Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 36558

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Guest Editor
1. Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2. Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
3. Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: cornea; dry eye disease; corneal transplantation; corneal regeneration; epidemiology
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Dear Colleagues,

In December 2020, the largest global vaccination efforts were launched to limit the spread and clinical severity of SARS-CoV-2. Although the vaccines have been reported to be highly efficacious in limiting the impact of  SARS-CoV-2, their swift development and emergency use authorizations limited the short and long-term evaluation of rare adverse events in real-world settings. Over the past 20 months, several reports and studies have highlighted the adverse events (such as myocarditis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, etc.) following the administration of these vaccines. In this special edition, we are compiling case reports, series, review articles and studies focused on ophthalmic adverse events following SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations.
The submissions may include:

  1. Case of rare ophthalmic adverse events following vaccination
  2. Studies reporting risk of ophthalmic adverse events following vaccine
  3. Analysis of global databases reporting vaccine-associated ophthalmic adverse events
  4. Review articles evaluating published literature on ocular adverse events with special emphasis on underlying potential mechanisms.

Dr. Rohan Bir Singh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • vaccination
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • ophthalmic adverse events
  • adverse events
  • COVID-19 vaccination

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Recurrent and De Novo Toxoplasmosis Retinochoroiditis following Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection or Vaccination
by Mélanie Hébert, Soumaya Bouhout, Julie Vadboncoeur and Marie-Josée Aubin
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101692 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
This study reports three cases of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or vaccination from the national Canadian COVID-19 Eye Registry between December 2020 and September 2021. A 56-year-old male presented 15 days after a positive COVID-19 test with toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. [...] Read more.
This study reports three cases of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or vaccination from the national Canadian COVID-19 Eye Registry between December 2020 and September 2021. A 56-year-old male presented 15 days after a positive COVID-19 test with toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. He later relapsed 8 days following a first Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine dose. Two patients presented with toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis following COVID-19 vaccination: A 58-year-old female presenting 4 days following a first Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine dose with anterior uveitis and a posterior pole lesion discovered 3 months later and a 39-year-old female presenting 17 days after a first Moderna vaccine dose. Resolution was achieved with oral clindamycin, oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and topical prednisolone acetate 1%. Patients were offered prophylactic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for subsequent doses without relapse. Following COVID-19 infection or vaccination, patients may be at risk for toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. Prophylactic antibiotics for future doses may be offered to patients with known ocular toxoplasmosis to prevent recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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12 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Glaucoma Cases Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination: A VAERS Database Analysis
by Rohan Bir Singh, Uday Pratap Singh Parmar, Wonkyung Cho and Parul Ichhpujani
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101630 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6006
Abstract
Background: To counter the rapidly spreading severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), global vaccination efforts were initiated in December 2020. We assess the risk of glaucoma following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and evaluate its onset interval and clinical presentations in patients. Methods: We performed [...] Read more.
Background: To counter the rapidly spreading severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), global vaccination efforts were initiated in December 2020. We assess the risk of glaucoma following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and evaluate its onset interval and clinical presentations in patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the glaucoma cases reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database between 16 December 2020, and 30 April 2022. We assessed the crude reporting rate of glaucoma, clinical presentations, onset duration, and associated risk factors. Results: During this period, 161 glaucoma cases were reported, with crude reporting rates (per million doses) of 0.09, 0.06, and 0.07 for BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively. The mean age of the patients was 60.41 ± 17.56 years, and 67.7% were women. More than half (56.6%) of the cases were reported within the first week of vaccination. The cumulative-incidence analysis showed a higher risk of glaucoma in patients who received the BNT162b2 vaccines compared with mRNA-1273 (p = 0.05). Conclusions: The incidence of glaucoma following vaccination with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S is extremely rare. Amongst the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, the onset interval of adverse events was shorter among those who received the BNT162b2 and rAd26.COV2.S vaccines compared with mRNA-1273. Most glaucoma cases were reported within the first week following vaccination in female patients and from the fifth to seventh decade. This study provides insights into the possible temporal association between reported glaucoma events and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines; however, further investigations are required to identify the potential causality link and pathological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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Review

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21 pages, 651 KiB  
Review
Corneal Adverse Events Associated with SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review
by Lana Kuziez, Taher K. Eleiwa, Muhammad Z. Chauhan, Ahmed B. Sallam, Abdelrahman M. Elhusseiny and Hajirah N. Saeed
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010166 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have played an important global role in reducing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. While the benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the risks, adverse events do occur. Non-ocular adverse effects of the vaccines have been well-documented, but [...] Read more.
Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have played an important global role in reducing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. While the benefits of vaccination greatly outweigh the risks, adverse events do occur. Non-ocular adverse effects of the vaccines have been well-documented, but descriptions of ophthalmic effects remain limited. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of reported cases of corneal adverse events after receiving vaccination against COVID-19 and to compile existing clinical data to bring attention to these phenomena. Our review discusses corneal graft rejection, including proposed mechanisms, herpetic keratitis, and other reported corneal complications. Ophthalmologists and primary care physicians should be aware of such possible associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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23 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
The Characteristics of COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Uveitis: A Summative Systematic Review
by Yasmine Yousra Sadok Cherif, Chakib Djeffal, Hashem Abu Serhan, Ahmed Elnahhas, Hebatallah Yousef, Basant E. Katamesh, Basel Abdelazeem and Abdelaziz Abdelaal
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010069 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3224
Abstract
Numerous complications following COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in the literature, with an increasing body of evidence reporting vaccination-associated uveitis (VAU). In this systematic review, we searched six electronic databases for articles reporting the occurrence of VAU following COVID-19 vaccination. Data were synthesized [...] Read more.
Numerous complications following COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in the literature, with an increasing body of evidence reporting vaccination-associated uveitis (VAU). In this systematic review, we searched six electronic databases for articles reporting the occurrence of VAU following COVID-19 vaccination. Data were synthesized with emphasis on patients’ characteristics [age, gender], vaccination characteristics [type, dose], and outcome findings [type, nature, laterality, course, location, onset, underlying cause, and associated findings]. Data are presented as numbers (percentages) for categorical data and as mean (standard deviation) for continuous data. Sixty-five studies were finally included [43 case reports, 16 case series, four cohort, one cross-sectional, and one registry-based study]. VAU occurred in 1526 cases, most commonly in females (68.93%) and middle-aged individuals (41–50 years: 19.71%), following the first dose (49.35%) of vaccination, especially in those who received Pfizer (77.90%). VAU occurred acutely (71.77%) as an inflammatory reaction (88.29%) in unilateral eyes (77.69%), particularly in the anterior portion of the uvea (54.13%). Importantly, most cases had a new onset (69.92%) while only a limited portion of cases had a reactivation of previous uveitis condition. In conclusion, although rare, uveitis following COVID-19 vaccination should be considered in new-onset and recurrent cases presenting with either acute or chronic events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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14 pages, 1246 KiB  
Review
Ocular Vascular Events following COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review
by Hashem Abu Serhan, Abdelaziz Abdelaal, Mohammad T. Abuawwad, Mohammad J. J. Taha, Sara Irshaidat, Leen Abu Serhan, Luai Abu-Ismail, Qusai Faisal Abu Salim, Basel Abdelazeem and Ayman G. Elnahry
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122143 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3207
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to investigate the current evidence regarding the association between COVID-19 vaccination and ocular vascular events. The protocol is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022358133). On 18 August 2022, an electronic search was conducted through five databases. All original [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to investigate the current evidence regarding the association between COVID-19 vaccination and ocular vascular events. The protocol is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022358133). On 18 August 2022, an electronic search was conducted through five databases. All original articles reporting individuals who were vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines and developed ophthalmic vascular events were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the NIH tool. A total of 49 studies with 130 ocular vascular cases were included. Venous occlusive events were the most common events (54.3%), which mostly occurred following the first dose (46.2%) and within the first five days following vaccination (46.2%). Vascular events occurred more with the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines (81.6%), and mostly presented unilaterally (73.8%). The most frequently reported treatment was intravitreal anti-VEGF (n = 39, 30.4%). The majority of patients (90.1%) demonstrated either improvement (p = 0.321) or persistence (p = 0.414) in the final BCVA. Ophthalmic vascular events are serious vision-threatening side effects that have been associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between COVID-19 vaccines and ocular vascular events to provide early diagnosis and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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21 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Ocular Adverse Effects: An Overview
by Parul Ichhpujani, Uday Pratap Singh Parmar, Siddharth Duggal and Suresh Kumar
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111879 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
Background: To address the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), vaccination efforts were initiated across the globe in December 2020 and are continuing. We report the onset interval and clinical presentations of ocular adverse effects following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: To address the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), vaccination efforts were initiated across the globe in December 2020 and are continuing. We report the onset interval and clinical presentations of ocular adverse effects following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods: For this narrative review, articles in the English language, published between 1 January 2020 to 1 September 2022, were included to formulate a list of the reported ocular adverse effects of different COVID-19 vaccines. Results: During this period, ocular adverse effects have been reported with BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), AZD-1222 (AstraZeneca), and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson) vaccines. Endothelial graft rejection, herpes simplex virus keratitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, anterior uveitis, eyelid edema, purpuric rashes, ischemic optic neuropathy, and cranial nerve palsies were the most reported with BNT163b2. Retinal hemorrhages, vascular occlusions, and angle closure glaucoma were the most reported with AZD-1222. Most of the ocular adverse effects reported in the literature had a good to fair prognosis with appropriate management. Conclusions: Evidence regarding the ocular adverse effects does not outweigh the benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with pre-existing systemic or ophthalmic diseases. This review provides insights into the possible temporal association between reported ocular adverse events and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines; however, further investigations are required to identify the link between potential causality and pathological mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
17 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccine-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Systematic Review of 45 Patients
by Ayman G. Elnahry, Mutaz Y. Al-Nawaflh, Aisha A. Gamal Eldin, Omar Solyman, Ahmed B. Sallam, Paul H. Phillips and Abdelrahman M. Elhusseiny
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101758 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5126
Abstract
We provide a systematic review of published cases of optic neuropathy following COVID-19 vaccination. We used Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Search terms included: “COVID-19 vaccination”, “optic neuropathy”, “optic neuritis”, and “ischemic optic neuropathy”. The titles and abstracts were screened, then the [...] Read more.
We provide a systematic review of published cases of optic neuropathy following COVID-19 vaccination. We used Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Search terms included: “COVID-19 vaccination”, “optic neuropathy”, “optic neuritis”, and “ischemic optic neuropathy”. The titles and abstracts were screened, then the full texts were reviewed. Sixty eyes from forty-five patients (28 females) were included. Eighteen eyes from fourteen patients (31.1%) were diagnosed with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), while 34 eyes from 26 patients (57.8%) were diagnosed with optic neuritis (ON). Other conditions included autoimmune optic neuropathy and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Fifteen patients (33.3%) had bilateral involvement. The mean age of all patients was 47.4 ± 17.1 years. The mean age of AION patients was 62.9 ± 12.2 years and of ON patients was 39.7 ± 12.8 years (p < 0.001). The mean time from vaccination to ophthalmic symptoms was 9.6 ± 8.7 days. The mean presenting visual acuity (VA) was logMAR 0.990 ± 0.924. For 41 eyes with available follow-up, the mean presenting VA was logMAR 0.842 ± 0.885, which improved to logMAR 0.523 ± 0.860 at final follow-up (p < 0.001). COVID-19 vaccination may be associated with different forms of optic neuropathy. Patients diagnosed with ON were more likely to be younger and to experience visual improvement. More studies are needed to further characterize optic neuropathies associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)

Other

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14 pages, 293 KiB  
Brief Report
Retinal Vein Occlusion after COVID-19 Vaccination—A Review
by Ho-Man Leung and Sunny Chi-Lik Au
Vaccines 2023, 11(8), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11081281 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Background Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) occurring after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported worldwide. Such a sight-threatening condition occurring after COVID-19 vaccination is a menace to ophthalmic health. This article reviews current evidence related to post-COVID-19 vaccination RVO. Method A total of 29 relevant [...] Read more.
Background Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) occurring after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported worldwide. Such a sight-threatening condition occurring after COVID-19 vaccination is a menace to ophthalmic health. This article reviews current evidence related to post-COVID-19 vaccination RVO. Method A total of 29 relevant articles identified on PubMed in January 2023 were selected for review. Observation All cases presented to ophthalmologists with visual loss shortly after COVID-19 vaccination. Mean and median age were both 58. No sex predominance was observed. RVO was diagnosed from findings on dilated fundal examination and ophthalmic imaging. AstraZeneca and BNT vaccines accounted for most cases. Vascular risk factors, e.g., diabetes mellitus and hypertension, were common. Most laboratory tests requested came back unremarkable. Most patients responded well to standard treatment, except those with ophthalmic comorbidities. Visual prognosis was excellent on short-term follow-up. Discussion The causality between RVO and COVID-19 vaccination is undeterminable because of the nature of articles, heterogenous reporting styles, contradicting laboratory findings and co-existing vascular risk factors. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, retinal vasculitis and homocysteinaemia were proposed to explain post-vaccination RVO. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that the incidence of RVO following COVID vaccination is very low. Nevertheless, the effects of boosters on retinal vasculature and ophthalmic health are still unclear. Conclusions The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination are believed to outweigh its ophthalmic risks. To ensure safe vaccination, the prior optimisation of comorbidities and post-vaccination monitoring are important. COVID-19 vaccines (including boosters) should be offered with reasonable confidence. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the ophthalmic impact of vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
9 pages, 241 KiB  
Brief Report
Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy during SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Vaccination
by Parthopratim Dutta Majumder and Aniruddha Agarwal
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020474 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Purpose: To review the demographic and clinical profile of patients developing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) after receiving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination or infection. Methods: In this review article, the published literature was searched to determine cases developing [...] Read more.
Purpose: To review the demographic and clinical profile of patients developing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) or paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) after receiving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination or infection. Methods: In this review article, the published literature was searched to determine cases developing either AMN or PAMM after COVID-19 vaccinations or infections. Data, including demographic profile, presenting features, symptoms, diagnosis, and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the selected publications. These parameters were compared between the two groups, i.e., patients developing AMN/PAMM either after vaccination or infection. Results: After the literature review, 57 patients developing either AMN (n = 40), PAMM (n = 14), or both (n = 3) after COVID-19 infection (n = 29) or vaccination (n = 28) were included (mean age: 34.9 ± 14.4 years; n = 38; 66.7% females). In 24.6% patients, the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection was preceded by the development of ocular disease. There were no significant differences in the age or gender between the patients developing AMN or PAMM after vaccination or infection (p > 0.13). Among the vaccination group, the highest number of patients developing AMN/PAMM were after the Oxford-AstraZeneca (n = 12; 42.9%). Patients with vaccination had a significantly early onset of AMN/PAMM compared to those with infection (11.5 ± 17.6 days versus 37.8 ± 43.6 days; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Both AMN and PAMM are reported to be associated with COVID-19 infections and in persons receiving vaccination against COVID-19. While COVID-19 infections and vaccinations may have a contributory role, other risk factors such as oral contraceptive pills may also play a role in the development of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
8 pages, 12184 KiB  
Case Report
Recurrent Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS) Following First Dose and Booster of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccine: Case Report and Review of Literature
by Matias Soifer, Nam V. Nguyen, Ryan Leite, Josh Fernandes and Shilpa Kodati
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111776 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3890
Abstract
To report a rare case of a patient with two recurrent episodes of Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS) associated with the second dose and second booster of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine (Moderna), and to perform a literature review on COVID-19-vaccine-associated MEWDS. Case [...] Read more.
To report a rare case of a patient with two recurrent episodes of Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS) associated with the second dose and second booster of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine (Moderna), and to perform a literature review on COVID-19-vaccine-associated MEWDS. Case Report: A 31-year-old female was evaluated for a temporal scotoma and photopsias that started two weeks after the second dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Dilated fundus findings were remarkable for unilateral, small whitish-yellow dots scattered around posterior pole of the left eye, consistent with a diagnosis of MEWDS. The symptoms resolved three months later without treatment. Approximately one year after the first vaccine, the patient received the second Moderna COVID-19 vaccine booster and experienced a recurrence of symptoms with an enlarged scotoma and similar examination findings. The patient was treated with a course of systemic corticosteroids with subsequent clinical improvement. Conclusion: Although uveitis following COVID-19 vaccines is rare, our case highlights a need for increased awareness amongst practitioners regarding COVID-19-vaccine-associated onset or recurrence of ocular inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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9 pages, 1467 KiB  
Case Report
A Case of Atypical Unilateral Optic Neuritis Following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination
by Shuntaro Motegi, Takayuki Kanda and Masaru Takeuchi
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1574; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101574 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Background: We report a case of atypical unilateral optic neuritis after receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Case Presentation: An 86-year-old man complained of blurred vision and decreased visual acuity in his right eye 8 days after receiving the second BNT162b2 mRNA-based COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Background: We report a case of atypical unilateral optic neuritis after receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Case Presentation: An 86-year-old man complained of blurred vision and decreased visual acuity in his right eye 8 days after receiving the second BNT162b2 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine and was referred to our hospital. He also had pain with eye movement. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the right eye was 20/200 and critical flicker frequency dropped to 16 Hz. Relative afferent pupillary defect was positive and central scotomas were observed on visual field analysis. Fundus examination and SD-OCT revealed optic disc swelling and apparent thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer around the optic disc in the right eye. Although either an increase in CRP or ESR on laboratory tests, demyelinating lesion on MRI, or positive of anti-MOG antibodies or anti-AQP4 antibodies were not observed, fluorescein angiography presented only hyperfluorescence of the optic disc in the right eye, but there were no findings such as papillary deficiency and choroidal delay that would suggest ischemic optic neuropathy. We diagnosed atypical optic neuritis developed after the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination and initiated oral corticosteroid therapy. One month later, the optic disc swelling disappeared and BCVA improved to 20/100; however, the central scotoma remained and no further improvement in visual function OD was obtained. Conclusions: An atypical acute idiopathic optic neuritis can occur after receiving the second vaccination with BNT162b2, which may present a limited response to corticosteroid therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ophthalmic Adverse Events following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination)
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