the United States: A National Level Analysis
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040625 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination [...] Read more.
Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination uptake rates when adjusting for demographic and social determinants of health (SDOH) variables, and if association between social capital and vaccination uptake may vary by urbanization level. Bivariate analyses and a hierarchical multivariable quasi-binomial regression analysis were conducted, where the regression analysis was stratified by urban–rural status. The current study suggests that social capital contributes significantly to the disparities of vaccination uptake in the US. The results of the stratification analysis show common predictors of vaccine uptake but also suggest various patterns based on urbanization level regarding the associations of COVID-19 vaccination uptake with SDOH and social capital factors. The study provides a new perspective to address disparities in vaccination uptake through fostering social capital within communities; which may inform tailored public health intervention efforts to enhance social capital and promote vaccination uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure A1

Article
Factors Associated with Non-Severe Adverse Reactions after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: A Cohort Study of 908,869 Outpatient Vaccinations in Germany
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040566 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. Methods: We used the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) to identify 531,468 individuals who received a total of 908,869 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in 827 general practices in Germany between April and September 2021. Cox regression models were used to analyze the frequency of vaccination-related side effects reported within 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as well as subjects’ demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Results: The total number of side effects documented was 28,287 (3.1% of all vaccinations). Pain in the limb (24.3%), fatigue (21.0%), dizziness (17.9%), joint pain (15.7%), fever (9.5%), nausea (7.5%), and myalgia (6.4%) were the most common side effects documented among the 12,575 vaccinations with definite side effects. In the multivariate regression analysis, young age was associated with much higher odds of reported side effects (OR18–30 years: 4.45, OR31–40 years: 3.50, OR41–50 years: 2.89). In addition, pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia (OR: 1.54), somatoform disorder (OR: 1.53), anxiety disorder (OR: 1.43), depression (OR: 1.37), chronic respiratory tract disease (OR: 1.27), hypertension (OR: 1.20), and obesity (1.14) significantly increased the odds of side effects. Finally, the male sex was associated with increased odds of reported side effects (OR: 1.17). Conclusion: Our study, based on a large outpatient database from Germany, identified young age, male sex, and pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia, somatoform disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression as factors associated with vaccine-related adverse events diagnosed in GP practices. These data could help to identify subgroups needing particular advice and care in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Article
Do Optimists Like Vaccines? The Effect of Perceived Vaccine Novelty and Beliefs in the World’s Positivity and Orderliness on the Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccinations—The Case of European Young Adults
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030379 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The public debate over COVID-19 vaccinations tends to focus on vaccine-related arguments, such as their effectiveness and safety. However, the characteristics of a person’s worldview, such as beliefs about the world’s positivity and orderliness, may also shape attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. These relationships [...] Read more.
The public debate over COVID-19 vaccinations tends to focus on vaccine-related arguments, such as their effectiveness and safety. However, the characteristics of a person’s worldview, such as beliefs about the world’s positivity and orderliness, may also shape attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. These relationships were investigated using schema incongruity theory. The degree of the vaccine’s incongruence with the world’s order schema existing in people’s minds was represented by perceived vaccine novelty. Accordingly, the results of an online survey among European young adults (N = 435) indicate that perceived vaccine novelty negatively affects behavioral outcomes (vaccination intent, willingness to pay for vaccinations, and vaccination advocacy). Moreover, there occurred a negative interaction effect of positivity and orderliness beliefs on behavioral outcomes. Specifically, an effect of positivity was more positive when people perceived the world as less ordered. Furthermore, this interaction effect was more negative when perceived vaccine novelty was higher. A mediating role of perceived vaccine effectiveness was demonstrated for the above relationships. The results extend the existing literature on people’s worldviews into the domain of vaccine attitudes, and provide new insights on the role of perceived vaccine novelty. For vaccination policymakers and marketers, the paper suggests how to promote vaccinations with consideration of orderliness/positivity beliefs and vaccine novelty perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Essential Workers’ COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy, Misinformation, and Informational Needs in the Republic of North Macedonia
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030348 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 5.2 million deaths. Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge, especially in Eastern Europe. Our study used a sample of essential workers living in the Republic of North Macedonia to: (1) Describe rates of vaccine hesitancy [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 5.2 million deaths. Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge, especially in Eastern Europe. Our study used a sample of essential workers living in the Republic of North Macedonia to: (1) Describe rates of vaccine hesitancy and risk perception of COVID-19; (2) Explore predictors of vaccine hesitancy; and (3) Describe the informational needs of hesitant and non-hesitant workers. A phone survey was administered in North Macedonia from 4–16 May 2021. Logistic regression explored associations of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy with sociodemographic characteristics, non-COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, previous diagnosis of COVID-19, and individual risk perception of contracting COVID-19. Chi-squared analyses compared differences in informational needs by hesitancy status. Of 1003 individuals, 44% were very likely to get the vaccine, and 56% reported some level of hesitancy. Older age, Albanian ethnicity, increased education, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, acceptance of other vaccines, and increased risk perception of COVID-19 infection were negatively associated with vaccine hesitancy. Results indicated significant differences in top informational needs by hesitancy status. The top informational needs of the hesitant were the freedom to choose to be vaccinated without consequences (57% vs. 42%, p < 0.01) and that all main international agencies recommended the vaccine (35% vs. 24%, p < 0.01). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Demographic Characteristics and Status of Vaccinated Individuals with a History of COVID-19 Infection Pre- or Post-Vaccination: A Descriptive Study of a Nationally Representative Sample in Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020323 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi [...] Read more.
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. We retrieved data for COVID-19 cases who were infected pre- or post-vaccination and had received at least one injection of the Oxford–AstraZeneca or Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine from 4 December 2020 to 15 October 2021. Results: The number of patients who were infected and had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 281,744. Approximately 45% of subjects were infected post-vaccination, and 75% of subjects had received the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine. Only 0.342% of the patients who were infected post-vaccination died, and 447 patients were admitted to ICUs. Most of the patients who were infected with COVID-19 post-vaccination and were admitted to ICUs (69.84%) had received only one dose of the vaccine (p < 0.0001). The mean time to infection for patients who had received one and two doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were 27 and 8 days longer than their counterparts who had received one and two doses of Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine, respectively. No difference in the odds of mortality between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines was found (OR = 1.121, 95% CI = [0.907–1.386], p-value = 0.291). Patients who had received two doses of the vaccine had significantly lower odds of mortality compared to those who had received one dose (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Vaccines are vital in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study show no difference between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines in the rate of mortality. However, the number of vaccine doses was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines using real-world data and more robust designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gender Differences in Adverse Events Following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020233 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
Background: The adverse events reported from the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have varied from very mild, such as pain near the vaccination site, to more severe, with occasional anaphylaxis. Details of age-specific gender differences for the adverse effects are not well documented. Methods: Age [...] Read more.
Background: The adverse events reported from the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have varied from very mild, such as pain near the vaccination site, to more severe, with occasional anaphylaxis. Details of age-specific gender differences for the adverse effects are not well documented. Methods: Age and gender disaggregated data on reports of adverse events following two or three doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were obtained from four cross-sectional studies. The first was from reports submitted to the Israel Ministry of Health national adverse events database (for ages 16 and above). The second was from a national cross-sectional survey based on an internet panel (for ages 30 and above), and the third and fourth were from cross-sectional surveys among employees of a large company (for ages 20–65) using links to a self-completed questionnaire. Results: In all studies, the risks of adverse events were higher following the second dose and consistently higher in females at all ages. The increased risk among females at all ages included local events such as pain at the injection site, systemic events such as fever, and sensory events such as paresthesia in the hands and face. For the combined adverse reactions, for the panel survey the female-to-male risk ratios (RRs) were 1.89 for the first vaccine dose and 1.82 for the second dose. In the cross-sectional workplace studies, the female-to-male RRs for the first, second and third doses exceeded 3.0 for adverse events, such as shivering, muscle pain, fatigue and headaches. Conclusions: The consistent excess in adverse events among females for the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine indicates the need to assess and report vaccine adverse events by gender. Gender differences in adverse events should be taken into account when determining dosing schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Associated Factors among Diabetes Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Changzhi, Shanxi, China
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010129 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection, but vaccine hesitancy is a problem in this population. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among diabetes patients in China through a cross-sectional survey from April and [...] Read more.
Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection, but vaccine hesitancy is a problem in this population. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among diabetes patients in China through a cross-sectional survey from April and August 2021 using a questionnaire administered to patients at two hospitals affiliated with Changzhi Medical College (Shanxi, China). The health belief model (HBM) is used examining factors influencing vaccine hesitancy. After adjusting for potential confounders, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze correlations between vaccine hesitancy and associated factors. Of the 483 participants, 56.4% (273/483) had vaccine hesitancy, including 58.2% (159/273) who were unsure of being vaccinated and 41.8% (114/273) who were unwilling. Although patients considered SARS-CoV-2 infection to be serious (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.36–6.42; p < 0.001), they had concerns about vaccine safety (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.89–4.91; p < 0.001). Relatives’ vaccination status did not influence participants’ willingness to be vaccinated (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.39–4.25; p < 0.001). Disagreement with physicians’ view that vaccination can reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was independently correlated with vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28–3.95; p < 0.001). Diabetes patients in China need to be educated on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine safety and protective effects to increase the vaccination rate in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
International Efforts and Next Steps to Advance COVID-19 Vaccines Research and Production in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010042 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
Equitable and efficient distribution of COVID-19 vaccines continues to be a key issue in global health, and a targeted approach is needed to meet the World Health Organization’s world vaccination targets. Although some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing their own vaccines [...] Read more.
Equitable and efficient distribution of COVID-19 vaccines continues to be a key issue in global health, and a targeted approach is needed to meet the World Health Organization’s world vaccination targets. Although some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing their own vaccines to address the distribution problem, legal and technical challenges have had a negative impact on productivity. This article explores relevant international legal instruments that can enable faster research and development of COVID-19 vaccines in LMICs, focusing on the role of biosafety standards, biological materials transfer, and key knowledge sharing. Our analysis has established that the potential of existing global health legal instruments has yet to be realized in order to close the productivity gap in LMICs and strengthen their vaccine manufacturing capacity. Additionally, mutual recognition of vaccine efficacy has become a new challenge for achieving global vaccination targets. We argue that the World Health Organization should continue its leading position by developing a more practical and targeted framework to help LMICs overcome challenges arising from technology transfer, knowledge sharing, and politics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
Back to TopTop