COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 61388

Special Issue Editor

The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Interests: inter-disciplinary behavioral health research; mental health research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

COVID-19 vaccination and other behavioral preventive measures can help to eradicate the ongoing pandemic. Globally, efforts are greatly needed to increase vaccine access, justice and equity. This Special Issue will gather original reports, reviews and meta-analysis focusing on the insights from global public health applied to the context of COVID-19 vaccination. The interests of this Special Issue include but are not limited to: (1) access and issues related to the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines, (2) COVID-19 vaccination access, acceptance and uptake among disadvantaged groups (e.g., ethnic and sexual minority groups, children, elderly, slum communities) or in contexts where evidence is lacking, (3) evaluation of COVID-19 vaccination programs or interventions, and (4) impacts of COVID-19 vaccination on people’s behavior, physical and mental health

Dr. Zixin Wang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccination
  • inequalities
  • disadvantaged groups
  • booster dose
  • program evaluation

Published Papers (27 papers)

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13 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
The Course of COVID-19 among Unvaccinated Patients—Data from the National Hospital in Warsaw, Poland
Vaccines 2023, 11(3), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11030675 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Introduction. Studies to date indicate the relatively high effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing severe COVID-19 symptoms. However, in Poland, 40% of the population remains unvaccinated. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of COVID-19 in unvaccinated hospital patients [...] Read more.
Introduction. Studies to date indicate the relatively high effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing severe COVID-19 symptoms. However, in Poland, 40% of the population remains unvaccinated. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of COVID-19 in unvaccinated hospital patients in Warsaw, Poland. Material and methods. This study evaluated data from 50 adult patients from the National Hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in the period 26 November 2021 to 11 March 2022. None of these patients had been vaccinated against COVID-19. Results. Analysis showed that the average hospitalisation time for these unvaccinated COVID-19 patients was 13 days. Clinical deterioration was observed in 70% of these patients, 40% required the intensive care unit, and 34% subsequently died prior to the end of the study. Conclusions. There was a significant deterioration and high mortality rate in the unvaccinated patients. For this reason, it seems prudent to take measures to increase the vaccination coverage level of the population against COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
17 pages, 882 KiB  
Article
Differential COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among the Slum and Estate Communities in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020440 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Vaccination against COVID-19 remains one of the ultimate solutions to the ongoing pandemic. This study examined and compared the completion of primary COVID-19 vaccination series and associated factors in the slum and estate communities of Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among [...] Read more.
Vaccination against COVID-19 remains one of the ultimate solutions to the ongoing pandemic. This study examined and compared the completion of primary COVID-19 vaccination series and associated factors in the slum and estate communities of Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 1025 slum and estate residents. Logistic regression models were fitted. Of the 1025 participants, 511 were slum residents and 514 were estate residents. Completion of COVID-19 vaccination was 43.8% in the slum community and 39.9% in the estate community (p = 0.03). Having more knowledge about COVID-19 was positively associated with completing COVID-19 vaccination in both communities. Perceived benefits and cues to action also had a positive association, but only among the slum residents. However, perceiving people infected with COVID-19 as having a high death rate, perceived barriers such as serious side effects and long distances, and depressive symptoms had negative associations with vaccine uptake among the slum community, but not in the estate community. Addressing barriers to vaccination, strengthening and utilizing the various cues to action, engagement of religious and cultural leaders, and continued community education and sensitization tailored to the needs of each community are potentially vital strategies in raising vaccination rates. Consideration of socioeconomic impact-alleviation strategies, especially among the urban poor, would also be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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10 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Transplacental Antibody Transfer in Pregnant Women Immunized with Different SARS-CoV-2 Homologous or Heterologous Schemes
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020415 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
There is scarce information related to transplacental antibody transfer against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with different homologous and heterologous vaccination schemes. This study aimed to correlate the magnitude of transplacental transfer anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different homologous and heterologous schemes. An [...] Read more.
There is scarce information related to transplacental antibody transfer against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with different homologous and heterologous vaccination schemes. This study aimed to correlate the magnitude of transplacental transfer anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different homologous and heterologous schemes. An observational cross-sectional study was developed to identify pregnant women vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. They were questioned about their immunization status; blood samples from the mother, umbilical cord during labor, and the newborn 72 h after birth were taken to measure anti-S1 and anti-S2 specific IgG antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. We recruited 104 women with a median age of 29 (SD 1.17). We found antibodies in all newborns with vaccinated mothers. Homologous BNT162b2 mRNA regimen had the highest mean (SD) antibody titers (AU/mL) in maternal (994.93 (3.08), p = 0.039), umbilical cord (1316.43 (2.79), p = 0.016), and newborn (1192.02 (3.55), p = 0.020) blood. The generalized linear model showed a positive effect over antibodies with at least one dose in maternal (β = −1.1, p = 0.002) and newborn (β= −0.717, p = 0.044) blood, and with two doses (β = −0.684, p = 0.026) in umbilical cord blood. In conclusion, antibodies were detected in all vaccinated women and their newborns. Transfer of antibodies was found from the first dose, and the levels increased with the number of vaccine doses. Vaccination should be encouraged in pregnant women with any available scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
12 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Effects of Negative Attitudes towards Vaccination in General and Trust in Government on Uptake of a Booster Dose of COVID-19 Vaccine and the Moderating Role of Psychological Reactance: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study in Hong Kong
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020393 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Uptake of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine is effective in preventing infection and severe consequences caused by COVID-19. The present study examined the effects of negative attitudes towards vaccination in general and trust in government on uptake of a COVID-19 booster dose, [...] Read more.
Uptake of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine is effective in preventing infection and severe consequences caused by COVID-19. The present study examined the effects of negative attitudes towards vaccination in general and trust in government on uptake of a COVID-19 booster dose, as well as the moderating role of psychological reactance to pro-vaccination messages in Hong Kong. An observational prospective cohort study using online survey was conducted among 264 adults. Findings showed that, after adjustment for significant background characteristics, negative attitudes towards vaccination in general negatively predicted uptake of a booster dose, and trust in government positively predicted uptake of a booster dose. In addition, the association between negative attitudes towards vaccination in general and uptake of a booster dose was weaker among those who reported a higher level of psychological reactance. The present study highlighted the importance of improving attitudes towards vaccination in general especially among those who are not experiencing psychological reactance, and building trust in government. This study also suggested that interventions aimed at improving attitudes towards vaccination in general should seek to avoid psychological reactance, and special attention should be given to people who are experiencing psychological reactance to pro-vaccination messages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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14 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
Hesitancy to Receive the Second COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose among Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Random Telephone Survey
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020392 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
A second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated hesitancy to take up a second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose and its determinants among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged 65 years [...] Read more.
A second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated hesitancy to take up a second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose and its determinants among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or above. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date telephone directories. A total of 370 participants completed the telephone survey. Logistic regression models were fitted for data analysis. Among the participants, half (52.4%) were hesitant to receive the second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, perceived benefits (AOR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.60), cues to action (AOR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.30, 0.52), and perceived self-efficacy (AOR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.66) of receiving the second booster dose were associated with lower vaccine hesitancy. Perceived barriers (AOR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.34) and vaccine fatigue (tired of receiving repeated COVID-19 vaccination) (AOR: 1.90, 95%CI: 1.52, 2.38) were associated with higher vaccine hesitancy. Level of hesitancy to receive the second booster dose was high among older adults in Hong Kong. Health authorities should address vaccine fatigue and modify perceptions related to the second booster dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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13 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Adverse Reactions after BNT162b2 Messenger RNA Vaccination for Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Healthcare Workers Compared with Influenza Vaccination
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020363 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
This study aimed to compare adverse reactions following BNT162b2 and influenza vaccinations in healthcare workers. This study included healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and/or inactivated influenza vaccine, quadrivalent (IIV4), on 18–29 October 2021 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. IIV4 was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare adverse reactions following BNT162b2 and influenza vaccinations in healthcare workers. This study included healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and/or inactivated influenza vaccine, quadrivalent (IIV4), on 18–29 October 2021 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. IIV4 was administered and BNT162b2 was subsequently administered one week later. The participants responded to a mobile questionnaire regarding adverse events. The overall adverse reaction rates were 90.6% in the BNT162b2 + IIV4 group, 90.4% in the BNT162b2 alone group, and 44.1% in the IIV4 alone group (p < 0.001). Fever occurred in 19.5%, 26.9%, and 3.3% of participants in the BNT162b2 + IIV4, BNT162b2 alone, and IIV4 alone groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The most common local and systemic adverse reactions were injection site pain (65.0%) and fatigue (58.6%), respectively. Injection-site pain was experienced by 88.7%, 88.5%, and 37.5% of the BNT162b2 + IIV4, BNT162b2 alone, and IIV4 alone groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Fatigue was experienced by 74.8%, 78.8%, and 38.6% of the BNT162b2 + IIV4, BNT162b2 alone, and IIV4 alone groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Adverse reactions occurred at a significantly higher frequency after BNT162b2 than after IIV4. The frequency of adverse reactions one week after vaccination with IIV4 and BNT162b2 was not different from that after vaccination with BNT162b2 alone. Therefore, coadministration of influenza vaccine with BNT162b2 can be expected to be safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Associations between Vaccination Behavior and Trust in Information Sources Regarding COVID-19 Vaccines under Emergency Approval in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020233 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
We examined the association between COVID-19 vaccination behavior and trust in COVID-19-related information sources during the initial period of COVID-19 vaccination in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2021, 5 months after the start of COVID-19 vaccination for the general public [...] Read more.
We examined the association between COVID-19 vaccination behavior and trust in COVID-19-related information sources during the initial period of COVID-19 vaccination in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in August 2021, 5 months after the start of COVID-19 vaccination for the general public under emergency approval. Participants were recruited using non-probability quota sampling from among Japanese residents who were under a declared state of emergency. Sociodemographic data, vaccination behavior, and levels of trust in eight media sources of information and three interpersonal information sources were assessed using an online survey form. A total of 784 participants completed the survey. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, household income, underlying medical conditions, and living with family were significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior. Regarding COVID-19 vaccine information sources, trust in public health experts as a source of media information and primary care physicians as a source of interpersonal information showed significantly positive associations with COVID-19 vaccination behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 1.157, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017–1.31; OR = 1.076; 95% CI 1.006–1.150, respectively). Increasing trust in public health experts and primary care physicians and disseminating vaccine information from these sources will help promote vaccination under emergency approval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
6 pages, 489 KiB  
Communication
Efficacy of the Second COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose in the Elderly
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020213 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Background: We analyzed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine efficacy in older persons who received the second booster compared to unvaccinated people and those receiving only a single COVID-19 vaccine booster. Methods: We collected information on vaccine efficacy from the ongoing Italian nationwide COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Background: We analyzed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine efficacy in older persons who received the second booster compared to unvaccinated people and those receiving only a single COVID-19 vaccine booster. Methods: We collected information on vaccine efficacy from the ongoing Italian nationwide COVID-19 vaccination campaign in subjects aged 80 years or older from official data published by the Italian National Institute of Health. Results: The second vaccine booster maintained high effectiveness against adverse COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and death (i.e., between 77 and 86%), and also showed around 10% higher efficacy than the single booster. Nonetheless, the efficacy of the second vaccine booster declined over time, decreasing by 33–46% when assessed at >120 days from administration. Conclusions: The results of our ad interim analysis of the ongoing Italian nationwide COVID-19 vaccination campaign suggest that regular boosting with COVID-19 vaccines may be advisable in older persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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15 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
The Role of Knowledge, Attitude, Confidence, and Sociodemographic Factors in COVID-19 Vaccination Adherence among Adolescents in Indonesia: A Nationwide Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091489 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents is important because the adolescent population has the highest incidence of COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination adherence among Indonesian adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 7986 adolescents, polled through online and offline surveys [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents is important because the adolescent population has the highest incidence of COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination adherence among Indonesian adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 7986 adolescents, polled through online and offline surveys conducted in six major islands of Indonesia. The online questionnaire was distributed through popular social messaging and social media platforms. Our team also contacted schools and public places to recruit participants from remote areas. In total, 7299 respondents completed the questionnaire. Binary logistic analysis revealed that higher levels of knowledge, positive attitudes, and confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine were significantly associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination adherence in adolescents. Sociodemographic factors were also significantly associated with higher adherence to vaccination programs. Meanwhile, younger age and habitation in private housing were related to lower adherence to the vaccination program. Parental factors related to adolescent compliance were education level, household income, history of infection of family or friends with COVID-19, and working status. The national authorities and stakeholders should take extensive measures to increase attitude, knowledge, confidence, and family support among adolescence through multiple channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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20 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
Estimates of the Global Burden of COVID-19 and the Value of Broad and Equitable Access to COVID-19 Vaccines
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081320 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to produce a macro-level overview of the global COVID-19 burden and estimate the value of access to COVID-19 vaccines. A targeted literature review collated evidence of the burden. Linear modelling and data analysis estimated the health and [...] Read more.
The objectives of this research were to produce a macro-level overview of the global COVID-19 burden and estimate the value of access to COVID-19 vaccines. A targeted literature review collated evidence of the burden. Linear modelling and data analysis estimated the health and economic effects of COVID-19 vaccines delivered in 2021, and whether additional value could have been achieved with broader and more equitable access. By 1 December 2020, there had been an estimated 17 million excess deaths due to COVID-19. Low-income countries allocated more than 30% of their healthcare budgets to COVID-19, compared to 8% in high-income countries. All country income groups experienced gross domestic product (GDP) growth lower than predicted in 2020. If all 92 countries eligible for COVAX Advance Market Committee (AMC), access had reached 40% vaccination coverage in 2021, 120% more excess deaths would have been averted, equivalent to USD 5 billion (109) in savings to healthcare systems. Every USD spent by advanced economies on vaccinations for less advanced economies averted USD 28 of economic losses in advanced economies and USD 29 in less advanced economies. The cost to high-income countries when not all countries are vaccinated far outweighs the cost of manufacturing and distributing vaccines globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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15 pages, 1524 KiB  
Article
Attitudes toward Receiving COVID-19 Booster Dose in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: A Cross-Sectional Study of 3041 Fully Vaccinated Participants
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081270 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4703
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccines are crucial to control the pandemic and avoid COVID-19 severe infections. The rapid evolution of COVID-19 variants such as B.1.1.529 is alarming, especially with the gradual decrease in serum antibody levels in vaccinated individuals. Middle Eastern countries were less likely to [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccines are crucial to control the pandemic and avoid COVID-19 severe infections. The rapid evolution of COVID-19 variants such as B.1.1.529 is alarming, especially with the gradual decrease in serum antibody levels in vaccinated individuals. Middle Eastern countries were less likely to accept the initial doses of vaccines. This study was directed to determine COVID-19 vaccine booster acceptance and its associated factors in the general population in the MENA region to attain public herd immunity. We conducted an online survey in five countries (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan) in November and December 2021. The questionnaire included self-reported information about the vaccine type, side effects, fear level, and several demographic factors. Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to associate the fear level with the type of COVID-19 vaccine. Logistic regression was performed to confirm the results and reported as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. The final analysis included 3041 fully vaccinated participants. Overall, 60.2% of the respondents reported willingness to receive the COVID-19 booster dose, while 20.4% were hesitant. Safety uncertainties and opinions that the booster dose is not necessary were the primary reasons for refusing the booster dose. The willingness to receive the booster dose was in a triangular relationship with the side effects of first and second doses and the fear (p < 0.0001). Females, individuals with normal body mass index, history of COVID-19 infection, and influenza-unvaccinated individuals were significantly associated with declining the booster dose. Higher fear levels were observed in females, rural citizens, and chronic and immunosuppressed patients. Our results suggest that vaccine hesitancy and fear in several highlighted groups continue to be challenges for healthcare providers, necessitating public health intervention, prioritizing the need for targeted awareness campaigns, and facilitating the spread of evidence-based scientific communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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12 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Safety Messaging Boosts Parental Vaccination Intention for Children Ages 5–11
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081205 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The COVID-19 vaccination rate among children ages 5–11 is low in the U.S., with parental vaccine hesitancy being the primary cause. Current work suggests that safety and side effect concerns are the primary reasons for such vaccine hesitancy. This study explores whether this [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 vaccination rate among children ages 5–11 is low in the U.S., with parental vaccine hesitancy being the primary cause. Current work suggests that safety and side effect concerns are the primary reasons for such vaccine hesitancy. This study explores whether this hesitancy can be mitigated with information interventions. Based on theories of health decision making and persuasion, we designed four information interventions with varying contents and lengths. We wrote two messages on vaccine safety (a detailed safety-long message and a succinct safety-short message), explaining the vaccine’s lower dosage, low rate of side effects, and the rigorous approval process. We also had two messages on protection effects (protect-family, protect-child). We combined these four messages with a vaccine-irrelevant control message and compared their effects on parental vaccine intention. We measured the parental vaccination intention using a 0–6 Likert scale question. Among the four intervention groups, we found that the short version of the safety message increased the average vaccination intention by over 1 point compared to the control arm, while the other three interventions failed to show significance. Specifically, these effects are particularly pronounced (around 2 points) for Republican parents who had a much lower initial intention to vaccinate their children. Our study highlights the importance of concise and to-the-point information rendering in promoting public health activities and therefore has important policy implications for raising vaccination intentions among parents, especially those leaning towards more conservative political affiliation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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7 pages, 518 KiB  
Communication
COVID-19 Booster Uptake among First Responders and Their Household Members May Be Lower than Anticipated
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071011 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccination status varies widely among law enforcement and emergency medical services professionals. Though at high risk of exposure, these first responders have demonstrated significant vaccine hesitancy, with only 70% reportedly vaccinated. We sought to understand whether similar vaccine hesitancy exists [...] Read more.
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccination status varies widely among law enforcement and emergency medical services professionals. Though at high risk of exposure, these first responders have demonstrated significant vaccine hesitancy, with only 70% reportedly vaccinated. We sought to understand whether similar vaccine hesitancy exists for first responders and their household contacts around COVID-19 boosters. (2) Methods: In a prospective longitudinal cohort of first responders and their household contacts, survey data was collected, including demographics, medical history, COVID-19 exposure risks, and vaccination and/or booster status. The statistical analysis focused on primary vaccination and booster rates of both the first responders and their household contacts. (3) Results: Across 119 study participants, 73% reported having received some combination of vaccine and/or booster, and 26% were unvaccinated. Vaccinated individuals were older, reported less prior exposure to COVID-19 and had more comorbidities. Only 23% reported having received a COVID-19 booster. Pairing of the data for household contacts demonstrated a 60% agreement to receive primary vaccination but only a 20% agreement for boosters within households. (4) Conclusions: This study provides insight into the vaccination and booster rates of first responders and household contacts. Focused efforts to enhance vaccinations is essential for the protection and maintenance of this critical workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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16 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake Were Different between Chinese Diabetic Inpatients with and without Chronic Complications: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10070994 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
The health of people with chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) complications will worsen following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions and factors related to COVID-19 vaccination uptake between subgroups of DM inpatients with and without chronic complications in China. A [...] Read more.
The health of people with chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) complications will worsen following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions and factors related to COVID-19 vaccination uptake between subgroups of DM inpatients with and without chronic complications in China. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for data analysis. Of the 645 participants, those without any complications reported significantly higher uptake of at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (43.2% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001). For people with chronic DM complications, a perception of higher risk and severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that doctors would suggest they receive COVID-19 vaccination, and a belief that relatives’ vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. For their counterparts without chronic complications, a perception of severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that receiving COVID-19 vaccination could reduce the risk of infection, and a belief that relatives’ vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. Concerns about the safety and the side effects of vaccination were negatively associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of DM patients. Different strategies might be applied to promote COVID-19 vaccination uptake in DM patients with and without chronic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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16 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Facilitators and Barriers to Take up a COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Population-Based Random Telephone Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060966 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were [...] Read more.
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated facilitators and barriers to take up a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date telephone directories. A total of 395 participants completed the telephone interview. Logistic regression models were fitted. Among the participants, 31.6% received a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, positive attitudes toward the booster dose, perceiving significant others would support them to receive the booster dose, and less uncertainty regarding the choice of the booster dose was associated with higher uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Concerns about poorer responses to the booster dose due to older age and the presence of chronic conditions were negatively associated with the dependent variable. In addition, the belief that governmental promotional materials could address their concern and were helpful for them to make decisions was associated with a higher COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake. Improving booster dose health promotion materials, modifying perceptions, involving significant others and reducing uncertainty are potentially useful strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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12 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
Safety and Immunogenicity of the BBIBP-CorV Vaccine in Adolescents Aged 12 to 17 Years in the Thai Population: An Immunobridging Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050807 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Adolescents can develop a severe form of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially with underlying comorbidities. No study has examined the efficacy or effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents. This single-center, prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Adolescents can develop a severe form of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially with underlying comorbidities. No study has examined the efficacy or effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents. This single-center, prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents using the immunobridging approach at Chulabhorn Hospital. The key eligibility criterion was a healthy clinical condition or stable pre-existing comorbidity. The anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) antibody concentration at 4 weeks after dose 2 of the vaccine was compared between participants aged 12 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 30 years. Safety profiles included adverse events within 7 days after each dose of the vaccine and any adverse events through 1 month after dose 2 of the vaccine. In the adolescent and adult cohorts, the geometric mean concentration of anti-RBD antibody was 102.9 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL (95% CI, 91.0–116.4) and 36.9 BAU/mL (95% CI, 30.9–44.0), respectively. The geometric mean ratio of the adolescent cohort was 2.79 (95% CI, 2.25–3.46, p < 0.0001) compared with the adult cohort, meeting the non-inferiority criterion. The reactogenicity was slightly lower in the adolescent than in the adult cohort. No serious adverse events occurred. The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears safe and effective in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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18 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Governmental Incentives, Satisfaction with Health Promotional Materials, and COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Hong Kong: A Random Telephone Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050732 - 06 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccination is proven to be effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated the impacts of incentives and health promotional materials provided by the government on the completion of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccination is proven to be effective and safe for older adults. This study investigated the impacts of incentives and health promotional materials provided by the government on the completion of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series among older adults in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese-speaking community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from up-to-date Hong Kong telephone directories. A total of 440 participants completed the telephone interview. Logistic regression models were fitted. Among the participants, 58.4% had completed the primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Most participants believed that incentives provided by the government had almost no impact on increasing their motivation to receive COVID-19 vaccination, and less than half thought that vaccination promotional materials produced by the government could address their concerns and help them make decisions. After adjustment for significant background characteristics, we found perceived higher impacts of the incentives and belief that vaccination promotional materials produced by the government could address their concern and were helpful for them to make decisions to be associated with a higher rate of completion of primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Perceptions supporting COVID-19 vaccination and less decisional conflict regarding the choice of vaccine were also positively associated with the dependent variable. Government should develop incentives and health promotional materials tailored to the needs of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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13 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
The COVID-19 Vaccination Behavior and Correlates in Diabetic Patients: A Health Belief Model Theory-Based Cross-Sectional Study in China, 2021
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050659 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
The population with diabetes is more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, and have a significantly higher coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) mortality rate. Previous studies have shown low willingness for the COVID-19 vaccination, and there are limited reports on the behavior and [...] Read more.
The population with diabetes is more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, and have a significantly higher coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) mortality rate. Previous studies have shown low willingness for the COVID-19 vaccination, and there are limited reports on the behavior and relevance of the COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to determine the uptake behavior and associated factors of the COVID-19 vaccine. In our cross-sectional questionnaire-based clinical study, 645 diabetes patients affiliated with two affiliated hospitals of Changzhi Medical College completed the questionnaire between June to October 2021. The health belief model (HBM) was used in examining factors influencing vaccination behavior. After adjusting for covariates with significant differences in social background characteristics, a multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors related to uptake in COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 162 vaccinated and 483 unvaccinated eligible diabetic patients were recruited. Patients who believed that the COVID-19 syndrome is severe (aOR3.67, 95%CI 1.88–7.17; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination can significantly reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection (aOR3.48, 95%CI 1.80–6.73; p < 0.001), believe that vaccination is beneficial to themselves and others (aOR 4.53, 95%CI 1.71–11.99; p = 0.002), think that relatives’ vaccination status has a positive impact on their vaccination behavior (aOR 5.68, 95%CI 2.83–11.39; p < 0.001), and were more likely to be vaccinated; worrying about the adverse health effects of COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 0.18, 95%CI 0.09–0.35; p < 0.001) was negatively correlated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior. Health care workers should provide targeted informative interventions based on the safety and protective effects theory of HBM to improve vaccination behavior in patients with diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
14 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Social Capital, Urbanization Level, and COVID-19 Vaccination Uptake in the United States: A National Level Analysis
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040625 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination [...] Read more.
Vaccination remains the most promising mitigation strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, existing literature shows significant disparities in vaccination uptake in the United States. Using publicly available national-level data, we aimed to explore if county-level social capital can further explain disparities in vaccination uptake rates when adjusting for demographic and social determinants of health (SDOH) variables, and if association between social capital and vaccination uptake may vary by urbanization level. Bivariate analyses and a hierarchical multivariable quasi-binomial regression analysis were conducted, where the regression analysis was stratified by urban–rural status. The current study suggests that social capital contributes significantly to the disparities of vaccination uptake in the US. The results of the stratification analysis show common predictors of vaccine uptake but also suggest various patterns based on urbanization level regarding the associations of COVID-19 vaccination uptake with SDOH and social capital factors. The study provides a new perspective to address disparities in vaccination uptake through fostering social capital within communities; which may inform tailored public health intervention efforts to enhance social capital and promote vaccination uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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8 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Non-Severe Adverse Reactions after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: A Cohort Study of 908,869 Outpatient Vaccinations in Germany
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040566 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 significantly reduces the transmissibility of the virus and the likelihood of a severe course of COVID-19, and is thus a critical component in overcoming the current pandemic. The factors associated with adverse reactions after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been sufficiently evaluated. Methods: We used the Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA) to identify 531,468 individuals who received a total of 908,869 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in 827 general practices in Germany between April and September 2021. Cox regression models were used to analyze the frequency of vaccination-related side effects reported within 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as well as subjects’ demographic characteristics and comorbidities. Results: The total number of side effects documented was 28,287 (3.1% of all vaccinations). Pain in the limb (24.3%), fatigue (21.0%), dizziness (17.9%), joint pain (15.7%), fever (9.5%), nausea (7.5%), and myalgia (6.4%) were the most common side effects documented among the 12,575 vaccinations with definite side effects. In the multivariate regression analysis, young age was associated with much higher odds of reported side effects (OR18–30 years: 4.45, OR31–40 years: 3.50, OR41–50 years: 2.89). In addition, pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia (OR: 1.54), somatoform disorder (OR: 1.53), anxiety disorder (OR: 1.43), depression (OR: 1.37), chronic respiratory tract disease (OR: 1.27), hypertension (OR: 1.20), and obesity (1.14) significantly increased the odds of side effects. Finally, the male sex was associated with increased odds of reported side effects (OR: 1.17). Conclusion: Our study, based on a large outpatient database from Germany, identified young age, male sex, and pre-existing comorbidities such as dementia, somatoform disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression as factors associated with vaccine-related adverse events diagnosed in GP practices. These data could help to identify subgroups needing particular advice and care in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
21 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Do Optimists Like Vaccines? The Effect of Perceived Vaccine Novelty and Beliefs in the World’s Positivity and Orderliness on the Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccinations—The Case of European Young Adults
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030379 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1919
Abstract
The public debate over COVID-19 vaccinations tends to focus on vaccine-related arguments, such as their effectiveness and safety. However, the characteristics of a person’s worldview, such as beliefs about the world’s positivity and orderliness, may also shape attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. These relationships [...] Read more.
The public debate over COVID-19 vaccinations tends to focus on vaccine-related arguments, such as their effectiveness and safety. However, the characteristics of a person’s worldview, such as beliefs about the world’s positivity and orderliness, may also shape attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. These relationships were investigated using schema incongruity theory. The degree of the vaccine’s incongruence with the world’s order schema existing in people’s minds was represented by perceived vaccine novelty. Accordingly, the results of an online survey among European young adults (N = 435) indicate that perceived vaccine novelty negatively affects behavioral outcomes (vaccination intent, willingness to pay for vaccinations, and vaccination advocacy). Moreover, there occurred a negative interaction effect of positivity and orderliness beliefs on behavioral outcomes. Specifically, an effect of positivity was more positive when people perceived the world as less ordered. Furthermore, this interaction effect was more negative when perceived vaccine novelty was higher. A mediating role of perceived vaccine effectiveness was demonstrated for the above relationships. The results extend the existing literature on people’s worldviews into the domain of vaccine attitudes, and provide new insights on the role of perceived vaccine novelty. For vaccination policymakers and marketers, the paper suggests how to promote vaccinations with consideration of orderliness/positivity beliefs and vaccine novelty perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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12 pages, 1303 KiB  
Article
Essential Workers’ COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy, Misinformation, and Informational Needs in the Republic of North Macedonia
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030348 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 5.2 million deaths. Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge, especially in Eastern Europe. Our study used a sample of essential workers living in the Republic of North Macedonia to: (1) Describe rates of vaccine hesitancy [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 5.2 million deaths. Vaccine hesitancy remains a public health challenge, especially in Eastern Europe. Our study used a sample of essential workers living in the Republic of North Macedonia to: (1) Describe rates of vaccine hesitancy and risk perception of COVID-19; (2) Explore predictors of vaccine hesitancy; and (3) Describe the informational needs of hesitant and non-hesitant workers. A phone survey was administered in North Macedonia from 4–16 May 2021. Logistic regression explored associations of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy with sociodemographic characteristics, non-COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, previous diagnosis of COVID-19, and individual risk perception of contracting COVID-19. Chi-squared analyses compared differences in informational needs by hesitancy status. Of 1003 individuals, 44% were very likely to get the vaccine, and 56% reported some level of hesitancy. Older age, Albanian ethnicity, increased education, previous COVID-19 diagnosis, acceptance of other vaccines, and increased risk perception of COVID-19 infection were negatively associated with vaccine hesitancy. Results indicated significant differences in top informational needs by hesitancy status. The top informational needs of the hesitant were the freedom to choose to be vaccinated without consequences (57% vs. 42%, p < 0.01) and that all main international agencies recommended the vaccine (35% vs. 24%, p < 0.01). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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15 pages, 2683 KiB  
Article
Demographic Characteristics and Status of Vaccinated Individuals with a History of COVID-19 Infection Pre- or Post-Vaccination: A Descriptive Study of a Nationally Representative Sample in Saudi Arabia
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020323 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi [...] Read more.
Background: Saudi Arabia expedited the approval of some COVID-19 vaccines and launched mass vaccination campaigns. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics of vaccinated COVID-19 cases and compare the mortality rates of COVID-19 cases who were infected post-vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. We retrieved data for COVID-19 cases who were infected pre- or post-vaccination and had received at least one injection of the Oxford–AstraZeneca or Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine from 4 December 2020 to 15 October 2021. Results: The number of patients who were infected and had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine was 281,744. Approximately 45% of subjects were infected post-vaccination, and 75% of subjects had received the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine. Only 0.342% of the patients who were infected post-vaccination died, and 447 patients were admitted to ICUs. Most of the patients who were infected with COVID-19 post-vaccination and were admitted to ICUs (69.84%) had received only one dose of the vaccine (p < 0.0001). The mean time to infection for patients who had received one and two doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were 27 and 8 days longer than their counterparts who had received one and two doses of Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine, respectively. No difference in the odds of mortality between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines was found (OR = 1.121, 95% CI = [0.907–1.386], p-value = 0.291). Patients who had received two doses of the vaccine had significantly lower odds of mortality compared to those who had received one dose (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Vaccines are vital in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study show no difference between the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines in the rate of mortality. However, the number of vaccine doses was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines using real-world data and more robust designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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12 pages, 6412 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences in Adverse Events Following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020233 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 6424
Abstract
Background: The adverse events reported from the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have varied from very mild, such as pain near the vaccination site, to more severe, with occasional anaphylaxis. Details of age-specific gender differences for the adverse effects are not well documented. Methods: Age [...] Read more.
Background: The adverse events reported from the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have varied from very mild, such as pain near the vaccination site, to more severe, with occasional anaphylaxis. Details of age-specific gender differences for the adverse effects are not well documented. Methods: Age and gender disaggregated data on reports of adverse events following two or three doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were obtained from four cross-sectional studies. The first was from reports submitted to the Israel Ministry of Health national adverse events database (for ages 16 and above). The second was from a national cross-sectional survey based on an internet panel (for ages 30 and above), and the third and fourth were from cross-sectional surveys among employees of a large company (for ages 20–65) using links to a self-completed questionnaire. Results: In all studies, the risks of adverse events were higher following the second dose and consistently higher in females at all ages. The increased risk among females at all ages included local events such as pain at the injection site, systemic events such as fever, and sensory events such as paresthesia in the hands and face. For the combined adverse reactions, for the panel survey the female-to-male risk ratios (RRs) were 1.89 for the first vaccine dose and 1.82 for the second dose. In the cross-sectional workplace studies, the female-to-male RRs for the first, second and third doses exceeded 3.0 for adverse events, such as shivering, muscle pain, fatigue and headaches. Conclusions: The consistent excess in adverse events among females for the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine indicates the need to assess and report vaccine adverse events by gender. Gender differences in adverse events should be taken into account when determining dosing schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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13 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Associated Factors among Diabetes Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Changzhi, Shanxi, China
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010129 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection, but vaccine hesitancy is a problem in this population. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among diabetes patients in China through a cross-sectional survey from April and [...] Read more.
Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection, but vaccine hesitancy is a problem in this population. We investigated the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among diabetes patients in China through a cross-sectional survey from April and August 2021 using a questionnaire administered to patients at two hospitals affiliated with Changzhi Medical College (Shanxi, China). The health belief model (HBM) is used examining factors influencing vaccine hesitancy. After adjusting for potential confounders, a multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze correlations between vaccine hesitancy and associated factors. Of the 483 participants, 56.4% (273/483) had vaccine hesitancy, including 58.2% (159/273) who were unsure of being vaccinated and 41.8% (114/273) who were unwilling. Although patients considered SARS-CoV-2 infection to be serious (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.36–6.42; p < 0.001), they had concerns about vaccine safety (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 1.89–4.91; p < 0.001). Relatives’ vaccination status did not influence participants’ willingness to be vaccinated (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.39–4.25; p < 0.001). Disagreement with physicians’ view that vaccination can reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was independently correlated with vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28–3.95; p < 0.001). Diabetes patients in China need to be educated on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine safety and protective effects to increase the vaccination rate in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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12 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
International Efforts and Next Steps to Advance COVID-19 Vaccines Research and Production in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010042 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Equitable and efficient distribution of COVID-19 vaccines continues to be a key issue in global health, and a targeted approach is needed to meet the World Health Organization’s world vaccination targets. Although some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing their own vaccines [...] Read more.
Equitable and efficient distribution of COVID-19 vaccines continues to be a key issue in global health, and a targeted approach is needed to meet the World Health Organization’s world vaccination targets. Although some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing their own vaccines to address the distribution problem, legal and technical challenges have had a negative impact on productivity. This article explores relevant international legal instruments that can enable faster research and development of COVID-19 vaccines in LMICs, focusing on the role of biosafety standards, biological materials transfer, and key knowledge sharing. Our analysis has established that the potential of existing global health legal instruments has yet to be realized in order to close the productivity gap in LMICs and strengthen their vaccine manufacturing capacity. Additionally, mutual recognition of vaccine efficacy has become a new challenge for achieving global vaccination targets. We argue that the World Health Organization should continue its leading position by developing a more practical and targeted framework to help LMICs overcome challenges arising from technology transfer, knowledge sharing, and politics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)

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14 pages, 932 KiB  
Systematic Review
COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Monitoring Studies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)—A Systematic Review of Study Designs and Methods
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061035 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Background: Post-marketing vaccine safety surveillance aims to monitor and quantify adverse events following immunization in a population, but little is known about their implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to synthesize methodological approaches used to assess adverse events following COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Background: Post-marketing vaccine safety surveillance aims to monitor and quantify adverse events following immunization in a population, but little is known about their implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to synthesize methodological approaches used to assess adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination in LMICs. Methods: For this systematic review, we searched articles published from 1 December 2019 to 18 February 2022 in main databases, including MEDLINE and Embase. We included all peer-reviewed observational COVID-19 vaccine safety monitoring studies. We excluded randomized controlled trials and case reports. We extracted data using a standardized extraction form. Two authors assessed study quality using the modified Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All findings were summarized narratively using frequency tables and figures. Results: Our search found 4254 studies, of which 58 were eligible for analysis. Many of the studies included in this review were conducted in middle-income countries, with 26 studies (45%) in lower-middle-income and 28 (48%) in upper-middle-income countries. More specifically, 14 studies were conducted in the Middle East region, 16 in South Asia, 8 in Latin America, 8 in Europe and Central Asia, and 4 in Africa. Only 3% scored 7–8 points (good quality) on the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale methodological quality assessment, while 10% got 5–6 points (medium). About 15 studies (25.9%) used a cohort study design and the rest were cross-sectional. In half of them (50%), vaccination data were gathered from the participants’ self-reporting methods. Seventeen studies (29.3%) used multivariable binary logistic regression and three (5.2%) used survival analyses. Only 12 studies (20.7%) performed model diagnostics and validity checks (e.g., the goodness of fit, identification of outliers, and co-linearity). Conclusions: Published studies on COVID-19 vaccine safety surveillance in LMICs are limited in number and the methods used do not often address potential confounders. Active surveillance of vaccines in LMICs are needed to advocate vaccination programs. Implementing training programs in pharmacoepidemiology in LMICs is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination and Globe Public Health)
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