COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Correlates and Interventions

A topical collection in Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This collection belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Social and Behavioral Health, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA
Interests: developing and evaluating evidence-based (theory-based) health behavior change interventions; health behavior research (HBR); obesity prevention; mental health promotion, especially stress coping; community-based participatory research (CBPR) and evaluation; integrative mind-body-spirit interventions, especially yoga/meditation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
Interests: maternal and child health; the impact of COVID-19 on mental health; understanding social determinants of health; vaccine hesitancy; clinical research; evidence synthesis (particularly systematic reviews and meta-analyses)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vaccine-preventable diseases have not gone away and vaccines are the integral parts of the public health. Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century. Using the COVID-19 pandemic as a teachable moment, it is important to design targeted interventions to promote vaccine literacy and uptake. Despite the proven benefits of vaccines, the rates of vaccine acceptability are suboptimal. Efforts to cultivate vaccine literacy among public to critically evaluate health information would be central to fight against the infectious diseases. Therefore, this “Special Issue: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: Correlates and Interventions” of Vaccines journal aims to cover the entire spectrum of the vaccinology, including development, implementation, measures to increase acceptability, uptake of vaccines, promotion campaigns for vaccines, and vaccine behaviour studies and interventions. Possible topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Studies grounded in robust theoretical framework to promote vaccines’ acceptability;
  • Studies related to proactive and coordinated communication efforts emphasizing the need of vaccinations;
  • Research in the areas of health and vaccine literacy with an aim to increase vaccine confidence;
  • Studies investigating cognitive, emotional, social, cultural, and contextual factors will also be included.

Prof. Dr. Manoj Sharma
Dr. Kavita Batra 
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • health behaviours
  • vaccines
  • impact
  • health literacy
  • vaccine confidence
  • vaccine literacy

Published Papers (24 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022

12 pages, 694 KiB  
Review
Acquired Hemophilia A after SARS-CoV-2 Immunization: A Narrative Review of a Rare Side Effect
by Roberto Castelli, Antonio Gidaro, Roberto Manetti, Paolo Castiglia, Alessandro Palmerio Delitala, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci and Samantha Pasca
Vaccines 2024, 12(7), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12070709 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 711
Abstract
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder (1.4 per million inhabitants per year) caused by neutralizing antibodies against factor VIII. Although uncommon, these autoantibodies can cause a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Several conditions are linked with AHA; based on [...] Read more.
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder (1.4 per million inhabitants per year) caused by neutralizing antibodies against factor VIII. Although uncommon, these autoantibodies can cause a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Several conditions are linked with AHA; based on an EACH2 study, 3.8% of AHA could be connected to infection. In the last four years, most humans have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 infection or have been vaccinated against it. Whether or not COVID-19 immunization might induce AHA remains controversial. This review aims to evaluate the evidence about this possible association. Overall, 18 manuscripts (2 case series and 16 case reports) were included. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, as also happens with other vaccines, may stimulate an autoimmune response. However, older individuals with various comorbidities are both at risk of developing AHA and of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the COVID-19 vaccine must always be administered because the benefits still outweigh the risks. Yet, we should consider the rare possibility that the activation of an immunological response through vaccination may result in AHA. Detailed registries and prospective studies would be necessary to analyze this post-vaccine acquired bleeding disorder, looking for possible markers and underlying risk factors for developing the disease in association with vaccination. Full article
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17 pages, 2494 KiB  
Article
Spatial Analysis of Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Portugal
by Constança Pinto de Carvalho, Manuel Ribeiro, Diogo Godinho Simões, Patrícia Pita Ferreira, Leonardo Azevedo, Joana Gonçalves-Sá, Sara Mesquita, Licínio Gonçalves, Pedro Pinto Leite and André Peralta-Santos
Vaccines 2024, 12(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12020119 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1597
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy tends to exhibit geographical patterns and is often associated with social deprivation and migrant status. We aimed to estimate COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in a high-vaccination-acceptance country, Portugal, and determine its association with sociodemographic risk factors. We used the Registry of National [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy tends to exhibit geographical patterns and is often associated with social deprivation and migrant status. We aimed to estimate COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in a high-vaccination-acceptance country, Portugal, and determine its association with sociodemographic risk factors. We used the Registry of National Health System Users to determine the eligible population and the Vaccination Registry to determine individuals without COVID-19 vaccine doses. Individuals older than five with no COVID-19 vaccine dose administered by 31 March 2022 were considered hesitant. We calculated hesitancy rates by municipality, gender, and age group for all municipalities in mainland Portugal. We used the spatial statistical scan method to identify spatial clusters and the Besag, Yorke, and Mollié (BYM) model to estimate the effect of age, gender, social deprivation, and migrant proportion across all mainland municipalities. The eligible population was 9,852,283, with 1,212,565 (12%) COVID-19 vaccine-hesitant individuals. We found high-hesitancy spatial clusters in the Lisbon metropolitan area and the country’s southwest. Our model showed that municipalities with higher proportions of migrants are associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of vaccine hesitancy (RR = 8.0; CI 95% 4.6; 14.0). Social deprivation and gender were not associated with vaccine hesitancy rates. We found COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has a heterogeneous distribution across Portugal and has a strong association with the proportion of migrants per municipality. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022

18 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Case Status among New Jersey Secondary Educational Professionals
by Juhi Aggarwal, Kimberly T. Nguyen, Maryanne L. Campbell, Stephanie Shiau and Derek G. Shendell
Vaccines 2023, 11(11), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11111667 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Background: Vaccine hesitancy remains a societal problem, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. New Jersey (NJ) Safe Schools Program provides work-based learning training to supervisory-level career–technical–vocational education teachers and administrators who have to consider varied state and local mandates concerning COVID-19 vaccination and exemptions. [...] Read more.
Background: Vaccine hesitancy remains a societal problem, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. New Jersey (NJ) Safe Schools Program provides work-based learning training to supervisory-level career–technical–vocational education teachers and administrators who have to consider varied state and local mandates concerning COVID-19 vaccination and exemptions. Methods: In early 2022, we distributed an online survey via PsychData to individuals trained between 2014 and 2022 to understand NJ teachers’ practices and concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, 269 completed the survey. We stratified data by vaccination status, number of doses, booster status, age, teaching experience, gender, race, county of work, and COVID-19 diagnosis status. Results: Overall, results suggested differences in COVID-19-related concerns, including access to, perceptions of, and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19-related practices. About 90.7% received the initial vaccine; 77.7% received the booster. About half the participants had received a positive COVID-19 diagnosis by the time of the survey; they were less likely to get the vaccine or booster if they had received the initial vaccine. Conclusions: Data suggested differences in levels of COVID-19-related concerns and confidence in, or importance of, vaccines when comparing different demographic factors and vaccination practices. The data informs efforts to understand factors affecting vaccine hesitancy among educational professionals. Full article
18 pages, 1200 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among English-Speaking Pregnant Women Living in Rural Western United States
by Elizabeth Cox, Magali Sanchez, Carly Baxter, Isabelle Crary, Emma Every, Jeff Munson, Simone Stapley, Alex Stonehill, Katherine Taylor, Willamina Widmann, Hilary Karasz and Kristina M. Adams Waldorf
Vaccines 2023, 11(6), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11061108 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
This mixed-method study investigated vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women living in rural western United States and their response to social media ads promoting COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Thirty pregnant or recently pregnant participants who live in rural zip codes in Washington, Oregon, California, and [...] Read more.
This mixed-method study investigated vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women living in rural western United States and their response to social media ads promoting COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Thirty pregnant or recently pregnant participants who live in rural zip codes in Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho were interviewed between November 2022 and March 2023. Interviews were transcribed and coded, while the ad ratings were analyzed using linear mixed models. The study identified five main themes related to vaccine uptake, including perceived risk of COVID, sources of health information, vaccine hesitancy, and relationships with care providers. Participants rated ads most highly that used peer-based messengers and negative outcome-based content. Ads with faith-based and elder messengers were rated significantly lower than peer messengers (p = 0.04 and 0.001, respectively). An activation message was also rated significantly less favorably than negative outcome-based content (p = 0.001). Participants preferred evidence-based information and the ability to conduct their own research on vaccine safety and efficacy rather than being told to get vaccinated. Primary concerns of vaccine-hesitant respondents included the short amount of time the vaccine had been available and perceived lack of research on its safety during pregnancy. Our findings suggests that tailored messaging using peer-based messengers and negative outcome-based content can positively impact vaccine uptake among pregnant women living in rural areas of the Western United States. Full article
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16 pages, 1275 KiB  
Review
Key Lessons from COVID-19: A Narrative Review Describing Qatar’s Multifactorial Approach in Executing a Vaccination Campaign
by Soha Albayat, Muna Almaslamani, Hamad Alromaihi, Hayat Khogali, Jesha Mundodan, Jean Joury and Hammam Haridy
Vaccines 2023, 11(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11050953 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Widespread vaccination programs have been implemented in many countries to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic, with varying success and challenges. To better understand the successes and challenges of the global COVID-19 response in the face of emerging new variants and epidemiologic data, we discuss [...] Read more.
Widespread vaccination programs have been implemented in many countries to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic, with varying success and challenges. To better understand the successes and challenges of the global COVID-19 response in the face of emerging new variants and epidemiologic data, we discuss how Qatar engaged the healthcare sector, governmental bodies, and the populace to combat COVID-19, with a focus on the country’s vaccination strategy. This narrative provides the history and timeline of the Qatar COVID-19 vaccination campaign; factors that helped the vaccination campaign and the transferable lessons learned are discussed. Details regarding how Qatar responded to challenges, such as vaccine hesitancy and mitigation of misinformation, are highlighted. Qatar was one of the first countries to procure the BNT162b2 (Comirnaty®; Pfizer-BioNTech, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) and mRNA-1273 (Spikevax®; Moderna, Cambridge, MA, USA) COVID-19 vaccines. A relatively high vaccination rate and low case mortality rate (0.14% as of 4 January 2023) was observed in Qatar compared with other countries (global case mortality rate, 1.02%). Learnings will be carried forward as a basis for addressing this evolving pandemic and any future national emergencies in Qatar. Full article
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10 pages, 227 KiB  
Brief Report
HIV Care Engagement Is Not Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy during the Initial Peak of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Black Cisgender Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in the N2 COVID Study
by Dustin T. Duncan, Su Hyun Park, Yen-Tyng Chen, Brett Dolotina, Wilder R. Worrall, Hillary Hanson, Mainza Durrell, Gustavo Arruda Franco, Stephen S. Morse and John A. Schneider
Vaccines 2023, 11(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11040787 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Background: Although there is limited literature on medication adherence (including HIV care engagement) and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in general populations (i.e., non-sexual or gender minority populations), even less is known about whether HIV care engagement correlates with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among sexual and [...] Read more.
Background: Although there is limited literature on medication adherence (including HIV care engagement) and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in general populations (i.e., non-sexual or gender minority populations), even less is known about whether HIV care engagement correlates with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among sexual and gender minorities, especially those from intersectional backgrounds. The objective of the current study was to examine if an association exists between HIV status neutral care (i.e., current pre-exposure prophylaxis [PrEP] or antiretroviral therapy [ART] use) and COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy among Black cisgender sexual minority men and transgender women at the initial peak of the pandemic. Methods: We conducted the N2 COVID Study in Chicago from 20 April 2020 to 31 July 2020 (analytic n = 222), including Black cisgender sexual minority men and transgender women who were vulnerable to HIV as well as those who were living with HIV. The survey included questions regarding HIV care engagement, COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and COVID-19 related socio-economic hardships. Multivariable associations estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) using modified Poisson regressions for COVID vaccine hesitancy adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics and survey assessment time period. Results: Approximately 45% of participants reported COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. PrEP and ART use were not associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy when examined separately or combined (p > 0.05). There were no significant multiplicative effects of COVID-19 related socio-economic hardships and HIV care engagement on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: Findings suggest no association between HIV care engagement and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among Black cisgender sexual minority men and transgender women at the initial peak of the pandemic. It is therefore essential that COVID-19 vaccine promotion interventions focus on all Black sexual and gender minorities regardless of HIV care engagement and COVID-19 vaccine uptake is likely related to factors other than engagement in HIV status neutral care. Full article
13 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Understanding COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Healthcare Workers in South Africa
by Gavin George, Phiwe Babalo Nota, Michael Strauss, Emma Lansdell, Remco Peters, Petra Brysiewicz, Nisha Nadesan-Reddy and Douglas Wassenaar
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020414 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Healthcare workers (HCWs) were the first population group offered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in South Africa because they were considered to be at higher risk of infection and required protecting as they were a critical resource to the health system. In some [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) were the first population group offered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in South Africa because they were considered to be at higher risk of infection and required protecting as they were a critical resource to the health system. In some contexts, vaccine uptake among HCWs has been slow, with several studies citing persistent concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness. This study aimed to determine vaccine uptake among HCWs in South Africa whilst identifying what drives vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. We adopted a multimethod approach, utilising both a survey and in-depth interviews amongst a sample of HCWs in South Africa. In a sample of 7763 HCWS, 89% were vaccinated, with hesitancy highest among younger HCWs, males, and those working in the private sector. Among those who were hesitant, consistent with the literature, HCWs raised concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. Examining this further, our data revealed that safety and effectiveness concerns were formed due to first-hand witnessing of patients presenting with side-effects, concern over perceived lack of scientific rigor in developing the vaccine, confidence in the body’s immune system to stave off serious illness, and both a general lack of information and distrust in the available sources of information. This study, through discursive narratives, provides evidence elucidating what drives safety and effectiveness concerns raised by HCWs. These concerns will need to be addressed if HCWs are to effectively communicate and influence public behaviour. HCWs are key role players in the national COVID-19 vaccination programme, making it critical for this workforce to be well trained, knowledgeable, and confident if they are going to improve the uptake of vaccines among the general population in South Africa, which currently remains suboptimal. Full article

2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023

15 pages, 2038 KiB  
Systematic Review
Impact of COVID-19 Vaccination on Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review
by Chan-Young Kwon and Boram Lee
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2095; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122095 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6853
Abstract
Establishing and disseminating evidence-based safety information could potentially facilitate beneficial choices in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccinations. This systematic review investigated the potential impact of COVID-19 vaccinations on human heart rate variability (HRV) parameters through comprehensive searches of four electronic medical databases. Five observational [...] Read more.
Establishing and disseminating evidence-based safety information could potentially facilitate beneficial choices in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccinations. This systematic review investigated the potential impact of COVID-19 vaccinations on human heart rate variability (HRV) parameters through comprehensive searches of four electronic medical databases. Five observational studies reporting HRV parameters of individuals vaccinated against COVID-19 and published up to 29 July 2022 were included in this review. Among them, four studies reported the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) as their outcome, and the remaining study reported an HRV-based stress indicator. These studies reported short-term changes and rapid recovery in HRV parameters within up to 3 days after COVID-19 vaccination. Some studies showed that the impact of COVID-19 vaccinations on RMSSD was greater in women than men, and in the younger group than in the older group. The methodological quality of the included studies was not optimal; the review revealed short-term changes in HRV parameters, particularly RMSSD, following COVID-19 vaccination. However, as the included studies did not report important parameters besides RMSSD, the limitation exists that the postvaccination long-term HRV stability was not reported. Full article
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10 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
Hospitalization and Mortality by Vaccination Status among COVID-19 Patients Aged ≥ 25 Years in Bangladesh: Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
by Md. Saydur Rahman, Md. Golam Dostogir Harun, Shariful Amin Sumon, Tahrima Mohsin Mohona, Syed Abul Hassan Md Abdullah, Md. Nazuml Huda Khan, Md. Ismail Gazi, Md. Saiful Islam and Md. Mahabub Ul Anwar
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10121987 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted a massive disease burden globally, involving 623 million confirmed cases with 6.55 million deaths, and in Bangladesh, over 2.02 million clinically confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 29,371 deaths, have been reported. Evidence showed that vaccines significantly reduced infection, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted a massive disease burden globally, involving 623 million confirmed cases with 6.55 million deaths, and in Bangladesh, over 2.02 million clinically confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 29,371 deaths, have been reported. Evidence showed that vaccines significantly reduced infection, severity, and mortality across a wide age range of populations. This study investigated the hospitalization and mortality by vaccination status among COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh and identified the vaccine’s effectiveness against severe outcomes in real-world settings. Between August and December 2021, we conducted this cross-sectional survey among 783 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients admitted to three dedicated COVID-19 hospitals in Bangladesh. The study used a semi-structured questionnaire to collect information. We reviewed the patient’s records and gathered COVID-19 immunization status from the study participants or their caregivers. Patients with incomplete or partial data from the record were excluded from enrollment. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between key variables with a patient’s vaccination status and mortality. The study revealed that overall hospitalization, severity, and morality were significantly high among unvaccinated study participants. Only one-fourth (25%) of hospitalized patients were found COVID-19 vaccinated. Morality among unvaccinated COVID-19 study participants was significantly higher (AOR: 7.17) than the vaccinated (11.17% vs. 1.53%). Severity was found to be seven times higher among unvaccinated patients. Vaccination coverage was higher in urban areas (29.8%) compared to rural parts (20.8%), and vaccine uptake was lower among female study participants (22.7%) than male (27.6%). The study highlighted the importance of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing mortality, hospitalization, and other severe consequences. We found a gap in vaccination coverage between urban and rural settings. The findings would encourage the entire population toward immunization and aid the policymakers in the ground reality so that more initiatives are taken to improve vaccination coverage among the pocket population. Full article
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20 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
Parental Willingness for COVID-19 Vaccination among Children Aged 5 to 11 Years in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Awad Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Basheerahmed Abdulaziz Mannasaheb, Mohammed Ashique K. Shaikh, Sarah Abdulrahman Alajlan, Mohammed Saeed Z. Alayed, Ibrahim Ahmed Shaikh, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Faisal Saeed Al-Qahtani, Eisa Yazeed Ghazwani, Nasser Saeed Al-Qahtani and Bayan Fuad Abbag
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10121979 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
To manage the COVID-19 outbreak, the WHO recommends adult and child vaccination. Vaccine skepticism has been a major worldwide health concern for decades, and the situation is worsening. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate parental willingness to vaccinate their children [...] Read more.
To manage the COVID-19 outbreak, the WHO recommends adult and child vaccination. Vaccine skepticism has been a major worldwide health concern for decades, and the situation is worsening. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate parental willingness to vaccinate their children (aged 5 to 11 years) against COVID-19 and to describe its relationship with attitude, barriers, facilitators, and sources of knowledge regarding the vaccine. Methods: From February to March 2022, a community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the parents of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We employed a convenient sampling procedure to gather the required sample. Using the Raosoft sample size calculator, a minimum sample size of 385 was determined based on a 95% confidence level, a 5% margin of error, and a 5% precision level. The data were analyzed using version 26 of SPSS. A p-value less than 0.05 was judged statistically significant. The Chi-square test and likelihood ratio were utilized to describe the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, driving factors, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy associated factors were identified using multivariate binary logistic regression. A total of 528 replies were received. The majority of respondents were mothers (77.7%), aged 26 to 40 years (67.8%), married (91.5%), Saudi nationals (96.2%), college graduates (70.6%), with a monthly family income of more than SAR 10,000 (46.4%), non-healthcare professionals (84.7%), employed in the government sector (33.7%), with three children (23.3%), and children aged 5 to 11 years (88.7%). A little more than half of the parents (55.7%) exhibited considerable vaccination hesitancy. About 16.28% of parents were willing to vaccinate their children as soon as possible, compared to 38.44% who had no interest whatsoever in vaccination. A greater proportion of mothers and unemployed parents were unwilling to vaccinate their children. Parents with a higher monthly income (above SAR 10,000), who worked as healthcare professionals, and whose children suffered from chronic conditions were significantly more ready to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Parents who were aware of anti-vaccination campaigns and who vaccinated their children with required childhood vaccines were also much more likely to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Most parents (66.9%) obtained information on COVID-19 via the Saudi Ministry of Health website, followed by social media (48.1%). The vaccine’s novelty and the dearth of reliable information about its safety (65%) and insufficient information about its effectiveness (36.2%) were the primary reasons for not vaccinating children against COVID-19, whereas preventing children from contracting COVID-19 (55.9%) and government mandate (38.8%) were the primary reasons for vaccinating children against COVID-19. Conclusions: There was significant parental hesitancy to immunize their children against COVID-19. To involve and educate parents, multi-component interventions must be developed and implemented. Full article
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13 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Parents’ Attitudes toward Childhood Vaccines and COVID-19 Vaccines in a Turkish Pediatric Outpatient Population
by Nihal Durmaz, Murat Suman, Murat Ersoy and Emel Örün
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111958 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2179
Abstract
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is an important public health issue. The determinants of parental decisions on whether to vaccinate their children are multidimensional and need to be carefully considered in the COVID-19 era. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of VH among parents, [...] Read more.
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is an important public health issue. The determinants of parental decisions on whether to vaccinate their children are multidimensional and need to be carefully considered in the COVID-19 era. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of VH among parents, parents’ use of social media, and their attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine upon vaccine refusal. Materials and methods: Our participants were the parents of children admitted to hospitals in three different cities in Turkey between September 2021 and December 2021. The parents were asked to complete sociodemographic data and their attitudes toward COVID-19 diseases, the Parental Attitudes Toward Childhood Vaccines (PACV) scale, and the Attitudes Toward COVID-19 Vaccine (ATV-COVID-19) scale. Participants were categorized as “non-hesitant”, with a score of <50, and “hesitant”, with a score of ≥50. Results: A total of 1087 parents with a mean age of 33.66 (SD 9.1) years old participated in the study. VH was noted in 102 (9.38%) parents. Age, gender, education, and income levels did not significantly differ from one another, according to the PACV; however, parents who delayed vaccinating their children and indicated that social media had an impact on vaccination decisions were more hesitant. Parents who were male and had a family member diagnosed with COVID-19 showed more positive attitudes in the ATV-COVID-19. Parents who were hesitant about childhood vaccinations had lower positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine (2.84 ± 0.97) than parents who were not hesitant (3.77 ± 0.9). A total of 761 (70.14%) parents need more information about childhood immunizations. Conclusion: Parents who are hesitant about childhood immunization programs in Turkey have a less positive attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines and are affected by social media. Parents need information about vaccines, and because the controversy surrounding COVID-19 vaccines can diminish parents’ confidence in routine childhood immunizations, understanding the complex causes behind vaccination hesitancy can help public health policy break through barriers and increase immunization rates. Full article
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9 pages, 1174 KiB  
Brief Report
Twitter-Based Sentiment Analysis and Topic Modeling of Social Media Posts Using Natural Language Processing, to Understand People’s Perspectives Regarding COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Shots in India: Crucial to Expanding Vaccination Coverage
by Praveen SV, Jose Manuel Lorenz, Rajesh Ittamalla, Kuldeep Dhama, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Daruri Venkata Srinivas Kumar and Thivyaa Mohan
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1929; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111929 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
This study analyzed perceptions of Indians regarding COVID-19 booster dose vaccines using natural language processing techniques, particularly, sentiment analysis and topic modeling. We analyzed tweets generated by Indian citizens for this study. In late July 2022, the Indian government hastened the process of [...] Read more.
This study analyzed perceptions of Indians regarding COVID-19 booster dose vaccines using natural language processing techniques, particularly, sentiment analysis and topic modeling. We analyzed tweets generated by Indian citizens for this study. In late July 2022, the Indian government hastened the process of COVID-19 booster dose vaccinations. Understanding the emotions and concerns of the citizens regarding the health policy being implemented will assist the government, health policy officials, and policymakers implement the policy efficiently so that desired results can be achieved. Seventy-six thousand nine hundred seventy-nine tweets were used for this study. The sentiment analysis study revealed that out of those 76,979 tweets, more than half (n = 40,719 tweets (52.8%) had negative sentiments, 24,242 tweets (31.5%) had neutral sentiments, and 12,018 tweets (15.6%) had positive sentiments. Social media posts by Indians on the COVID-19 booster doses have focused on the feelings that younger people do not need vaccines and that vaccinations are unhealthy. Full article
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13 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Adverse Events Following COVID-19 Vaccination with Inactivated Vaccines in Zimbabwe
by Azure Tariro Makadzange, Patricia Gundidza, Charles Lau, Norest Beta, Nellie Myburgh, Nyasha Elose, Wilmot James, Lawrence Stanberry and Chiratidzo Ndhlovu
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101767 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and misperceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of [...] Read more.
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Vaccine hesitancy has led to a decrease in vaccine uptake; driven by misinformation, fear, and misperceptions of vaccine safety. Whole inactivated vaccines have been used in one-fifth of the vaccine recipients in Africa, however there are limited real-world data on their safety. We evaluated the reported adverse events and factors associated with reported adverse events following vaccination with whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines-BBiBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and CoronaVac (Sinovac). A quantitative survey evaluating attitudes and adverse events from vaccination was administered to 1016 adults presenting at vaccination centers. Two follow-up telephone interviews were conducted to determine adverse events after the first and second vaccination dose. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated; 26.0% and 14.4% reported adverse events after the first and second dose, respectively. The most frequent local and systemic adverse events were pain at the injection site and headaches, respectively. Most symptoms were mild, and no participants required hospitalization. Participants who perceived COVID-19 vaccines as safe or had a personal COVID-19 experience were significantly less likely to report adverse events. Our findings provide data on the safety and tolerability of whole inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in an African population, providing the necessary data to create effective strategies to increase vaccination and support vaccination campaigns. Full article
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14 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Acceptance and Hesitancy among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Punjab, Pakistan
by Mohamed A. Baraka, Muhammad Nouman Manzoor, Umar Ayoub, Reem M. Aljowaie, Zia Ul Mustafa, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi, Muhammad Salman, Chia Siang Kow, Mamoon A. Aldeyab and Syed Shahzad Hasan
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101640 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy is widespread in many parts of the globe, particularly in low–middle-income countries. Therefore, we surveyed a sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy in a low–middle-income country. A cross-sectional sample of 385 confirmed reverse transcriptase–polymerase [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy is widespread in many parts of the globe, particularly in low–middle-income countries. Therefore, we surveyed a sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy in a low–middle-income country. A cross-sectional sample of 385 confirmed reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 patients treated at secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan, were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake and vaccine hesitancy. The construct validity and reliability of the 11-item vaccine hesitancy questionnaire were also examined. In addition, multivariate logistic regression was used. The majority of the COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals were not vaccinated (84%). Of those who were willing to receive vaccination, the majority (55%) considered vaccines an effective way to protect people from COVID-19. However, those who were not willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine had significantly higher hesitancy than those willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, older hospitalized COVID-19 patients aged 60 years or above (20–29 years: OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01–0.72, p = 0.001) and patients from urban areas (OR 3.16 95% CI 1.27–7.87, p = 0.013) were more likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine than younger patients and patients from rural areas. Patients with no formal education had significantly higher hesitancy (OR 5.26; 96% CI 1.85–14.97, p = 0.002) than participants with graduation and above education. More than half of the study’s participants did not trust information shared on social media about COVID-19 vaccines and cited newspapers/news channels as their main source of information. The study provides important insights into COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the impact of vaccination campaigns. Many unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in hospitals highlight the need for an effective vaccination drive to protect people from acquiring infection and subsequent hospitalization. Full article
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10 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccination: A Survey of Chinese Patients with Rheumatic Diseases
by Zixi Yi, Zhongqiang Yao, Dan Xu, Chuanhui Xu, Wenqiang Fang, Zhanfei Guo, Yong Wang, Jianlin Huang, Qin Li, Hong Zhang, Anbin Huang, Lijun Wu, Zhenbiao Wu, Huifang Guo, Fengxiao Zhang, Jing Lu, Zhenchun Zhang, Zhongming Yu, Zhanyun Da, Li Luo, Bin Wu, Henglian Wu, Lin Zeng and Rong Muadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101604 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed enormous morbidity and mortality burdens. Patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) are vulnerable to the COVID-19 infection, given their immunocompromised status. Ensuring acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine is important and has attracted attention by health professionals. [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed enormous morbidity and mortality burdens. Patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) are vulnerable to the COVID-19 infection, given their immunocompromised status. Ensuring acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine is important and has attracted attention by health professionals. In this study, we designed an online cross-sectional survey that used an online questionnaire from 8 May 2021 to 4 October 2021. Attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination, personal information, current disease activity status, adverse events (AEs), and knowledge sources of vaccines were collected. Descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests, and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the data. A total of 1022 questionnaires were received, among which 70.2% (720/1022) of patients with RDs agreed to vaccination, while only 31.6% of patients were actually vaccinated. Male, employed, high-income patients and those with inactive disease showed a more positive attitude. Concerns of AEs and disease flare were the main factors affecting vaccination willingness. Only 29.6% (304/1022) of patients thought they had received enough information about the COVID-19 vaccine from their doctors. In conclusion, most patients with RDs in China intended to get vaccinated, although the vaccination rate in this particular population was low. Rheumatologists should take more responsibility in COVID-19 vaccination education of patients with RDs. Full article
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10 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Rapid Implementation of a Community–Academic Partnership Model to Promote COVID-19 Vaccine Equity within Racially and Ethnically Minoritized Communities
by Jacinda C. Abdul-Mutakabbir, Cristie Granillo, Bridgette Peteet, Alex Dubov, Susanne B. Montgomery, Jasmine Hutchinson, Samuel Casey, Kelvin Simmons, Alex Fajardo and Juan Carlos Belliard
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081364 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted inequities in mortalities and associated illnesses among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino individuals. Immunization against COVID-19 is critical to ending the pandemic, especially within racial and ethnically minoritized communities. However, vaccine hesitancy and institutional mistrust in these communities, [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted inequities in mortalities and associated illnesses among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino individuals. Immunization against COVID-19 is critical to ending the pandemic, especially within racial and ethnically minoritized communities. However, vaccine hesitancy and institutional mistrust in these communities, resulting from decades of mistreatment, structural racism, and barriers to vaccination access, have translated into low vaccination uptake. Trustworthy relationships with healthcare professionals and partnerships with faith and community leaders are critical to increasing vaccination rates within these minoritized communities. Loma Linda University researchers collaborated with local faith and community organizations in San Bernardino County, CA, to rapidly implement a three-tiered approach to increase the vaccination rates within non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino communities. This community–academic partnership model provided over 1700 doses of the COVID-19 vaccine within these vaccine-hesitant, targeted minoritized communities. As over 100,000 individuals are diagnosed with COVID-19 daily and updated vaccines targeting variants of the Omicron strain are expected to rollout in the coming months, the development of sustainable programs aimed at increasing vaccine uptake within vulnerable communities are of the utmost importance. Full article
13 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Willingness of the COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Shots in China Using the Health Belief Model: Web-Based Online Cross-Sectional Study
by Dehua Hu, Zhisheng Liu, Liyue Gong, Yi Kong, Hao Liu, Caiping Wei, Xusheng Wu, Qizhen Zhu and Yi Guo
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081336 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
(1) Objective: To explore Chinese residents’ willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine booster shots and identify predictors of the level of willingness based on the health belief model (HBM). (2) Methods: The snowball sampling method was used to distribute online questionnaires. A chi-square test [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: To explore Chinese residents’ willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine booster shots and identify predictors of the level of willingness based on the health belief model (HBM). (2) Methods: The snowball sampling method was used to distribute online questionnaires. A chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between different variables. The causal relationship between HBM-related factors and booster vaccination intentions was explored by Structural equation modeling (SEM). (3) Results: A total of 898 complete responses were included; 64.3% had already received the booster injection. Most respondents intended to vaccinate themselves, while 16.1% were hesitant. Nearly half of the respondents chose to take the booster injection to support China’s vaccination policy. Using the SEM, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers were found to have a negative effect on booster vaccination intentions, whereas perceived benefit and cues to action positively affected booster vaccination intentions in the HBM. (4) Conclusions: Factors included in this study have different effects on the willingness to take the COVID-19 booster injections. Sociodemographic characteristics and characteristics of participants’ COVID-19 vaccination have a significant effect on the willingness to receive vaccine booster shots. The HBM constructs can serve as good predictors of the acceptance of vaccine booster shots with the exception of perceived severity, which may benefit health officials in terms of conducting targeted strategies in vaccine programs. Full article
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15 pages, 453 KiB  
Article
Racial/Ethnic Variances in COVID-19 Inoculation among Southern California Healthcare Workers
by Alex Dubov, Brian J. Distelberg, Jacinda C. Abdul-Mutakabbir, Bridgette Peteet, Lisa Roberts, Susanne B. Montgomery, Nicholas Rockwood, Pranjal Patel, Steven Shoptaw and Ara A. Chrissian
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081331 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
Healthcare workers (HCWs) from minoritized communities are a critical partner in moving vaccine-hesitant populations toward vaccination, yet a significant number of these HCWs are delaying or deciding against their own COVID-19 vaccinations. Our study aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of vaccine [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) from minoritized communities are a critical partner in moving vaccine-hesitant populations toward vaccination, yet a significant number of these HCWs are delaying or deciding against their own COVID-19 vaccinations. Our study aims to provide a more nuanced understanding of vaccine hesitancy among racially and ethnically minoritized HCWs and to describe factors associated with vaccine non-acceptance. Analysis of a sub-sample of racially and ethnically minoritized HCWs (N = 1131), who participated in a cross-sectional study at two large Southern California medical centers, was conducted. Participants completed an online survey consisting of demographics, work setting and clinical role, influenza vaccination history, COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, personal COVID-19 exposure, diagnosis, and impact on those closest to them. While overall most HCWs were vaccinated (84%), 28% of Black, 19% of Hispanic, and 8% of Asian American HCWs were vaccine-hesitant. Age, education level, occupation, history of COVID-19, and COVID-19 related knowledge were predictive of vaccine hesitancy. We found significant variations in COVID-19 related knowledge and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among Black (governmental mistrust), Hispanic (preference for physiological immunity), and Asian-American HCWs (concern about side effects) who were vaccine-hesitant or not. Our findings highlight racial and ethnic differences in vaccine-hesitancy and barriers to vaccination among HCWs of color. This study indicates the necessity of targeted interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy that are mindful of the disparities in knowledge and access and differences between and among racial and ethnic groups. Full article
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13 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Assessing COVID-19 Booster Hesitancy and Its Correlates: An Early Evidence from India
by Geetanjali C. Achrekar, Kavita Batra, Yashashri Urankar, Ravi Batra, Naved Iqbal, Sabiha A. Choudhury, Deepti Hooda, Roohi Khan, Suraj Arora, Aditi Singh, Francesco Chirico and Manoj Sharma
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071048 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 4151
Abstract
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, waning immunity, and breakthrough infections prompted the use of booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine to fight against the pandemic. India started booster doses in January 2022 and it is critical to determine the intention of booster dose [...] Read more.
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, waning immunity, and breakthrough infections prompted the use of booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine to fight against the pandemic. India started booster doses in January 2022 and it is critical to determine the intention of booster dose uptake and its correlates. Therefore, the current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate booster dose acceptability and associated predictors among the Indian population. A convenience sampling technique was utilized to recruit a sample of 687 Indian residents. A 55-item psychometric validated survey tool was used to assess booster dose acceptability, vaccine literacy and vaccine confidence. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Over 50% of participants reported their willingness to take the booster dose. Among the group not willing to take the booster dose (n = 303, 44.1%), a significantly larger proportion of respondents were unvaccinated with the primary series (12.2% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001), had an annual income below 2.96 lacs/annum (52.8% vs. 33.1, p < 0.001), were residents of rural areas (38.0% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001), were not living with vulnerable individuals (78.5% vs. 65.2%, p < 0.001) and did not have family/friends who had tested positive for COVID-19 (54.6% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.001). Demographic, vaccine variables and multi-theory model subscales to predict the initiation of booster dose among hesitant participants were statistically significant, R2 = 0.561, F (26, 244) = 11.978, p < 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.514. Findings of this study highlight the need to develop evidence-based interventions to promote vaccine uptake, particularly among hard-to-reach communities living in developing countries. Full article
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10 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Sources of COVID-19 Vaccine Information and Willingness to Be Vaccinated: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Japan
by Takeshi Yoda, Benjamas Suksatit, Masaaki Tokuda and Hironobu Katsuyama
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071041 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Despite considerable interest in the Japanese population in receiving the vaccine for COVID-19 when it first became available, a sizable percentage of people remain unwilling or hesitant to be vaccinated. Concerns among both the vaccinated and the unwilling center on the vaccine’s efficacy [...] Read more.
Despite considerable interest in the Japanese population in receiving the vaccine for COVID-19 when it first became available, a sizable percentage of people remain unwilling or hesitant to be vaccinated. Concerns among both the vaccinated and the unwilling center on the vaccine’s efficacy and its safety. Thus, this study aimed to identify whether the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination is related to the sources of information people use to learn about the vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 800 participants registered in an Internet research panel across Japan who completed a questionnaire on their sources of information about the vaccine, demographics, and vaccination status. Vaccine willingness/hesitancy and refusal were set as dependent variables in the logistic regression analysis, with sources of vaccine information and other socio-demographic variables set as independent variables. The results of the analysis found that the information sources significantly associated with willingness to vaccinate were TV (AOR 2.44 vs. vaccine refusal/hesitation), summary websites of COVID-19 by non-experts (AOR 0.21, vs. vaccine refusal/hesitation), Internet video sites (AOR 0.33, vs. vaccine refusal/hesitation), and the personal websites of doctors (AOR 0.16, vs. vaccine refusal/hesitation). Given the likelihood of misinformation in non-traditional sources of information, it is important that health communications be accurate and persuasive. Full article
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15 pages, 1688 KiB  
Article
Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccines among Patients with Complex Non-Communicable Disease and Their Caregivers in Rural Malawi
by Moses Banda Aron, Emilia Connolly, Kaylin Vrkljan, Haules Robbins Zaniku, Revelation Nyirongo, Bright Mailosi, Todd Ruderman, Dale A Barnhart and on behalf of the Partners In Health Cross-Site COVID-19 Cohort Research Network
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050792 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3611
Abstract
Current low COVID-19 vaccination rates in low- and middle-income countries reflect an inequitable global vaccine distribution; however, local attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine are an important factor to meet vaccination benchmarks. We describe attitudes toward the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine and perceptions [...] Read more.
Current low COVID-19 vaccination rates in low- and middle-income countries reflect an inequitable global vaccine distribution; however, local attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine are an important factor to meet vaccination benchmarks. We describe attitudes toward the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine and perceptions among patients with NCDs and their caregivers using cross-sectional data collected through telephone interviews in Neno, Malawi. Out of 126 survey respondents, 71% were patients, and 29% were caregivers. Twenty-two percent of respondents had received at least one dose at the interview (95% CI: 15–30%), with 19% being fully vaccinated. Only 24% (95% CI: 12–40%) of unvaccinated respondents reported that they would accept an approved vaccine if it were offered today. Vaccines were perceived as unsafe or designed to harm and commonly associated with death, severe disability, infertility, and evil. However, over two-thirds reported high levels of trust in health care workers (73%) and community health workers (72%) as sources of information for the COVID-19 vaccine. Although the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine in this vulnerable population was three times than the national average, a low intention to be vaccinated persists among the unvaccinated. Strong trust in health care workers suggests that community engagement could help increase vaccine acceptance. Full article
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15 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Booster Vaccination Hesitancy in the United States: A Multi-Theory-Model (MTM)-Based National Assessment
by Kavita Batra, Manoj Sharma, Chia-Liang Dai and Jagdish Khubchandani
Vaccines 2022, 10(5), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10050758 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
Background: Despite the availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the proven benefits of vaccinations outweighing the potential risks, hesitancy to accept vaccines and additional doses remains a persistent problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate hesitancy, confidence, literacy, and the [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the proven benefits of vaccinations outweighing the potential risks, hesitancy to accept vaccines and additional doses remains a persistent problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate hesitancy, confidence, literacy, and the role of the multi-theory model (MTM) constructs in COVID-19 booster uptake. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a 52-item psychometric valid web-based survey conducted during the month of October 2021 to recruit a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Among the booster hesitant group (n = 209, 41.7%), a significantly larger proportion of respondents were unvaccinated with the primary series (43.5% vs. 11%, p < 0.001), were among 18–44 years age group (51.2% vs. 31.8%, p < 0.001), single or never married (33.0% vs. 24.3%, p = 0.04), had lower education with some high school (6.2% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03), and identified themselves as Republicans (31.6% vs. 20.5%, p = 0.01). The hesitant group had lower mean scores of vaccine literacy, and vaccine confidence, and had 19% lower odds of behavioral confidence than their non-hesitant counterparts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71–0.92). Conclusions: The findings of this study underscore the need of raising public awareness through effective multi-theory-model-based communication campaigns. Full article
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14 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Hesitancy (VBH) and Its Drivers in Algeria: National Cross-Sectional Survey-Based Study
by Mohamed Lounis, Djihad Bencherit, Mohammed Amir Rais and Abanoub Riad
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040621 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 5115
Abstract
Due to the emergence of various highly contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine boosters were adopted as a complementary strategy in different countries. This strategy has, however, posed another challenge for the national authorities to convince their population to receive the booster after the [...] Read more.
Due to the emergence of various highly contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2, vaccine boosters were adopted as a complementary strategy in different countries. This strategy has, however, posed another challenge for the national authorities to convince their population to receive the booster after the first challenge of COVID-19 primer dose vaccines. This study was conducted to determine COVID-19 vaccine booster acceptance and its associated factors in the general population in Algeria. Using social media platforms, an online self-administered questionnaire was distributed between 28 January and 5 March 2022 for all Algerian citizens who received COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, 787 respondents were included in this study. Among them, 51.6%, 25%, and 23.8% accepted, rejected, or were hesitant about the COVID-19 vaccine booster, respectively. However, only 13.2% declared receiving the booster dose. Additionally, while 58.2% of the respondents declared being relieved after primer vaccination, 11.4% among them declared that they regretted being vaccinated. The most common reasons for acceptance were experts’ recommendations (24.6%) and the belief that COVID-19 vaccine boosters were necessary and efficient, while rejection was mainly due to the belief that primer doses are sufficient (15.5%), or that vaccination in general is inefficient (8%). Males, older individuals, those with chronic comorbidities or a history of COVID-19 infection, non-healthcare workers, and those with low educational levels were associated with significantly higher odds for booster acceptance. Moreover, belief that booster doses were necessary and efficient, disagreeing with the notion that primer doses were not sufficient, experts’ recommendations, and the desire to travel abroad were significantly associated with higher odds of COVID-19 vaccine booster acceptance. Full article
8 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Hesitancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Fukushima Vaccination Community Survey
by Makoto Yoshida, Yurie Kobashi, Takeshi Kawamura, Yuzo Shimazu, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Fumiya Omata, Tianchen Zhao, Chika Yamamoto, Yudai Kaneko, Aya Nakayama, Morihito Takita, Naomi Ito, Moe Kawashima, Sota Sugiura, Kenji Shibuya, Shingo Iwami, Kwangsu Kim, Shoya Iwanami, Tatsuhiko Kodama and Masaharu Tsubokura
Vaccines 2022, 10(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10040515 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 5465
Abstract
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive a third dose of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. This study included participants who provided answers [...] Read more.
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive a third dose of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. This study included participants who provided answers in the questionnaire about whether they had an intent to receive a third dose of a vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate over the booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants, with a mean (±SD) age of 52.6 ± 18.9 years, and a median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that participants of a younger age (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96–1.00) and with a higher antibody level (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.27–4.99) were positively associated with hesitancy over the third vaccine. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had a significant impact on behavior regarding the third vaccination. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken with these groups that are likely to hesitate over the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate. Full article
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