Next Issue
Volume 10, November
Previous Issue
Volume 10, September
 
 

Vaccines, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 203 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During 2021–2022, many countries adopted mandatory and incentive-based vaccination measures to stimulate immunization against COVID-19. The measures ranged from positive-incentive-based programs to introducing COVID-19 certificates and enforcing universal mandatory vaccination with fines. We assessed the effects of such interventions on COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the populations of eight countries within the European region of the WHO. The results showed an immediate positive impact of vaccination incentives on vaccine uptake in most cases. The introduction of COVID-19 certificates was associated with a significant immediate or gradual increase in daily administered vaccine doses in all of the countries included in the study. The effects of mandatory vaccination varied, from a continuous decrease in daily administered doses, no significant effects, or a delayed or temporary increase. View this paper 
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Case Report
Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease Flares with Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination: A Case-Based Review
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101772 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Since the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, there have been multiple reports of post-vaccination myocarditis (mainly affecting young healthy males). We report on four patients with active autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) and probable or confirmed myocarditis following [...] Read more.
Since the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, there have been multiple reports of post-vaccination myocarditis (mainly affecting young healthy males). We report on four patients with active autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) and probable or confirmed myocarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination managed at a tertiary hospital in Singapore; we reviewed the literature on post-COVID-19 mRNA vaccination-related myocarditis and ARD flares. Three patients had existing ARD flares (two had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), one had eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis (EGPA)), and one had new-onset EGPA. All patients recovered well after receiving immunosuppressants comprising high-dose glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. Thus far, only one case of active SLE with myocarditis has been reported post-COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in the literature. In contrast to isolated post-COVID-19 mRNA vaccination myocarditis, our older-aged patients had myocarditis associated with ARD flares post-COVID-19 vaccination (that occurred after one dose of an mRNA vaccine), associated with other features of ARD flares, and required increased immunosuppression to achieve myocarditis resolution. This case series serves to highlight the differences in clinical and therapeutic aspects in ARD patients, heighten the vigilance of rheumatologists for this development, and encourage the adoption of risk reduction strategies in this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Article
COVID-19 Vaccination Trends and Side Effects among Egyptian Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Survey Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1771; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101771 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 436
Abstract
(1) Background: Vaccination may be a key intervention to prevent infection in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. This study aimed to determine the COVID-19 vaccination status in Egyptian CHD patients and to analyze the safety and detailed side effect profile of the COVID-19 vaccine [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Vaccination may be a key intervention to prevent infection in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. This study aimed to determine the COVID-19 vaccination status in Egyptian CHD patients and to analyze the safety and detailed side effect profile of the COVID-19 vaccine among these patients. (2) Methods: This survey-based study was conducted on 670 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on CHD from 3 December 2021 to 5 February 2022. Subjects were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and therapeutic data, in addition to their COVID-19 vaccination status. If the subject had been vaccinated, we inquired about the type of vaccine and the side effects that occurred within a few days after administration of the first and second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, subjects were asked about the onset of side effects (days from vaccination), timing of maximum symptoms, intensity of symptoms and their effect on activity and need for medical attention. (3) Results: The study included 670 CHD patients with a mean age of 50.79 years; 58.1% were females. The vast majority (614; 91.6%) of the studied patients received two doses of the vaccine. Side effects were more commonly reported after the first dose than the second dose. The main side effects reported were generalized weakness/fatigue (56%), headache (43.8%) and fever (40.4%), and sore arm/pain was also reported (29.3%). Adverse events mostly occurred within one day after vaccination and the maximum symptoms usually happened on the second day. The median duration of symptoms was 3 days with a maximum duration up to 5 days. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that male gender (OR 1.848; (95% CI, 1.242–2.749), p = 0.002), age (OR 0.981; (95% CI, 0.969–0.993), p = 0.003), smoking (OR 6.067; (95% CI, 3.514–10.475), p < 0.001), duration since starting HD (OR 0.998; (95% CI, 0.998–0.999), p < 0.001), associated comorbidities (OR 2.202; (95% CI, 1.478–3.281), p < 0.001) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR 3.318; (95% CI, 1.952–5.642), p < 0.001) were the main determinants of adverse events related to COVID-19 vaccination. (4) Conclusions: our preliminary findings support the favorable short-term safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccine among CHD patients, and hence can reassure both clinicians and patients, as well as further promote COVID-19 vaccine administration among these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adherence to Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Catch-Up Campaign at the Romagna Local Health Authority (Italy), a Multi-Center Retrospective Observational Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101770 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Herpes Zoster (shingles) is an infection that occurs when varicella-zoster virus reactivates from the latent state. Incidence and severity of Herpes Zoster disease increase with age. Antiviral drugs are the elective treatment; however, prevention of disease reactivation through effective and safe vaccines is [...] Read more.
Herpes Zoster (shingles) is an infection that occurs when varicella-zoster virus reactivates from the latent state. Incidence and severity of Herpes Zoster disease increase with age. Antiviral drugs are the elective treatment; however, prevention of disease reactivation through effective and safe vaccines is available in Italy out-of-pocket from age 65 onwards. The Romagna Local Health Authority (northern Italy) administered catch-up vaccinations in March–May 2022 for immunizations not performed during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, adherence rates to the catch-up campaign and recall activities adopted in two centers were investigated. The uptakes for only the catch-up vaccinations were 11.4% and 12.4%. Having suffered from Herpes Zoster or having family members who suffered from it would not seem to be drivers of increased uptake. Although sending text-messages to all involved patients was the main motivation for vaccine uptake (85.7–95.1%), word of mouth and web/news advertising also contributed to adoption in Center No. 2. In both centers, the need for greater synergy between public health departments and general practitioners to engage their patients emerged, as did the need for additional recall measures. Studying the main drivers of vaccine hesitancy, especially at the local level, can help in targeting campaigns and catch-up activities in order to achieve widespread acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Epidemiology and Vaccines 2.0)
Article
Understanding the Impact of Approved but Unfunded Vaccine Status on Parental Acceptance of an Adjuvanted Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for Infants: Results from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–III
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101769 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against influenza for infants but is not publicly funded (NPF). The objective of this prospective cohort study of parents with children 6 through 23 months of age was to understand how NPF status influences [...] Read more.
The adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against influenza for infants but is not publicly funded (NPF). The objective of this prospective cohort study of parents with children 6 through 23 months of age was to understand how NPF status influences parental perceptions of approved but unfunded vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate. At healthy baby visits, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza and vaccination. Before and after these interactions, a research nurse assessed parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children and their beliefs about the safety, efficacy, and necessity of vaccinating their children with aTIV in both publicly funded (PF) and NPF settings. Overall, 15 community practice clinics (n = 15 physicians) and nine public health clinics (n = 9 nurses) recruited 207 parents. The percentage of parents intending to immunize their children with aTIV decreased from 72% (vaccine PF, free of charge), to 42% (NPF, $25 per dose), to 27% (NPF, $50 per dose). Funding status strongly influenced whether parents perceived immunization with aTIV to be necessary, safe, and effective. Information on influenza and influenza vaccines should be provided to parents routinely to allow for well-informed decisions on the suitability of specific influenza vaccines for their child. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differential Homing Receptor Profiles of Lymphocytes Induced by Attenuated versus Live Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101768 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 444
Abstract
The onset of an adaptive immune response provides the signals required for differentiation of antigen-specific lymphocytes into effector cells and imprinting of these cells for re-circulation to the most appropriate anatomical site (i.e., homing). Lymphocyte homing is governed by the expression of tissue-specific [...] Read more.
The onset of an adaptive immune response provides the signals required for differentiation of antigen-specific lymphocytes into effector cells and imprinting of these cells for re-circulation to the most appropriate anatomical site (i.e., homing). Lymphocyte homing is governed by the expression of tissue-specific lymphocyte homing receptors that bind to unique tissue-specific ligands on endothelial cells. In this study, a whole-parasite malaria vaccine (radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS)) was used as a model system to establish homing receptor signatures induced by the parasite delivered through mosquito bite to provide a benchmark of desirable homing receptors for malaria vaccine developers. This immunization regimen resulted in the priming of antigen-specific B cells and CD8+ T cells for homing primarily to the skin and T/B cell compartments of secondary lymphoid organs. Infection with live sporozoites, however, triggers the upregulation of homing receptor for the liver and the skin, demonstrating that there is a difference in the signal provided by attenuated vs. live sporozoites. This is the first report on imprinting of homing routes by Plasmodium sporozoites and, surprisingly, it also points to additional, yet to be identified, signals provided by live parasites that prime lymphocytes for homing to the liver. The data also demonstrate the utility of this method for assessing the potential of vaccine formulations to direct antigen-specific lymphocytes to the most relevant anatomical site, thus potentially impacting vaccine efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Vaccine Design against Malaria)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Vaccine Adverse Events Following COVID-19 Vaccination with Inactivated Vaccines in Zimbabwe
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101767 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and misperceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and misperceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there are limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported adverse events and factors associated with reported adverse events following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines-BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and adverse events from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine adverse events after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported adverse events after the first and second dose, respectively. The most frequent local and systemic adverse events were pain at the injection site and headaches, respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants required hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report adverse events. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Correlates and Interventions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Influenza Vaccination among Multiple Sclerosis Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101766 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 476
Abstract
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses may have severe complications for vulnerable populations. For this reason, the World Health Organization pointed to the 2020–2021 anti-influenza campaign as being of special relevance. Our aim was to [...] Read more.
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses may have severe complications for vulnerable populations. For this reason, the World Health Organization pointed to the 2020–2021 anti-influenza campaign as being of special relevance. Our aim was to assess the 2020–2021 influenza vaccination coverage, and its associated factors, among patients in a Spanish multiple sclerosis (MS) unit. A cross–sectional study was conducted. People attending the MS unit of the Clinical Hospital of Zaragoza during 2020 were included. Variables were obtained by reviewing records. Associations with 2020–2021 influenza vaccination were analyzed using bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 302 patients were studied; 62.6% were women, whose mean age (standard deviation) was 47.3 (11.5) years. The 2020–2021 influenza vaccination coverage was 55.3% (59.8% in women and 47.8% in men). A total of 89.7% had at least one other indication for vaccination (e.g., immunosuppressive treatment in 225 patients). The variables associated with getting vaccinated were being female (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) (aOR (95%CI) = 2.12 (1.12–3.99)), having received the 2019–2020 influenza vaccine (aOR (95%CI) = 31.82 (14.71–68.86)) and being born in Spain (aOR (95%CI) = 12.91 (1.07–156.28)). Coverage is moderate compared to other countries. It is necessary to develop strategies to improve it, especially in men and those born outside Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Public Health)
Article
Safety after BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) COVID-19 Vaccine in Adolescents Aged 10–17 Years in Thailand
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101765 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 affected child health and impacted learning because of the resulting onsite school closures. This prospective cohort study included children aged 10–17 who received two 4 µg doses of BBIBP-CorV administered intramuscularly 21–28 days apart. To assess vaccine safety, 36,808 participants [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 affected child health and impacted learning because of the resulting onsite school closures. This prospective cohort study included children aged 10–17 who received two 4 µg doses of BBIBP-CorV administered intramuscularly 21–28 days apart. To assess vaccine safety, 36,808 participants were then followed with paper- and web-based online questionnaire surveys that captured local and systemic reactogenicities following vaccine administration on days 1, 7, and 30. Among participants, 76% (27,880) reported reactogenicity within the first 24 h and 7 days following the first dose. Half (51.41%) of participants experienced pain at the injection site; the majority of cases were mild in severity. Injection site tenderness (37.93%) was another common local reaction. Fatigue (37.89%), myalgia (33.56%), and headache (26.76%) were the most common systemic reactions. On days 2–7 after the first dose, 25.85% of participants experienced adverse reactions. Following the second dose, reactogenicity was 7.6% and 1.09% within 24 h and between days 2–7. The majority of reactions were of mild to moderate severity. We report that two doses of the BBIBP-CorV caused mild to moderate side effects in adolescents in Thailand. The findings confirm the vaccine’s safety profile in this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Delineating the SARS-CoV-2 Induced Interplay between the Host Immune System and the DNA Damage Response Network
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101764 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 899
Abstract
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and characterized by an extremely variable disease course, ranging from asymptomatic cases to severe illness. Although all individuals may be infected by SARS-CoV-2, some people, including those of older age and/or with certain [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and characterized by an extremely variable disease course, ranging from asymptomatic cases to severe illness. Although all individuals may be infected by SARS-CoV-2, some people, including those of older age and/or with certain health conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease, are at higher risk of getting seriously ill. For cancer patients, there are both direct consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, including that they are more likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and more prone to develop severe complications, as well as indirect effects, such as delayed cancer diagnosis or treatment and deferred tests. Accumulating data suggest that aberrant SARS-CoV-2 immune response can be attributed to impaired interferon signaling, hyper-inflammation, and delayed adaptive immune responses. Interestingly, the SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological abnormalities, DNA damage induction, generation of micronuclei, and the virus-induced telomere shortening can abnormally activate the DNA damage response (DDR) network that plays a critical role in genome diversity and stability. We present a review of the current literature regarding the molecular mechanisms that are implicated in the abnormal interplay of the immune system and the DDR network, possibly contributing to some of the COVID-19 complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncology in the Era of SARS-CoV-2)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Factors of COVID-19 Vaccination among Hong Kong Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men during Months 5–8 since the Vaccine Rollout—General Factors and Factors Specific to This Population
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1763; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101763 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
This study investigated an under-researched topic regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination behavior among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and the associations of this with general and MSM-specific perceptions grounded in the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of [...] Read more.
This study investigated an under-researched topic regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination behavior among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and the associations of this with general and MSM-specific perceptions grounded in the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of planned behaviors (TPB). A total of 400 Chinese MSM were recruited from multiple sources (site recruitment, online recruitment, and peer referral) in Hong Kong from July to October 2021, who then participated in a structured telephone interview. Of all the participants, the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination (i.e., taking at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination) was 78.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for background factors, (1) the general and MSM-specific HBM variables of perceived benefits and self-efficacy were positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior; (2) the items or scale of general/MSM-specific perceived barriers and social norms were negatively associated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior; (3) the general perceived severity and MSM-specific perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and cue to action were not significantly associated with COVID-19 vaccination behavior. The findings suggest that the HBM and social norm construct of the TPB only partially explained the participant’s COVID-19 vaccination behavior. Health promotion may need to focus more on modifying perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination rather than COVID-19. Full article
Article
Proinflammatory Innate Cytokines and Distinct Metabolomic Signatures Shape the T Cell Response in Active COVID-19
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101762 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The underlying factors contributing to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses during COVID-19 infection remain unidentified. To address this, we characterized innate and adaptive immune responses with metabolomic profiling longitudinally at three different time points (0–3, 7–9, and 14–16 days post-COVID-19 positivity) [...] Read more.
The underlying factors contributing to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses during COVID-19 infection remain unidentified. To address this, we characterized innate and adaptive immune responses with metabolomic profiling longitudinally at three different time points (0–3, 7–9, and 14–16 days post-COVID-19 positivity) from young, mildly symptomatic, active COVID-19 patients infected during the first wave in mid-2020. We observed that anti-RBD IgG and viral neutralization are significantly reduced against the delta variant, compared to the ancestral strain. In contrast, compared to the ancestral strain, T cell responses remain preserved against the delta and omicron variants. We determined innate immune responses during the early stage of active infection, in response to TLR 3/7/8-mediated activation in PBMCs and serum metabolomic profiling. Correlation analysis indicated PBMCs-derived proinflammatory cytokines, IL-18, IL-1β, and IL-23, and the abundance of plasma metabolites involved in arginine biosynthesis were predictive of a robust SARS-CoV-2-specific Th1 response at a later stage (two weeks after PCR positivity). These observations may contribute to designing effective vaccines and adjuvants that promote innate immune responses and metabolites to induce a long-lasting anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effector-Memory B-Lymphocytes and Follicular Helper T-Lymphocytes as Central Players in the Immune Response in Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Populations against SARS-CoV-2
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101761 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Vaccines have been recognized as having a central role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic; however, most vaccine development research is focused on IgG-induced antibodies. Here, we analyzed the generation of IgGs related to SARS-CoV-2 and the changes in B- and T-lymphocyte proportions following [...] Read more.
Vaccines have been recognized as having a central role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic; however, most vaccine development research is focused on IgG-induced antibodies. Here, we analyzed the generation of IgGs related to SARS-CoV-2 and the changes in B- and T-lymphocyte proportions following vaccination against COVID-19. We included samples from 69 volunteers inoculated with the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Astra Zeneca (AZD1222 Covishield), or Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac) vaccines. IgGs related to SARS-CoV-2 increased after the first vaccine dose compared with the nonvaccinated group (Pfizer, p = 0.0001; Astra Zeneca, p < 0.0001; Sputnik V, p = 0.0089). The results of the flow cytometry analysis of B- and T-lymphocytes showed a higher proportion of effector-memory B-lymphocytes in both first and second doses when compared with the nonvaccinated subjects. FcRL4+ cells were increased in second-dose-vaccinated COVID-19(−) and recovered COVID-19(+) participants when compared with the nonvaccinated participants. COVID-19(−) participants showed a lower proportion of follicular helper T-lymphocytes (TFH) in the second dose when compared with the first-vaccine-dose and nonvaccinated subjects. In conclusion, after the first vaccine dose, immunization against SARS-CoV-2 induces IgG production, and this could be mediated by TFH and effector-memory B-lymphocytes. Our data can be used in the design of vaccine schedules to evaluate immuno-bridging from a cellular point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humoral and Cellular Response after COVID-19 Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Novel Dry-Stabilized Whole Blood Microsampling and Protein Extraction Method for Testing of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Titers
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101760 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 799
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a crucial need for rapid, straightforward collection and testing of biological samples. Serological antibody assays can analyze patient blood samples to confirm immune response following mRNA vaccine administration or to verify past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a crucial need for rapid, straightforward collection and testing of biological samples. Serological antibody assays can analyze patient blood samples to confirm immune response following mRNA vaccine administration or to verify past exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While blood tests provide vital information for clinical analysis and epidemiology, sample collection is not trivial; this process requires a visit to the doctor’s office, a professionally trained phlebotomist to draw several milliliters of blood, processing to yield plasma or serum, and necessitates appropriate cold chain storage to preserve the specimen. A novel whole blood collection kit (truCOLLECT) allows for a lancet-based, decentralized capillary blood collection of metered low volumes and eliminates the need for refrigerated transport and storage through the process of active desiccation. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (total and neutralizing) and nucleocapsid protein antibody titers in plasma samples obtained via venipuncture were compared to antibodies extracted from desiccated whole blood using Adaptive Focused Acoustics (AFA). Paired plasma versus desiccated blood extracts yields Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.98; 95% CI [0.96, 0.99] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies, 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.99] for neutralizing antibodies, and 0.97; 95% CI [0.94, 0.99] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein antibodies. These data suggest that serology testing using desiccated and stabilized whole blood samples can be a convenient and cost-effective alternative to phlebotomy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Production and Purification of LTB-RBD: A Potential Antigen for Mucosal Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101759 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Most of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are based on parenteral immunization targeting the S protein. Although protective, such vaccines could be optimized by inducing effective immune responses (neutralizing IgA responses) at the mucosal surfaces, allowing them to block the virus at the earliest [...] Read more.
Most of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are based on parenteral immunization targeting the S protein. Although protective, such vaccines could be optimized by inducing effective immune responses (neutralizing IgA responses) at the mucosal surfaces, allowing them to block the virus at the earliest stage of the infectious cycle. Herein a recombinant chimeric antigen called LTB-RBD is described, which comprises the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli and a segment of the RBD from SARS-CoV-2 (aa 439-504, carrying B and T cell epitopes) from the Wuhan sequence and the variant of concern (VOC)—delta. Since LTB is a mucosal adjuvant, targeting the GM1 receptor at the surface and facilitating antigen translocation to the submucosa, this candidate will help in designing mucosal vaccines (i.e., oral or intranasal formulations). LTB-RBD was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by IMAC and IMAC-anionic exchange chromatography. The yields in terms of pure LTB-RBD were 1.2 mg per liter of culture for the Wuhan sequence and 3.5 mg per liter for the delta variant. The E. coli-made LTB-RBD induced seric IgG responses and IgA responses in the mouth and feces of mice when subcutaneously administered and intestinal and mouth IgA responses when administered nasally. The expression and purification protocols developed for LTB-RBD constitute a robust system to produce vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, offering a low-cost production system with no tags and with ease of adaptation to new variants. The E. coli-made LTB-RBD will be the basis for developing mucosal vaccine candidates capable of inducing sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Response of Vaccines to SARS-CoV-2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Systematic Review of 45 Patients
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101758 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
We provide a systematic review of published cases of optic neuropathy following COVID-19 vaccination. We used Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Search terms included: “COVID-19 vaccination”, “optic neuropathy”, “optic neuritis”, and “ischemic optic neuropathy”. The titles and abstracts were screened, then the [...] Read more.
We provide a systematic review of published cases of optic neuropathy following COVID-19 vaccination. We used Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Search terms included: “COVID-19 vaccination”, “optic neuropathy”, “optic neuritis”, and “ischemic optic neuropathy”. The titles and abstracts were screened, then the full texts were reviewed. Sixty eyes from forty-five patients (28 females) were included. Eighteen eyes from fourteen patients (31.1%) were diagnosed with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), while 34 eyes from 26 patients (57.8%) were diagnosed with optic neuritis (ON). Other conditions included autoimmune optic neuropathy and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Fifteen patients (33.3%) had bilateral involvement. The mean age of all patients was 47.4 ± 17.1 years. The mean age of AION patients was 62.9 ± 12.2 years and of ON patients was 39.7 ± 12.8 years (p < 0.001). The mean time from vaccination to ophthalmic symptoms was 9.6 ± 8.7 days. The mean presenting visual acuity (VA) was logMAR 0.990 ± 0.924. For 41 eyes with available follow-up, the mean presenting VA was logMAR 0.842 ± 0.885, which improved to logMAR 0.523 ± 0.860 at final follow-up (p < 0.001). COVID-19 vaccination may be associated with different forms of optic neuropathy. Patients diagnosed with ON were more likely to be younger and to experience visual improvement. More studies are needed to further characterize optic neuropathies associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
Review
Post-Vaccination Neutralization Responses to Omicron Sub-Variants
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101757 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Background: The emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529), which correlated with dramatic losses in cross-neutralization capacity of post-vaccination sera, raised concerns about the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against infection and disease. Several clinically relevant sub-variants subsequently emerged rapidly. Methods: We evaluated published and [...] Read more.
Background: The emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529), which correlated with dramatic losses in cross-neutralization capacity of post-vaccination sera, raised concerns about the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against infection and disease. Several clinically relevant sub-variants subsequently emerged rapidly. Methods: We evaluated published and pre-print studies reporting sub-variant specific reductions in cross-neutralization compared to the prototype strain of SARS-CoV-2 and between sub-variants. Median fold-reduction across studies was calculated by sub-variant and vaccine platform. Results: Among 178 studies with post-vaccination data, after primary vaccination the sub-variant specific fold-reduction in neutralization capacity compared to the prototype antigen varied widely, from median 4.2-fold for BA.3 to 40.1-fold for BA.2.75; in boosted participants fold-reduction was similar for most sub-variants (5.3-fold to 7.0-fold); however, a more pronounced fold-change was observed for sub-variants related to BA.4 and BA.5 (10.4-fold to 14.2-fold). Relative to BA.1, the other Omicron sub-variants had similar neutralization capacity post-primary vaccination (range median 0.8-fold to 1.1-fold) and post-booster (0.9-fold to 1.4-fold) except for BA.4/5-related sub-variants which was higher (2.1-fold to 2.7-fold). Omicron sub-variant-specific responder rates were low post-primary vaccination (range median 28.0% to 65.9%) compared to the prototype (median 100%) but improved post-booster (range median 73.3% to 100%). Conclusions: Fold-reductions in neutralization titers were comparable post-booster except for sub-variants related to BA.4 and BA.5, which had higher fold-reduction. Assessment after primary vaccination was not possible because of overall poor neutralization responses causing extreme heterogeneity. Considering large fold-decreases in neutralization titers relative to the parental strain for all Omicron sub-variants, vaccine effectiveness is very likely to be reduced against all Omicron sub-variants, and probably more so against variants related to BA.4 or BA.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Global Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Serology, Part 2)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Low NETosis Induced in Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Infected Cells
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101756 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Anaplasma phagocytophilum are obligatory intracellular bacteria that preferentially replicate inside leukocytes by utilizing biological compounds and processes of these primary host defensive cells. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was conducted to further characterize A. phagocytophilum–host interactions using the neutrophil-like model of human [...] Read more.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum are obligatory intracellular bacteria that preferentially replicate inside leukocytes by utilizing biological compounds and processes of these primary host defensive cells. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was conducted to further characterize A. phagocytophilum–host interactions using the neutrophil-like model of human Caucasian promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. We detected a hierarchy of molecules involved in A. phagocytophilum-HL60 interactions with overrepresentation in infected human cells of proteins involved in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and cell surface monocyte markers. As A. phagocytophilum phagocytosis by neutrophils is inhibited, the results suggested a possible explanation for our bioinformatics data: radical oxygen compounds could induce the killing of bacteria activating NETosis, a unique form of defense mechanism resulting in cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to eliminate invading microorganisms. Thus, we confirmed the existence of a low NETosis induced in A. phagocytophilum-infected cells by immunofluorescence (IF) experiments. These results provide new insights into the complex mechanisms that govern immune response during A. phagocytophilum host interactions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Multidimensional Vaccine Hesitancy Scale: A Validation Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101755 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is a phenomenon which increases the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases. The study tests the validity of the Multidimensional Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (MVHS) in the case of a sample of Romanian adults (n = 528; Meanage = 30.57). The [...] Read more.
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is a phenomenon which increases the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases. The study tests the validity of the Multidimensional Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (MVHS) in the case of a sample of Romanian adults (n = 528; Meanage = 30.57). The latter filled in an online cross-sectional survey. The construct validity of MVHS was assessed by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the reliability was calculated by using the internal consistency, and the convergent and discriminant validity was assessed by using the composite reliability (CR), and average variance extracted (AVE). The obtained model was invariant across gender. The structural equation model was designed for predictive validity by using the partial least square method (PLS-SEM) which analyses the relation between the MVHS dimensions and the vaccination willingness. The results show support for the 8-factor structure of the scale (χ2/df = 2.48; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.053). The Cronbach’s coefficients α > 0.70; McDonald’s ω > 0.70 and CR > 0.80 have very good values. The structural equation model shows that there are more dimensions of the scale which predict vaccination hesitancy in various types of vaccines—the main predictors remain the dimensions of health risk and healthy condition. The study’s conclusion led to the idea that the MVHS is suitable for medical practice and for research on the analysis of vaccination behaviours and intentions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Factors Associated with Vaccine Hesitancy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High Prevalence of HPV 51 in an Unvaccinated Population and Implications for HPV Vaccines
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101754 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in 99.7% of cervical cancers. Current vaccines target types 16 and 18. Prior to vaccination implementation, a prospective cohort study was conducted to determine baseline HPV prevalence in unvaccinated women in Wales; after HPV16 and HPV18, HPV 51 [...] Read more.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in 99.7% of cervical cancers. Current vaccines target types 16 and 18. Prior to vaccination implementation, a prospective cohort study was conducted to determine baseline HPV prevalence in unvaccinated women in Wales; after HPV16 and HPV18, HPV 51 was found to be most prevalent. This study aimed to re-assess the unexpected high prevalence of HPV 51 and consider its potential for type-replacement. Two hundred HPV 51 positive samples underwent re-analysis by repeating the original methodology using HPV 51 GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay, and additionally a novel assay of HPV 51 E7 PCR. Data were correlated with age, social deprivation and cytology. Direct repeat of HPV 51 PCR-EIA identified 146/195 (75.0%) samples as HPV 51 positive; E7 PCR identified 166/195 (85.1%) samples as HPV 51 positive. HPV 51 prevalence increased with cytological grade. The prevalence of HPV 51 in the pre-vaccinated population was truly high. E7 DNA assays may offer increased specificity for HPV genotyping. Cross-protection of current vaccines against less-prevalent HPV types warrants further study. This study highlights the need for longitudinal investigation into the prevalence of non-vaccine HPV types, especially those phylogenetically different to vaccine types for potential type-replacement. Ongoing surveillance will inform future vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Papillomavirus Vaccines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effectiveness of Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccines against COVID-19 Caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron Variants: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101753 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Background: Real-world evidence on the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against the Delta and Omicron (BA.2.38) variants remains scarce. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) of one, two, and three doses of inactivated vaccines in attenuating [...] Read more.
Background: Real-world evidence on the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against the Delta and Omicron (BA.2.38) variants remains scarce. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) of one, two, and three doses of inactivated vaccines in attenuating pneumonia, severe COVID-19, and the duration of viral shedding in Delta and Omicron cases using modified Poisson and linear regression as appropriate. Results: A total of 561 COVID-19 cases were included (59.2% Delta and 40.8% Omicron). In total, 56.4% (184) of Delta and 12.0% (27) of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. In the two-dose vaccinated population, 1.4% of Delta and 89.1% of Omicron cases were vaccinated for more than 6 months. In Delta cases, the two-dose aVE was 52% (95% confidence interval, 39–63%) against pneumonia and 61% (15%, 82%) against severe disease. Two-dose vaccination reduced the duration of viral shedding in Delta cases, but not in booster-vaccinated Omicron cases. In Omicron cases, three-dose aVE was 68% (18%, 88%) effective against pneumonia, while two-dose vaccination was insufficient for Omicron. E-values were calculated, and the E-values confirmed the robustness of our findings. Conclusions: In Delta cases, two-dose vaccination within 6 months reduced pneumonia, disease severity, and the duration of viral shedding. Booster vaccination provided a high level of protection against pneumonia with Omicron and should be prioritized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological and Clinical Research on SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metformin Use before Influenza Vaccination May Lower the Risks of Influenza and Related Complications
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101752 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Older adults are more likely to have influenza and respond less well to the flu vaccine. We conducted this study to investigate whether pre-influenza vaccination metformin use had an effect on influenza and relevant complications in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [...] Read more.
Older adults are more likely to have influenza and respond less well to the flu vaccine. We conducted this study to investigate whether pre-influenza vaccination metformin use had an effect on influenza and relevant complications in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Propensity score matching was used to identify 28,169 pairs of metformin users and nonusers from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2018. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate the risks of hospitalization for influenza, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, ventilation, and mortality between metformin users and nonusers. Compared with metformin nonusers, the aHRs (95% CI) for metformin users at risk of hospitalization for influenza, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, invasive mechanical ventilation, death due to cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality were 0.60 (0.34, 1.060), 0.63 (0.53, 0.76), 0.41 (0.36, 0.47), 0.56 (0.45, 0.71), 0.49 (0.33, 0.73), and 0.44 (0.39, 0.51), respectively. Higher cumulative duration of metformin use was associated with lower risks of these outcomes than no use of metformin. This cohort study demonstrated that pre-influenza vaccination metformin use was associated with lower risks of hospitalizations for influenza, pneumonia, cardiovascular disease, mechanical ventilation, and mortality compared to metformin nonusers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Vaccination for People with Chronic Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Variants of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Vaccine Effectiveness
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101751 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
The incidence and death toll due to SARS-CoV-2 infection varied time-to-time; and depended on several factors, including severity (viral load), immune status, age, gender, vaccination status, and presence of comorbidities. The RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 has mutated and produced several variants, which were [...] Read more.
The incidence and death toll due to SARS-CoV-2 infection varied time-to-time; and depended on several factors, including severity (viral load), immune status, age, gender, vaccination status, and presence of comorbidities. The RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 has mutated and produced several variants, which were classified by the SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group (SIG) into four major categories. The first category; “Variant Being Monitored (VBM)”, consists of Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), Epsilon (B.1.427, B.1.429), Eta (B.1.525), Iota (B.1.526), Kappa (B.1.617.1), Mu (B.1.621), and Zeta (P.2); the second category; “Variants of Concern” consists of Omicron (B.1.1.529). The third and fourth categories include “Variants of Interest (VOI)”, and “Variants of High Consequence (VOHC)”, respectively, and contain no variants classified currently under these categories. The surge in VBM and VOC poses a significant threat to public health globally as they exhibit altered virulence, transmissibility, diagnostic or therapeutic escape, and the ability to evade the host immune response. Studies have shown that certain mutations increase the infectivity and pathogenicity of the virus as demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2, the Omicron variant. It is reported that the Omicron variant has >60 mutations with at least 30 mutations in the Spike protein (“S” protein) and 15 mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), resulting in rapid attachment to target cells and immune evasion. The spread of VBM and VOCs has affected the actual protective efficacy of the first-generation vaccines (ChAdOx1, Ad26.COV2.S, NVX-CoV2373, BNT162b2). Currently, the data on the effectiveness of existing vaccines against newer variants of SARS-CoV-2 are very scanty; hence additional studies are immediately warranted. To this end, recent studies have initiated investigations to elucidate the structural features of crucial proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants and their involvement in pathogenesis. In addition, intense research is in progress to develop better preventive and therapeutic strategies to halt the spread of COVID-19 caused by variants. This review summarizes the structure and life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, provides background information on several variants of SARS-CoV-2 and mutations associated with these variants, and reviews recent studies on the safety and efficacy of major vaccines/vaccine candidates approved against SARS-CoV-2, and its variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Post-COVID-19 Complications and Vaccination Efficacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Influenza Vaccine on Prevention of Acute Attack of Chronic Airway Disease in Elderly Population
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101750 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on prevention of acute attacks in elderly patients with chronic airway disease and provides evidence for the prevention and control strategy of chronic airway disease in the elderly population. A total of 348 elderly patients [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on prevention of acute attacks in elderly patients with chronic airway disease and provides evidence for the prevention and control strategy of chronic airway disease in the elderly population. A total of 348 elderly patients in Linquan County, Anhui Province, China, who were also in stationary phases of chronic airway disease and were vaccinated with either the tetravalent or trivalent influenza vaccine were selected. The number of patients with acute attacks, the number of outpatients with acute attacks, the number of outpatients, the number of inpatients, the total cost of patients, the cost of outpatients, the cost of hospitalization, and the length of hospitalization were collected before vaccination and after a one-year follow-up. There was no significant difference in age and sex ratio among the two vaccination groups. The ratios of acute attacks, outpatient visits, and hospitalizations and number of outpatient visits, number of hospitalizations, total medical expenses, outpatient expenses, and hospitalization expenses were significantly higher before vaccination than those after vaccination in both the trivalent-vaccination group and tetravalent-vaccination group. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the length of stay between before and after vaccination in either the trivalent-vaccination group or tetravalent-vaccination group. The protection effect between the trivalent-vaccination group and tetravalent-vaccination group was not significant. Influenza vaccination can effectively prevent the acute attack of chronic airway disease and delay the progress of chronic airway disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Social Environmental Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in India: A Population-Based Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101749 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Background: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, trust within a community in the projected schemes or strategies to combat COVID-19 depends on the confidence generated and launched by the government and medical employees toward the public. The “vaccination intention” within a community is [...] Read more.
Background: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, trust within a community in the projected schemes or strategies to combat COVID-19 depends on the confidence generated and launched by the government and medical employees toward the public. The “vaccination intention” within a community is determined by a range of factors, which include sociodemographic features, personal beliefs, and attitude toward vaccination. Methods: A nationwide survey was conducted involving 2000 people using a Tencent questionnaire platform. One-way ANOVA was conducted for age, education, and occupation with vaccination intention for the COVID-19 vaccine. Correlation analysis was conducted between sources, trust, and vaccination intention indicating both types of sources (official and unofficial sources) and both types of trust (trust in the social environment and in vaccines). Results: The reception of the sources of information on the COVID-19 vaccine was significantly higher from official sources (M = 5.54, SD = 1.37) and government officials (M = 5.68, SD = 1.499) compared with that from experts in medicine (M = 5.39, SD = 1.511). Among the unofficial sources, “chatting and communicating with family and friends” scored the highest (M = 4.84, SD = 1.649). In the statistics on people’s trust in all aspects involved in vaccines, the level of trust in the social environment was significantly higher and more concentrated than in vaccines (M = 5.67, SD = 1.129). The level of trust in government (M = 5.80, SD = 1.256) was slightly higher than in medical personnel (M = 5.53, SD = 1.199). People’s willingness to be vaccinated was generally high (M = 78.15, SD = 22.354). The demographic factors were not influential in vaccination intention. Both sources (official and unofficial sources) and trust (trust in the social environment and in vaccines) are significantly and positively correlated with vaccination intention. Information receptions from official and unofficial sources were significant positive predictors of trust in the social environment, but they were not significant predictors of trust in vaccines. The mediating effect of trust in vaccines on the relationship between receiving information from official and unofficial sources and vaccination intention was insignificant. Conclusions: This study revealed that trust in the environment is an important channel linking people’s information reception and vaccination intention, explores a new path for health information communication, and attempts to provide new ideas for health information dissemination and promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination—a Global Perspective)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Caregivers’ Hesitancy in Immunizing Dependent Older Adults with COVID-19 Vaccines: A Cross-Sectional Survey
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101748 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations have been proven to prevent hospitalization and mortality. However, some caregivers may be hesitant to authorize COVID-19 vaccination of people under their care. Our study aimed to evaluate factors associated with caregiver hesitancy to authorize vaccination of [...] Read more.
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations have been proven to prevent hospitalization and mortality. However, some caregivers may be hesitant to authorize COVID-19 vaccination of people under their care. Our study aimed to evaluate factors associated with caregiver hesitancy to authorize vaccination of dependent older adults. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of dependent older patients in the geriatric clinic of Ramathibodi Hospital. Caregivers were contacted and interviewed by trained interviewers from 20 June to 25 July 2021. Results: The study enrolled 318 participants with a mean age of 55.9 years. The majority of the participants were the patients’ children (86.5%). In total, 39.9% of participants were hesitant to authorize COVID-19 vaccination of the older adults under their care. Factors associated with caregiver vaccine hesitation were uneasiness, anxiety, agitation, sadness, and worry in association with social distancing, refusal to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, and concern about vaccine manufacturers. Conclusion: The prevalence of caregiver hesitancy to allow older adults to undergo COVID-19 vaccination was relatively high, and several factors associated with this vaccine hesitancy were identified. These findings may aid efforts toward COVID-19 vaccination of dependent older adults. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identifying Modifiable Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects: A Machine Learning Approach
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101747 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Side effects of COVID-19 or other vaccinations may affect an individual’s safety, ability to work or care for self or others, and/or willingness to be vaccinated. Identifying modifiable factors that influence these side effects may increase the number of people vaccinated. In this [...] Read more.
Side effects of COVID-19 or other vaccinations may affect an individual’s safety, ability to work or care for self or others, and/or willingness to be vaccinated. Identifying modifiable factors that influence these side effects may increase the number of people vaccinated. In this observational study, data were from individuals who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine between December 2020 and April 2021 and responded to at least one post-vaccination symptoms survey that was sent daily for three days after each vaccination. We excluded those with a COVID-19 diagnosis or positive SARS-CoV2 test within one week after their vaccination because of the overlap of symptoms. We used machine learning techniques to analyze the data after the first vaccination. Data from 50,484 individuals (73% female, 18 to 95 years old) were included in the primary analysis. Demographics, history of an epinephrine autoinjector prescription, allergy history category (e.g., food, vaccine, medication, insect sting, seasonal), prior COVID-19 diagnosis or positive test, and vaccine manufacturer were identified as factors associated with allergic and non-allergic side effects; vaccination time 6:00–10:59 was associated with more non-allergic side effects. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted to quantify the relative effect of modifiable factors, such as time of vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Glucomannan as a Dietary Supplement for Treatment of Breast Cancer in a Mouse Model
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101746 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a water-soluble polysaccharide derived from the Amorphophallus’s tuber and, as herbal medicine has shown, can suppress tumor growth or improve health. However, there has been no investigation into the effects of KGM on breast tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, in two [...] Read more.
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a water-soluble polysaccharide derived from the Amorphophallus’s tuber and, as herbal medicine has shown, can suppress tumor growth or improve health. However, there has been no investigation into the effects of KGM on breast tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, in two cohort experiments, we assessed the effect of glucomannan at daily doses of 2 and 4 mg for 28 days as a dietary supplement and also glucomannan in combination with tumor lysate vaccine as an adjuvant. Tumor volume was monitored twice weekly. In addition, TNF-α cytokines and granzyme B (Gr–B) release were measured with ELISA kits, and IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ were used as an index for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. Moreover, TGF-β and Foxp3 gene expression were assessed in a real-time PCR test. The results show that glucomannan as a dietary supplement increased the IFN-γ cytokine and Th1 responses to suppress tumor growth. Glucomannan as a dietary supplement at the 4 mg dose increased the IL-4 cytokine response compared to control groups. In addition, cell lysate immunization with 2 or 4 mg of glucomannan suppressed tumor growth. As an adjuvant, glucomannan at both doses showed 41.53% and 52.10% tumor suppression compared with the PBS group. Furthermore, the administration of glucomannan as a dietary supplement or adjuvant reduced regulatory T cell response through decreasing TGF-β and Foxp3 gene expression in the tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, glucomannan as a dietary supplement or adjuvant enhanced the immune responses of tumor-bearing mice and decreased immune response suppression in the tumor milieu, making it a potentially excellent therapeutic agent for lowering breast tumor growth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Epidemiological Characteristics of Varicella under Different Immunisation Strategies in Suzhou Prefecture, Jiangsu Province
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101745 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Background: The varicella vaccine is excluded from the Chinese national immunisation programme but is included in the local expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) in the Suzhou Prefecture. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the varicella cases during the implementation of different immunisation [...] Read more.
Background: The varicella vaccine is excluded from the Chinese national immunisation programme but is included in the local expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) in the Suzhou Prefecture. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the varicella cases during the implementation of different immunisation strategies in the Suzhou Prefecture, Jiangsu Province. Methods: In this study, we used descriptive statistics. Information on reported instances from 2012 to 2021 was first retrieved. Data on varicella cases were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP). Similarly, information on vaccinated children was obtained from the Jiangsu Province Vaccination Integrated Service Management Information System (JPVISMIS). The census data in this study was procured from the Suzhou Bureau of Statistics. Results: From 2012 to 2021, a total of 118,031 cases of varicella were reported in Suzhou, and the average annual reported incidence was 91.35 per 100,000. The average yearly incidence after implementing the two-dose varicella vaccination decreased by 41.57% compared with the implementation of one dose. This study demonstrates two annual incidence peaks, a small peak between April and July and a prominent peak between October and January. It is also possible that this seasonal distribution is related to the geography of Suzhou. The average annual reported incidence between districts with a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 98.077, p < 0.05). The one-dose varicella vaccination coverage gradually increased from 55.34% in 2012 to 89.06% in 2021 and the two-dose varicella vaccination coverage gradually increased from 0.27% in 2012 to 82.17% in 2021. Conclusions: Administering the varicella vaccine in the local EPI has significantly decreased the incidence rate and the total number of cases. A two-dose vaccination schedule is still the best vaccination strategy for varicella vaccine effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Vaccination and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Increasing Vaccination: Psychological Characteristics of COVID-19 Vaccine Advocates, Converts, and Resisters in Hong Kong
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101744 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
This study uses longitudinal data to profile psychological characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine advocates, resisters, and converts. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey (Nwave1 = 3190, Nwave2 = 2193) in Hong Kong using stratified quota sampling. Among those who completed both [...] Read more.
This study uses longitudinal data to profile psychological characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine advocates, resisters, and converts. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey (Nwave1 = 3190, Nwave2 = 2193) in Hong Kong using stratified quota sampling. Among those who completed both survey waves, 458 (30.5%) were classified as vaccine advocates, 295 (19.7%) were vaccine resisters, and 621 (41.4%) were vaccine converts (who shifted away from hesitancy). Compared to advocates, resisters were more likely to be female, those without children, between 40 and 49 years old, democratic voters, and those with poor health. Highly educated individuals, non-democrats, and those in good health were more likely to convert from hesitancy to acceptance. Public trust in authorities and confidence in vaccine were the primary factors related to vaccine uptake. Those who were more confident in vaccine, those who increased in information consumption and risk perceptions towards the pandemic, and those who decreased in their trust of health professionals were more likely to convert. Our study complements the emerging global picture of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance by focusing on changes in vaccine hesitancy during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Hesitancy across the Globe)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
100 Years of BCG Immunization: Past, Present, and Future
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101743 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The 100th anniversary of the introduction of Bacille–Calmette–Guérin (BCG) as a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is an occasion warranting further investigation of the early attempts which culminated in the introduction of BCG as a TB vaccine, as well as of subsequent recognition of failures, [...] Read more.
The 100th anniversary of the introduction of Bacille–Calmette–Guérin (BCG) as a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is an occasion warranting further investigation of the early attempts which culminated in the introduction of BCG as a TB vaccine, as well as of subsequent recognition of failures, new findings that broaden its applications, outstanding questions, and approaches towards the development of novel vaccine candidates [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100 Years of BCG Immunization: Past, Present and Future)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop