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Vaccines, Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 206 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are administered systemically and result in poor immunogenicity at the mucosa, ultimately failing to prevent infection. We engineered B. subtilis spores to express SARS-CoV-2 antigens and used these to nasally boost a systemic prime consisting of either the rSpike protein or the AZD1222 vaccine. This heterologous systemic prime–mucosal boost strategy evoked mucosal IgA and is potentially protective, as shown in the hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Coupled with their ease of production, heat stability, and extraordinary resistance properties, spore vaccines, used mucosally, lend themselves to pandemic situations, facilitating a method with which to both augment systemic immunity as well as induce mucosal immunity, a prerequisite for complete protection. Such an approach is likely to have applications in other viral diseases. View this paper
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15 pages, 3789 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Oral Microcirculation in Patients Undergoing Anti COVID-19 Vaccination: A Preliminary Study
by Adriana Acquaro, Giorgia Brusca, Sofia Casella, Enzo Maria Cumbo, Antonio Della Valle, Mohmed Isaqali Karobari, Giuseppe Marino, Anand Marya, Pietro Messina, Giuseppe Alessandro Scardina, Domenico Tegolo, Antonino Tocco and Cesare Valenti
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111978 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Videocapillaroscopy allows the study of both the morphological and architectural structure of the microcirculation and its hemodynamic conditions; these parameters are directly involved in autoimmune and/or inflammatory pathologies. The purpose of this research, based on capillaroscopy, is to establish whether a patient who [...] Read more.
Videocapillaroscopy allows the study of both the morphological and architectural structure of the microcirculation and its hemodynamic conditions; these parameters are directly involved in autoimmune and/or inflammatory pathologies. The purpose of this research, based on capillaroscopy, is to establish whether a patient who receives an anti-COVID 19 vaccine has any changes in their oral microcirculation. A complete capillaroscopic mapping of the oral cavity of the subjects examined was made; the investigated mucosa sites were the following: cheek, labial, chewing-gingival and back of the tongue. This study showed an increase in capillary density from the comparison between the mean labial capillary density of vaccinated patients and the reference mean capillary density value of the literature. The increase in capillary density is a sign that can be attributed to an increase in angiogenic activity. The EMA, GACVS and MHRA have reviewed the risk of thrombosis after vaccination, agreeing that the benefits outweigh the risks. Full article
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19 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Allelic Variants of HLA-C Upstream Region, PSORS1C3, MICA, TNFA and Genes Involved in Epidermal Homeostasis and Barrier Function Influence the Clinical Response to Anti-IL-12/IL-23 Treatment of Patients with Psoriasis
by Martina Morelli, Marco Galluzzo, Claudia Scarponi, Stefania Madonna, Giovanni Luca Scaglione, Giampiero Girolomoni, Marina Talamonti, Luca Bianchi and Cristina Albanesi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111977 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Several biologic therapies have been developed to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with patients exhibiting different clinical benefits, possibly due to the heterogeneity of pathogenic processes underlying their conditions. Ustekinumab targets the IL-12/IL-23-p40 subunit and inhibits type-1 and type-17 T-cell responses. Although ustekinumab is effective [...] Read more.
Several biologic therapies have been developed to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with patients exhibiting different clinical benefits, possibly due to the heterogeneity of pathogenic processes underlying their conditions. Ustekinumab targets the IL-12/IL-23-p40 subunit and inhibits type-1 and type-17 T-cell responses. Although ustekinumab is effective as both short- and long-term treatment, therapeutic response varies considerably among patients. Ustekinumab biosimilars will be commercialized in the very next future, likely broadening the use of this drug in the treatment of psoriasis patients. Our pharmacogenomic study evaluated the influence of 417 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in psoriasis-risk alleles on the clinical response to ustekinumab in a cohort of 152 patients affected by moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis. Differences in SNP pattern characterizing HLA-Cw6+ or HLA-Cw6 patients, showing high or low responses to ustekinumab, were also analysed. We identified twelve SNPs in HLA-C upstream region (rs12189871, rs4406273, rs9348862 and rs9368670), PSORS1C3 (rs1265181), MICA (rs2523497), LCE3A-B intergenic region (rs12030223, rs6701730), CDSN (rs1042127, rs4713436), CCHCR1 (rs2073719) and in TNFA (rs1800610) genes associated with excellent response to ustekinumab. We also found that HLA-Cw6+ and HLA-Cw6 patients carried out distinct patterns of SNPs associated with different clinical responses. The assessment of HLA-C alleles, together with other genetic variants, could be helpful for defining patients who better benefit from anti-IL-12/IL-23 therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skin Immune-Mediated Disease)
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14 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
Stakeholder Perspectives of Australia’s National HPV Vaccination Program
by Caitlin Swift, Aditi Dey, Harunor Rashid, Katrina Clark, Ramesh Manocha, Julia Brotherton and Frank Beard
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1976; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111976 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Australia has been a world leader in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and was the first country to implement a fully funded national HPV vaccination program, from 2007 for girls and 2013 for boys. In 2018 the program changed from a 4-valent to 9-valent [...] Read more.
Australia has been a world leader in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and was the first country to implement a fully funded national HPV vaccination program, from 2007 for girls and 2013 for boys. In 2018 the program changed from a 4-valent to 9-valent HPV vaccine and a 3-dose to 2-dose standard schedule. We assessed stakeholder perspectives on factors influencing program outcomes and impact as part of a comprehensive program evaluation. In late 2019 and early 2020, we conducted 26 interviews with 42 key stakeholder participants and received 1513 survey responses from stakeholders including general practice staff and school-based nurse immunisers. Findings included that the 2-dose schedule is better accepted by schools and students and has reduced program cost and resource requirements. However, course completion rates have not increased as much as anticipated due to the 6–12 month dosing interval and reduced opportunities for school-based catch-up vaccination. Major reported barriers to increased vaccine coverage were absenteeism and consent form return. Vaccine hesitancy is not currently a major issue but remains a potential threat to the program. While Australia’s HPV vaccination program is perceived as highly successful, measures to further enhance the program’s impact and mitigate potential threats are important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination of Adolescents)
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5 pages, 554 KiB  
Editorial
SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies
by Vivek P. Chavda and Elrashdy M. Redwan
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111975 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced a significant continuing epidemic worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies)
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5 pages, 470 KiB  
Opinion
The Re-Emergence of COVID-19 in 2022 Has Affected People’s Views on Vaccines
by Yufei Wu, Huanjie Li and Yunshan Wang
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111974 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
The recurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022 has had a great impact on people’s mentality, although the government has controlled it through a series of effective measures. What is noteworthy is that the public opinion on vaccines has changed significantly, and at [...] Read more.
The recurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2022 has had a great impact on people’s mentality, although the government has controlled it through a series of effective measures. What is noteworthy is that the public opinion on vaccines has changed significantly, and at present, the level of public’s trust in the COVID-19 vaccine is what we are concentrating on. For the current situation, new measures should be explored. Vaccines have been proven to be effective in reducing the rate of serious cases and death among infected people. However, vaccination rates still need to be improved, especially among the elderly. For people with low antibody levels, the fourth injection is recommended. Studying vaccines effective against virus mutation is the focus of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Hesitancy: Attitudes and Associated Factors)
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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Freedom of Choice to Vaccinate and COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Italy
by Mawulorm K. I. Denu, Alberto Montrond, Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Marco Bonetti, Veronica Toffolutti, Marcia A. Testa and Elena Savoia
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111973 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Despite the availability of effective vaccines that lower mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19, many countries including Italy have adopted strict vaccination policies and mandates to increase the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Such mandates have sparked debates on the freedom to choose [...] Read more.
Despite the availability of effective vaccines that lower mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19, many countries including Italy have adopted strict vaccination policies and mandates to increase the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Such mandates have sparked debates on the freedom to choose whether or not to get vaccinated. In this study, we examined the people’s belief in vaccine choice as a predictor of willingness to get vaccinated among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Italy in May 2021. The survey collected data on respondents’ demographics and region of residence, socioeconomic factors, belief in the freedom to choose to be vaccinated or not, risk perception of contracting and transmitting the disease, previous vaccine refusal, opinion on adequacy of government measures to address the pandemic, experience in requesting and being denied government aid during the pandemic, and intent to accept COVID-19 vaccination. The analysis employed binary logistic regression models using a hierarchical model building approach to assess the association between intent to accept vaccination and belief in the freedom to choose to vaccinate, while adjusting for other variables of interest. 984 unvaccinated individuals were included in the study. Respondents who agreed that people should be free to decide whether or not to vaccinate with no restrictions on their personal life had 85% lower odds of vaccine acceptance (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09,0.23) after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors and their risk perception of contracting and transmitting COVID-19. Belief in the freedom to choose whether or not to accept vaccinations was a major predictor of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among a sample of unvaccinated individuals in Italy in May 2021. This understanding of how individuals prioritize personal freedoms and the perceived benefits and risks of vaccines, when making health care decisions can inform the development of public health outreach, educational programs, and messaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance: Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects (ELSA))
7 pages, 2707 KiB  
Case Report
A Case of Purpura Annularis Telangiectodes of Majocchi after Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine: Is There an Association?
by Francesca Ambrogio, Carmelo Laface, Giorgia Sbarra, Raffaele Filotico, Girolamo Ranieri, Chiara Barlusconi, Aurora De Marco, Gerardo Cazzato, Domenico Bonamonte, Paolo Romita and Caterina Foti
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111972 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
The advent of vaccines has drastically reduced the incidence, morbidity, and mortality related to COVID-19, and with the increase in the number of vaccinated subjects, there have been reports of some adverse events, including skin reactions. In this paper, we report a clinical [...] Read more.
The advent of vaccines has drastically reduced the incidence, morbidity, and mortality related to COVID-19, and with the increase in the number of vaccinated subjects, there have been reports of some adverse events, including skin reactions. In this paper, we report a clinical case of Purpura Annularis Telangiectodes of Majocchi following a third-dose administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Almost 30 days after the third dose, the patient presented erythematous annular patches on the lower limbs with purpuric peripheral areas and a central clearing with no other symptoms. A dermoscopic examination showed capillaritis, reddish-brown dot-clods on a coppery-red background caused by leaky capillaries. To date, the causes of Majocchi’s disease are not well-defined; in the literature, three vaccination-related cases have been reported: one after a flu vaccination and two after an anti-SARS-CoV-2 one. Dermatologists should be trained to promptly recognize these clinical manifestations after vaccination, which will likely become a common finding in daily clinical practice, especially given the large diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Full article
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8 pages, 364 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Biological, Pharmacological Characteristics, Indications, Contraindications and Adverse Effects of JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 Monkeypox Vaccines
by Sultan Ayoub Meo, Abeer A. Al-Masri, David C. Klonoff, Abdullah Nasser Alshahrani and Thamir Al-khlaiwi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111971 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Human monkeypox is an emerging viral zoonotic disease, that has caused highly distinctive, challenging and threatening problems worldwide. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given interim authorization for the JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 vaccines for the outbreak of monkeypox 2022. The present [...] Read more.
Human monkeypox is an emerging viral zoonotic disease, that has caused highly distinctive, challenging and threatening problems worldwide. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given interim authorization for the JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 vaccines for the outbreak of monkeypox 2022. The present study aims to highlight the globally derived evidence about the biological and pharmacological features, indications, contraindications and adverse effects of JYNNEOS and ACAM2000 vaccines. Initially, 82 documents were selected and, finally, 14 fact sheets, documents and international organizations were included. The data were recorded from the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) USA, ISI-Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus. The data revealed that the JYNNEOS vaccine has been recommended to children, adults, females during pregnancy and people of all age groups with a dose of 0.5 mL, and the complete vaccination cost per person is about USD 115. It provides immunogenicity, and the mean titer of neutralizing antibodies was 153.5. However, the ACAM2000 vaccine is contraindicated in infants and pregnant females, and recommended to people over 18 years of age and older, with a single dose of 0.0025 mL, and a cost of about USD 139. ACAM2000 provides immunogenicity, and the mean titer of neutralizing antibodies was 79.3. The JYNNEOS vaccine has mild adverse effects including pain, redness, swelling or itching at the site of the vaccine shot, fever, fatigue, headache, nausea and muscle pain. However, the ACAM2000 vaccine can cause pain, redness, edema, headache, fever, fatigue, muscle pain, body ache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, shortness of breath and increased risk of myopericarditis and cardiomyopathy. The evidence supports the view that both vaccines are beneficial, but the overall impact of JYNNEOS is better than that of ACAM2000. Full article
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12 pages, 861 KiB  
Article
Strengthening the Link between Vaccine Predispositions and Vaccine Advocacy through Certainty
by Borja Paredes, Miguel A. Martín Cárdaba, Lorena Moreno, Nerea Cano, Pablo Briñol, Ubaldo Cuesta and Richard E. Petty
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111970 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
Background. Instruments designed to assess individual differences in predispositions towards vaccination are useful in predicting vaccination-related outcomes. Despite their importance, there is relatively little evidence regarding the conditions under which these instruments are more predictive. The current research was designed to improve the [...] Read more.
Background. Instruments designed to assess individual differences in predispositions towards vaccination are useful in predicting vaccination-related outcomes. Despite their importance, there is relatively little evidence regarding the conditions under which these instruments are more predictive. The current research was designed to improve the ability of these kinds of instruments to predict vaccination advocacy by considering the certainty associated with the responses to vaccination scales. Method. Across two studies, participants completed the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire BMQ scale (Study 1) or the Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) scale (Study 2). The certainty participants had in their responses to each scale was either measured (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Intentions to advocate in favor of vaccination served as the criterion measure in both studies. Results. As expected, the scales significantly predicted vaccination advocacy, contributing to enhancing the predictive validity of the instruments used in the studies. Most relevant, certainty moderated the extent to which these scales predicted vaccination advocacy, with greater consistency between the initial scores and the subsequent advocacy willingness obtained for those with higher certainty. Conclusions. Certainty can be useful to predict when the relationship between vaccination-related cognitions (i.e., beliefs or attitudes) and advocacy willingness is likely to be stronger. Full article
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9 pages, 216 KiB  
Viewpoint
Lessons from Vaccine-Related Poliovirus in Israel, UK and USA
by T. Jacob John and Dhanya Dharmapalan
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111969 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Genetic variants of vaccine poliovirus type 2, imported from an unknown source, were detected in waste waters in Jerusalem, London and New York in early 2022. Wild poliovirus type 2 was globally eradicated in 1999, but vaccine virus type 2 continued for 16 [...] Read more.
Genetic variants of vaccine poliovirus type 2, imported from an unknown source, were detected in waste waters in Jerusalem, London and New York in early 2022. Wild poliovirus type 2 was globally eradicated in 1999, but vaccine virus type 2 continued for 16 more years; routine use of the vaccine was discontinued in 2016 and reintroduced occasionally on purpose. As an unintended consequence, type 2 vaccine virus variants (circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, cVDPVs) that mimic wild viruses’ contagiousness and neurovirulence, have been emerging and spreading. To illustrate, in just the past four years (2018–2021), 2296 children developed cVDPV polio in 35 low-income countries. Many assume that virus transmission is via the faecal–oral route. Sustained virus transmission was documented in London and New York, in spite of high standards of sanitation and hygiene. Here, virus transmission cannot be attributed to faecal contamination of food or drinking water (for faecal–oral transmission). Hence, contagious transmission can only be explained by inhalation of droplets/aerosol containing virus shed in pharyngeal fluids (respiratory transmission), as was the classical teaching of polio epidemiology. If transmission efficiency of VDPV is via the respiratory route where hygiene is good, it stands to reason that it is the same case in countries with poor hygiene, since poor hygiene cannot be a barrier against respiratory transmission. By extrapolation, the extreme transmission efficiency of wild polioviruses must also have been due to their ability to exploit respiratory route transmission. These lessons have implications for global polio eradication. It was as a result of assuming faecal–oral transmission that eradication was attempted with live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), ignoring its safety problems and very low efficacy in low-income countries. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is completely safe and highly efficacious in protecting children against polio, with just three routine doses. Protecting all children from polio must be the interim goal of eradication, until poliovirus circulation dies out under sustained immunisation pressure. OPV should be discontinued under cover of immunity induced by IPV to stop the emergence of new lineages of VDPVs, not only type 2, but also types 1 and 3, to expedite the completion of polio eradication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Attenuated/Inactivated/Live and Vectored Vaccines)
17 pages, 1888 KiB  
Article
Understanding Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Hesitancy in Racial and Ethnic Minority Caregivers
by Shannon H. Baumer-Mouradian, Rebecca J. Hart, Alexis Visotcky, Raphael Fraser, Swathi Prasad, Michael Levas, Mark Nimmer and David C. Brousseau
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111968 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
(1) Background: We compared influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy levels in Black, Hispanic, and White parents/caregivers and identified barriers and facilitators to vaccine acceptance. (2) Methods: This was a mixed methods study. A cross-sectional survey of ED caregivers presenting with children 6mo–18yo compared [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We compared influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy levels in Black, Hispanic, and White parents/caregivers and identified barriers and facilitators to vaccine acceptance. (2) Methods: This was a mixed methods study. A cross-sectional survey of ED caregivers presenting with children 6mo–18yo compared vaccine hesitancy levels among diverse caregivers. Six focus groups of survey participants, stratified by caregiver race/ethnicity and caregiver intent to receive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, assessed facilitators and barriers of vaccination, with thematic coding using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). (3) Results: Surveys (n = 589) revealed Black caregivers had significantly higher vaccine hesitancy rates than White caregivers for pediatric influenza (42% versus 21%) and SARS-CoV-2 (63% versus 36%; both p < 0.05). Hispanic caregivers were more hesitant than White caregivers (37% flu and 58% SARS-CoV-2), but this was not significant. Qualitative analysis (n = 23 caregivers) identified barriers including vaccine side effects, lack of necessity, inadequate data/science, and distrust. Facilitators included vaccine convenience, fear of illness, and desire to protect others. (4) Conclusions: Minority caregivers reported higher levels of vaccine hesitancy for influenza and SARS-CoV-2. We identified vaccine facilitators and barriers inclusive of Black and Hispanic caregivers, which may guide interventions designed to equitably improve acceptance of pediatric vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Candidate against SARS-CoV-2)
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10 pages, 1572 KiB  
Article
Impact of COVID-19 Vaccination on Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the Health Care Workers in a Tertiary Care Centre, South India
by Divyaa Elangovan, Shifa Meharaj Shaik Hussain, Somasunder Virudhunagar Muthuprakash, Nanthini Devi Periadurai, Ashok Viswanath Nalankilli, Harshada Volvoikar, Preethy Ramani, Jayanthi Sivasubramaniam, Kalyani Mohanram and Krishna Mohan Surapaneni
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111967 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Global vaccine development efforts have been accelerated in response to the devastating COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among vaccine-naïve healthcare workers and to describe the impact of vaccination roll-out on COVID-19 antibody prevalence among the [...] Read more.
Global vaccine development efforts have been accelerated in response to the devastating COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among vaccine-naïve healthcare workers and to describe the impact of vaccination roll-out on COVID-19 antibody prevalence among the health care centers in tertiary care centers in South India. Serum samples collected from vaccinated and unvaccinated health care workers between January 2021 and April 2021were subjected to COVID-19 IgG ELISA, and adverse effects after the first and second dose of receiving the Covishield vaccine were recorded. The vaccinated group was followed for a COVID-19 breakthrough infection for a period of 6 months. Among the recruited HCW, 156 and 157 participants were from the vaccinated and unvaccinated group, respectively. The seroprevalence (COVID-19 IgG ELISA) among the vaccinated and unvaccinated Health Care Workers (HCW) was 91.7% and 38.2%, respectively, which is statistically significant. Systemic and local side-effects after Covishield vaccination occur at lower frequencies than reported in phase 3 trials. Since the COVID-19 vaccine rollout has commenced in our tertiary care hospital, seropositivity for COVID-19 IgG has risen dramatically and clearly shows trends in vaccine-induced antibodies among the health care workers. Full article
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18 pages, 674 KiB  
Viewpoint
A Reflection of Metabolic Syndrome through the Window of COVID-19
by Liam Pock Ho, Chuen Wen Tan, Heng Joo Ng, Wai Mun Jason Chay, Jing Yuan Tan and Su Yen Goh
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111966 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2189
Abstract
COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome, though seemingly different disorders, appear to share certain common pathogenic components, especially in the development of COVID-19-associated diabetes mellitus. The similarities include impairment in immunoendothelial, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, adipose and mitochondrial functions, with several critical micronutrients undergirding the intricate interactions [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome, though seemingly different disorders, appear to share certain common pathogenic components, especially in the development of COVID-19-associated diabetes mellitus. The similarities include impairment in immunoendothelial, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, adipose and mitochondrial functions, with several critical micronutrients undergirding the intricate interactions among these dysfunctions. This discussion aims to highlight the parallels between COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome and to propose the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 being a prototype of an acquired etiological agent which can eventually lead to the development of classical metabolic syndrome. Based on the proposed model, the discussion will include the implication for early management of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
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9 pages, 271 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 Vaccination in Migrants and Refugees: Lessons Learnt and Good Practices
by Palmira Immordino, Davide Graci, Alessandra Casuccio, Vincenzo Restivo and Walter Mazzucco
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111965 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities between low- and high-income countries. Within the latter, a greater impact is seen in the poorest and most vulnerable people, including refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants. They all may experience poor access to quality healthcare or have [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities between low- and high-income countries. Within the latter, a greater impact is seen in the poorest and most vulnerable people, including refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants. They all may experience poor access to quality healthcare or have suboptimal health-seeking behavior, distrust of governments, or fear of detention and deportation if seeking healthcare. Some refugees and migrants may face multiple barriers to vaccination and access to health systems that are relevant to the administration of COVID-19 vaccines, despite the growing inclusion of these populations in public health policies. Several good practices have emerged to ensure the inclusion of these populations in vaccination and healthcare for COVID-19 globally. However, inequalities persist between high-income and low-/middle-income populations. The inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination reflect the already existing ones in common health services worldwide. Further efforts are necessary to reduce such disparities, to protect the vulnerable, and, by extension, the general population. The initiatives organized, both at global and local levels, to support vaccination campaigns represent a notable example of how complex multilevel structures, such as health systems, as well as limited resource health services, can successfully face, even during a health emergency, the challenges related to global health issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Vaccination and Public Health)
17 pages, 2682 KiB  
Article
30-Minute Highly Multiplexed VaxArray Immunoassay for Pneumococcal Vaccine Antigen Characterization
by Tianjing Hu, David F. Miller, Amber W. Taylor, Christine Riley, Caitlin McCormick, Keely N. Thomas, Rachel Y. Gao, Kathy L. Rowlen, Emilia B. Byrne, Pardeep Kumar, Soo Kyung Kim and Erica D. Dawson
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111964 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Pneumonia accounts for over 20% of deaths worldwide in children aged 1 to 5 years, disproportionately affecting lower- and middle-income countries. Effective, highly multivalent pneumococcal vaccines are available to decrease disease burden, with numerous new vaccines currently under development to serve a variety [...] Read more.
Pneumonia accounts for over 20% of deaths worldwide in children aged 1 to 5 years, disproportionately affecting lower- and middle-income countries. Effective, highly multivalent pneumococcal vaccines are available to decrease disease burden, with numerous new vaccines currently under development to serve a variety of worldwide markets. However, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are among the hardest biologics to manufacture and characterize due to their complexity and heterogeneity. Current characterization methods are often inherently singleplex, requiring separate tests for each serotype present. In addition, identity and quantity are often determined with separate methods. We developed the VaxArray pneumococcal assay for applications in identity, quantity, and stability testing of pneumococcal polysaccharide and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The VaxArray pneumococcal assay has a time to result of less than 30 min and is an off-the-shelf multiplexed, microarray-based immunoassay kit that can identify and simultaneously quantify 23 pneumococcal polysaccharide serotypes common to many on-market and in-development vaccines. Here, we highlight the potential of the assay for identity testing by showing high reactivity and serotype specificity to a wide variety of native polysaccharides, CRM197-conjugated polysaccharides, and drug product. The assay also has vaccine-relevant lower limits of quantification in the low-to-mid ng/mL range and can be used for accurate quantification even in adjuvanted vaccines. Excellent correlation to the anthrone assay is demonstrated, with VaxArray resulting in significantly improved precision over this antiquated chemical method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2nd Edition of Vaccines against Pneumococcal Infection)
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36 pages, 1709 KiB  
Review
Advances in the Lung Cancer Immunotherapy Approaches
by Hafiza Padinharayil, Reema Rose Alappat, Liji Maria Joy, Kavya V. Anilkumar, Cornelia M. Wilson, Alex George, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan, Harishkumar Madhyastha, Thiyagarajan Ramesh, Ezhaveni Sathiyamoorthi, Jintae Lee and Raja Ganesan
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111963 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
Despite the progress in the comprehension of LC progression, risk, immunologic control, and treatment choices, it is still the primary cause of cancer-related death. LC cells possess a very low and heterogeneous antigenicity, which allows them to passively evade the anticancer defense of [...] Read more.
Despite the progress in the comprehension of LC progression, risk, immunologic control, and treatment choices, it is still the primary cause of cancer-related death. LC cells possess a very low and heterogeneous antigenicity, which allows them to passively evade the anticancer defense of the immune system by educating cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), regulatory T cells (Treg), immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Though ICIs are an important candidate in first-line therapy, consolidation therapy, adjuvant therapy, and other combination therapies involving traditional therapies, the need for new predictive immunotherapy biomarkers remains. Furthermore, ICI-induced resistance after an initial response makes it vital to seek and exploit new targets to benefit greatly from immunotherapy. As ICIs, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) are not ideal LC predictive markers, a multi-parameter analysis of the immune system considering tumor, stroma, and beyond can be the future-oriented predictive marker. The optimal patient selection with a proper adjuvant agent in immunotherapy approaches needs to be still revised. Here, we summarize advances in LC immunotherapy approaches with their clinical and preclinical trials considering cancer models and vaccines and the potential of employing immunology to predict immunotherapy effectiveness in cancer patients and address the viewpoints on future directions. We conclude that the field of lung cancer therapeutics can benefit from the use of combination strategies but with comprehension of their limitations and improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunology Focus: Cellular & Molecular Immunology)
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11 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Differential Cell Line Susceptibility to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1.1 Variant of Concern
by Hitesh Dighe, Prasad Sarkale, Deepak Y. Patil, Sreelekshmy Mohandas, Anita M. Shete, Rima R. Sahay, Rajen Lakra, Savita Patil, Triparna Majumdar, Pranita Gawande, Jyoti Yemul, Pratiksha Vedpathak and Pragya D. Yadav
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111962 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
The unique mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant are associated with increased transmissibility, immune escape, increased binding affinity to ACE-2, and increased viral load. Omicron exhibited a shift in tropism infecting the upper respiratory tract compared to other variants of concern which have [...] Read more.
The unique mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant are associated with increased transmissibility, immune escape, increased binding affinity to ACE-2, and increased viral load. Omicron exhibited a shift in tropism infecting the upper respiratory tract compared to other variants of concern which have tropism for the lower respiratory tract. The tropism of omicron variants in cell lines of different hosts and tissue origins still remains unclear. Considering this, we assessed the susceptibility of different cell lines to the SARS-CoV-2 omicron BA.1.1 variant and permissiveness among different cell lines for omicron replication. Susceptibility and permissiveness of a total of eleven cell lines, including six animal cell lines and five human cell lines for omicron BA.1.1 infection, were evaluated by infecting individual cell lines with omicron BA.1.1 isolate at a 0.1 multiplicity of infection. Virus replication was assessed by observation of cytopathic effects followed by viral load determination by real-time PCR assay and virus infectivity determination by TCID50 assay. The characteristic cytopathic effect, increased viral load, and productive omicron replication was detected in Vero CCL-81, Vero E6, Vero/hSLAM, MA-104, and Calu-3 cells. Although LLC MK-2 cells showed an increased TCID50 titer at the second infection, the viral load did not show much difference in both infections. Caco-2 cells did not show evident CPE, but they supported omicron replication at a low level. A549, RD, MRC-5, and BHK-21 cells supported omicron BA.1.1 replication without the CPE. This is the first study on the comparison of susceptibility of different cell lines to Omicron variant BA.1.1, which might be useful for future studies on emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Immune Response and Vaccines)
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10 pages, 2095 KiB  
Article
Plant-Produced S1 Subunit Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Elicits Immunogenic Responses in Mice
by Chalisa Panapitakkul, Narach Khorattanakulchai, Kaewta Rattanapisit, Theerakarn Srisangsung, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Supranee Buranapraditkun, Chutitorn Ketloy, Eakachai Prompetchara and Waranyoo Phoolcharoen
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111961 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The virus spreads rapidly with a high transmission rate among humans, and hence virus management has been challenging owing to finding specific therapies or vaccinations. Hence, an effective, low-cost vaccine is urgently required. In this [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The virus spreads rapidly with a high transmission rate among humans, and hence virus management has been challenging owing to finding specific therapies or vaccinations. Hence, an effective, low-cost vaccine is urgently required. In this study, the immunogenicity of the plant-produced S1 subunit protein of SARS-CoV-2 was examined in order to assess it as a potential candidate for SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc fusion protein was transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana. Within four days of infiltration, the SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc protein was expressed in high quantities, and using protein A affinity column chromatography, plant-produced S1-Fc protein was purified from the crude extracts. The characterization of plant-produced S1-Fc protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Immunogenicity of the purified S1-Fc protein formulated with alum induced both RBD specific antibodies and T cell immune responses in mice. These preliminary results indicated that the plant-produced S1 protein is immunogenic in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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14 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
Bursal-Derived BP7 Induces the miRNA Molecular Basis of Chicken Macrophages and Promotes the Differentiation of B Cells
by Jiaxi Cai, Ze Zhang, Chenfei Li, Shanshan Hao, Anran Lu, Xiangyu Huang and Xiuli Feng
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111960 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a vital central humoral immune organ unique to birds. The bioactive peptide BP7 derived from bursa is reported to promote the vaccine immune response and antibody production. However, the regulatory effect on antigen presentation and B cell [...] Read more.
The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a vital central humoral immune organ unique to birds. The bioactive peptide BP7 derived from bursa is reported to promote the vaccine immune response and antibody production. However, the regulatory effect on antigen presentation and B cell differentiation has been infrequently reported. In this paper, chicken macrophage HD11 cells were used for the cell model, and the cellular molecular expressions were determined by the fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) after BP7 treatment. Then, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. In addition, BALB/C mice were used as the animal model to detect B cell subtype with flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that the expressions of four immune active molecules, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, and IFN-α, in HD11 cells were significantly increased with 100 ng/mL BP7 treatment. Compared with the control group, there were 58 up-regulated and 61 down-regulated miRNAs in HD11 cells with BP7 treatment. The gene ontology (GO) function analysis found that BP7 mainly affected the various biological processes, molecular function, and MHC protein complex. Pathway analysis showed that 100 ng/mL BP7 stimulated various physiological metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways, including the intestinal immune network producing IgA in HD11 cells. Furthermore, it was found that BP7 in vitro stimulated B cell populations, as well as plasma cells in spleen cells from the immunized mice. Additionally, B cell activation subpopulations were increased in mice immunized with the AIV vaccine and BP7. These results proved that BP7 stimulated various differentially expressed genes in chicken macrophage HD11 cells, and induced B cell differentiation in the immunized mice, which suggested that BP7 might participate in the antigen presentation process, thereby promoting the differentiation of B cells. These results provide an important basis for the mechanism of bursal-derived peptide on B cell development, and offer the experimental basis for the development of adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccine Adjuvants)
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12 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Clinical Presentation of COVID-19 and Antibody Responses in Bangladeshi Patients Infected with the Delta or Omicron Variants of SARS-CoV-2
by Asish Kumar Ghosh, Olfert Landt, Mahmuda Yeasmin, Mohiuddin Sharif, Rifat Hossain Ratul, Maruf Ahmed Molla, Tasnim Nafisa, Mymuna Binte Mosaddeque, Nur Hosen, Md. Rakibul Hassan Bulbul, Rashid Mamunur, Alimul Islam, Shahjahan Siddike Shakil, Marco Kaiser, Md. Robed Amin and Simon D. Lytton
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111959 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
The clinical presentation of COVID-19 and the specific antibody responses associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants have not been investigated during the emergence of Omicron variants in Bangladesh. The Delta and Omicron variants were identified by post-PCR melting curve analysis of the spike (S) protein [...] Read more.
The clinical presentation of COVID-19 and the specific antibody responses associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants have not been investigated during the emergence of Omicron variants in Bangladesh. The Delta and Omicron variants were identified by post-PCR melting curve analysis of the spike (S) protein receptor binding domain amplicons. Anti-S-protein immunoglobulin-G anti-nucleocapsid (N)-protein immunoglobulin-G and immunoglobulin-A levels were measured by ELISA. The Delta variant was found in 40 out of 40 (100%) SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients between 13 September and 23 October 2021 and Omicron variants in 90 out of 90 (100%) RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients between 9 January and 10 February 2022. The Delta variant associated with hospitalization (74%, 80%, and 40%) and oxygen support (60%, 57%, and 40%) in the no vaccine, dose-1, and dose-2 vaccinated cases, respectively, whereas the Omicron COVID-19 required neither hospitalization nor oxygen support (0%, p < 0.0001). Fever, cough, and breathlessness were found at a significantly higher frequency among the Delta than Omicron variants (p < 0.001). The viral RNA levels of the Delta variant were higher than that of the Omicron variants (Ct median 19.9 versus 23.85; p < 0.02). Anti-spike protein immunoglobulin-G and anti-N-protein immunoglobulin-G within 1 week post onset of Delta variant COVID-19 symptoms indicate prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Delta variant and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 breakthrough infections in the Dhaka region, at 240 days post onset of COVID-19 symptoms, negatively correlated with the time interval between the second vaccine dose and serum sampling. The findings of lower anti-spike protein immunoglobulin-G reactivity after booster vaccination than after the second vaccine dose suggest that the booster vaccine is not necessarily beneficial in young Bangladeshi adults having a history of repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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13 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Parents’ Attitudes toward Childhood Vaccines and COVID-19 Vaccines in a Turkish Pediatric Outpatient Population
by Nihal Durmaz, Murat Suman, Murat Ersoy and Emel Örün
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111958 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is an important public health issue. The determinants of parental decisions on whether to vaccinate their children are multidimensional and need to be carefully considered in the COVID-19 era. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of VH among parents, [...] Read more.
Vaccination hesitancy (VH) is an important public health issue. The determinants of parental decisions on whether to vaccinate their children are multidimensional and need to be carefully considered in the COVID-19 era. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of VH among parents, parents’ use of social media, and their attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine upon vaccine refusal. Materials and methods: Our participants were the parents of children admitted to hospitals in three different cities in Turkey between September 2021 and December 2021. The parents were asked to complete sociodemographic data and their attitudes toward COVID-19 diseases, the Parental Attitudes Toward Childhood Vaccines (PACV) scale, and the Attitudes Toward COVID-19 Vaccine (ATV-COVID-19) scale. Participants were categorized as “non-hesitant”, with a score of <50, and “hesitant”, with a score of ≥50. Results: A total of 1087 parents with a mean age of 33.66 (SD 9.1) years old participated in the study. VH was noted in 102 (9.38%) parents. Age, gender, education, and income levels did not significantly differ from one another, according to the PACV; however, parents who delayed vaccinating their children and indicated that social media had an impact on vaccination decisions were more hesitant. Parents who were male and had a family member diagnosed with COVID-19 showed more positive attitudes in the ATV-COVID-19. Parents who were hesitant about childhood vaccinations had lower positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine (2.84 ± 0.97) than parents who were not hesitant (3.77 ± 0.9). A total of 761 (70.14%) parents need more information about childhood immunizations. Conclusion: Parents who are hesitant about childhood immunization programs in Turkey have a less positive attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines and are affected by social media. Parents need information about vaccines, and because the controversy surrounding COVID-19 vaccines can diminish parents’ confidence in routine childhood immunizations, understanding the complex causes behind vaccination hesitancy can help public health policy break through barriers and increase immunization rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Correlates and Interventions)
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8 pages, 417 KiB  
Article
Parental Attitudes and Perceptions of Support after Brief Clinician Intervention Predict Intentions to Accept the Adjuvanted Seasonal Influenza Vaccination: Findings from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–I
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111957 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against seasonal influenza in children compared with nonadjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). This prospective cohort study assessed parental attitudes, beliefs, and intentions to vaccinate their infants aged 6–23 months with aTIV. Parents were surveyed before [...] Read more.
Adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) provides enhanced protection against seasonal influenza in children compared with nonadjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). This prospective cohort study assessed parental attitudes, beliefs, and intentions to vaccinate their infants aged 6–23 months with aTIV. Parents were surveyed before and after routine healthy baby visits, and post clinician interaction results were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Physicians at 15 community practice clinics and nurses at 3 public health clinics participated; 207 parents were surveyed. After clinician consultation, most parents considered immunization with aTIV to be safe (72.9%), effective (69.6%), and important (69.0%); most perceived support for vaccination from significant others (62.8%) and clinicians (81.6%); and 66.6% intended to vaccinate their infant with aTIV. Parental attitudes toward vaccinating their infant with aTIV were strongly correlated with perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy, and importance, and these represented the strongest influence on intentions to vaccinate (odds ratio (OR) 79.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.05–1037.50). Parental intentions were further influenced by perceived strength of clinician recommendation (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.38–15.06) and social support for vaccination (OR 3.46, 95% CI 0.50–24.13). These findings may inform clinician approaches to parental education to ensure optimal seasonal pediatric influenza vaccination. Full article
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10 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Seroprevalence of Varicella-Zoster Virus and Measles among Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Medical Center in Korea
by Ji Hyun Yun, Eunsol Lee, Jeong Hwa Choi, Hyun Kyun Ki and Jiho Park
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111956 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Measles and varicella still occur in the general population despite the widespread vaccination against them, and healthcare workers (HCWs) are still at risk of exposure to these diseases. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of measles and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in HCWs and the [...] Read more.
Measles and varicella still occur in the general population despite the widespread vaccination against them, and healthcare workers (HCWs) are still at risk of exposure to these diseases. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of measles and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in HCWs and the trend of seroprevalence according to age, birth year, and occupational group. The serostatuses of measles and VZV of HCWs during new employee medical examinations between October 2015 and October 2021 were included. Thereafter, the trends of seroprevalence according to age, birth year, and occupational groups were evaluated. Overall, 2070 and 1827 HCWs were evaluated for VZV and measles serostatus, respectively. The seroprevalences of VZV and measles were 91% (1884/2070) and 70% (1284/1827), respectively. Younger HCWs had a significantly lower seroprevalence of measles (p = 0.02, age) and VZV (p = 0.003, birth year and p < 0.001, age). The seroprevalence of measles and VZV was significantly higher among doctors and nursing assistants than among nurses and other HCWs (p < 0.001 in both). In conclusion, the seroprevalence of measles and VZV significantly decreased in younger HCWs. Additionally, monitoring the serostatus of measles and VZV and the immunization of susceptible HCWs are required to prepare and control infectious diseases in healthcare facilities. Full article
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6 pages, 397 KiB  
Article
Clinicians Are Not Able to Infer Parental Intentions to Vaccinate Infants with a Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, and Perhaps They Should Not Try: Findings from the Pediatric Influenza Vaccination Optimization Trial (PIVOT)–IV
by William A. Fisher, Vladimir Gilca, Michelle Murti, Alison Orth, Hartley Garfield, Paul Roumeliotis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Vivien Brown, John Yaremko, Paul Van Buynder, Constantina Boikos and James A. Mansi
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111955 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
This prospective cohort survey evaluated the concordance of clinicians’ perceptions of parental intentions and parents’ actual intentions to vaccinate their infants against influenza. During a routine healthy baby visit, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza, children’s vulnerability to influenza, and nonadjuvanted and [...] Read more.
This prospective cohort survey evaluated the concordance of clinicians’ perceptions of parental intentions and parents’ actual intentions to vaccinate their infants against influenza. During a routine healthy baby visit, clinicians provided parents with information about influenza, children’s vulnerability to influenza, and nonadjuvanted and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV and aTIV, respectively). Before and after the clinician–parent interaction, parents were surveyed about their attitudes, their perceptions of support from significant others, and the intention to vaccinate their infant with aTIV. Clinicians were asked about their perception of parents’ intentions to choose aTIV for their children. These assessments included 24 clinicians at 15 community practices and nine public health clinics, and 207 parents. The correlation coefficients of the clinicians’ assessment of parents’ intention to vaccinate were 0.483 (p < 0.001) if the vaccine was presented as free of cost, 0.266 (p < 0.001) if the cost was $25, and 0.146 (p = 0.036) if the cost was $50, accounting for 23%, 7%, and 2% of the variance in parental intentions, respectively. The clinicians were poor at predicting parental intentions to immunize, particularly when cost was involved. Information on vaccine options and influenza infection should be provided for every eligible patient to allow parents to determine if the vaccine is appropriate for their child. Full article
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12 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
Real-World Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of Two Doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination in Children Aged 5–11 Years
by Gili Joseph, Elisheva Klein, Yaniv Lustig, Yael Weiss-Ottolenghi, Keren Asraf, Victoria Indenbaum, Sharon Amit, Or Kriger, Mayan Gilboa, Yuval Levy, Itai M. Pessach, Yitshak Kreiss, Gili Regev-Yochay and Michal Stein
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111954 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
There are limited data concerning the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in children. A total of 110 children, 5–11 years old were vaccinated with two doses (with a 3-week interval between doses) of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and were followed for 21, [...] Read more.
There are limited data concerning the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in children. A total of 110 children, 5–11 years old were vaccinated with two doses (with a 3-week interval between doses) of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and were followed for 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination for immunogenicity, adverse events, and breakthrough infections. Ninety days after the first vaccine dose, the GeoMean (CI 95%) of IgG ascended to 1291.0 BAU (929.6–1790.2) for uninfected children and 1670.0 BAU (1131.0–2466.0) for Infected children. One hundred and eighty days after receiving the first dose of the vaccine, the titers decreased to 535.5 BAU (288.4–993.6) for the uninfected children, while only a small decline was detected among infected children—1479.0 (878.2–2490.0). The neutralizing antibodies titer almost did not change over time in the uninfected children, and even elevated for the infected children. Of the 110 vaccinated children, 75.5% were infected, with only mild COVID-19 infection symptoms. Child vaccination was found to be safe, with mild, mostly local, and of short duration, reported AEs. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported after vaccination. The durability of two doses of vaccine in children is longer, thus a booster may not be needed as early as in adults. Full article
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16 pages, 599 KiB  
Review
Protecting the Offspring, the Gift of Maternal Immunization: Current Status and Future Perspectives
by Theano Lagousi, Despoina Gkentzi, Maria Geropeppa, Panagiota Tsagkli and Vana Spoulou
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111953 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Pregnancy is characterized by immunological alterations in pregnant women that permit the growth of a semi-allogenic fetus, resulting in greater susceptibility of childbearing women to infections. Furthermore, due to the immaturity of the immune system of neonates, a protection gap is present in [...] Read more.
Pregnancy is characterized by immunological alterations in pregnant women that permit the growth of a semi-allogenic fetus, resulting in greater susceptibility of childbearing women to infections. Furthermore, due to the immaturity of the immune system of neonates, a protection gap is present in early life, leaving neonates and infants vulnerable to infectious diseases with increased morbidity and mortality. Maternal immunization against influenza, pertussis, and, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has been implemented in several countries, with beneficial effects on both the mother and the offspring. The main protective mechanism of vaccination during pregnancy is transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies. However, recent evidence has implied that the fetal immune system may be influenced beyond passive immunity. This review sheds light on the current status of the routinely administered vaccinations during pregnancy, focusing on the impact of maternal immunization on the priming of the fetal immune system and suggesting future perspectives for the optimization of vaccination strategies. Full article
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10 pages, 1077 KiB  
Communication
Determining the SARS-CoV-2 Anti-Spike Cutoff Level Denoting Neutralizing Activity Using Two Commercial Kits
by Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany, Mona H. Hashish, Azza Galal Farghaly and Eman A. Omran
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111952 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Background: The viral neutralization assay is the gold standard to estimate the level of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. This study analyzes the correlation between the quantitative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) and the NeutraLISA neutralization assay. Methods: 650 serum samples were tested for both SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Background: The viral neutralization assay is the gold standard to estimate the level of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. This study analyzes the correlation between the quantitative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) and the NeutraLISA neutralization assay. Methods: 650 serum samples were tested for both SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (anti-S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) using kits by EUROIMMUN, Germany. Results: There was a significant correlation between levels of anti-S and nAbs (Spearman’s rho = 0.913). Among the positive samples for anti-S, 77.0% (n = 345) were positive for nAbs. There was a substantial agreement between anti-S and nAbs (Cohen’s kappa coefficient = 0.658; agreement of 83.38%). Considering NeutraLISA as a gold standard, anti-S had a sensitivity of 98.57%, specificity of 65.66%, NPV of 97.5%, and PPV of 77.0%. When the anti-S titer was greater than 18.1 RU/mL (57.9 BAU/mL), nAbs were positive, with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 91%. Conclusions: A titer of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG can be correlated with levels of nAbs. Full article
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11 pages, 1824 KiB  
Article
Subnational Gender Inequality and Childhood Immunization: An Ecological Analysis of the Subnational Gender Development Index and DTP Coverage Outcomes across 57 Countries
by Nicole E. Johns, Katherine Kirkby, Tracey S. Goodman, Shirin Heidari, Jean Munro, Stephanie Shendale and Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111951 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
The role of gender inequality in childhood immunization is an emerging area of focus for global efforts to improve immunization coverage and equity. Recent studies have examined the relationship between gender inequality and childhood immunization at national as well as individual levels; we [...] Read more.
The role of gender inequality in childhood immunization is an emerging area of focus for global efforts to improve immunization coverage and equity. Recent studies have examined the relationship between gender inequality and childhood immunization at national as well as individual levels; we hypothesize that the demonstrated relationship between greater gender equality and higher immunization coverage will also be evident when examining subnational-level data. We thus conducted an ecological analysis examining the association between the Subnational Gender Development Index (SGDI) and two measures of immunization—zero-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) prevalence and 3-dose DTP coverage. Using data from 2010–2019 across 702 subnational regions within 57 countries, we assessed these relationships using fractional logistic regression models, as well as a series of analyses to account for the nested geographies of subnational regions within countries. Subnational regions were dichotomized to higher gender inequality (top quintile of SGDI) and lower gender inequality (lower four quintiles of SGDI). In adjusted models, we find that subnational regions with higher gender inequality (favoring men) are expected to have 5.8 percentage points greater zero-dose prevalence than regions with lower inequality [16.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.5–18.4%) in higher-inequality regions versus 10.6% (95% CI 9.5–11.7%) in lower-inequality regions], and 8.2 percentage points lower DTP3 immunization coverage [71.0% (95% CI 68.3–73.7%) in higher-inequality regions versus 79.2% (95% CI 77.7–80.7%) in lower-inequality regions]. In models accounting for country-level clustering of gender inequality, the magnitude and strength of associations are reduced somewhat, but remain statistically significant in the hypothesized direction. In conjunction with published work demonstrating meaningful associations between greater gender equality and better childhood immunization outcomes in individual- and country-level analyses, these findings lend further strength to calls for efforts towards greater gender equality to improve childhood immunization and child health outcomes broadly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in Immunization 2023)
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10 pages, 1619 KiB  
Case Report
Portal Vein and Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis Following the Administration of an Ad26.COV2-S Vaccine—First Case from Romania: A Case Report
by Florin Savulescu, Cristian Cirlan, Madalina Ionela Iordache-Petrescu, Mihai Iordache, Alexandra Bianca Petrescu and Cristian Blajut
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111950 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4984
Abstract
COVID-19 has significantly affected public health, social life, and economies worldwide. The only effective way to combat the pandemic is through vaccines. Although the vaccines have been in use for some time, safety concerns have still been raised. The most typical adverse effects [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has significantly affected public health, social life, and economies worldwide. The only effective way to combat the pandemic is through vaccines. Although the vaccines have been in use for some time, safety concerns have still been raised. The most typical adverse effects of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine are localized reactions near the injection site, followed by general physical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, muscle pain, and fever. Additionally, some people may experience VITT (vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia), a rare side effect after vaccination. We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient that developed VITT-like symptoms with spleno-portal thrombosis and intestinal ischemia two weeks after the administration of the Ad26.COV2-S vaccine. Surgical treatment consisted of extensive bowel resection with end jejunostomy and feeding ileostomy. Two weeks after the first operation, a duodenal-ileal anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged five weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Although some rare adverse effects are associated with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the risk of hospitalization from these harmful effects is lower than the risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. Therefore, recognizing VITT is significant for ensuring the early treatment of clots and proper follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adverse Events of COVID-19 Vaccines)
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10 pages, 250 KiB  
Review
Insight into Prevention of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: A Short Review
by Vincenza La Fauci, Daniela Lo Giudice, Raffaele Squeri and Cristina Genovese
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111949 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are important global pathogens which cause the sexually transmitted diseases gonorrhea and meningitis, respectively, as well as sepsis. We prepared a review according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA), with the [...] Read more.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are important global pathogens which cause the sexually transmitted diseases gonorrhea and meningitis, respectively, as well as sepsis. We prepared a review according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA), with the aims of (a) evaluating the data on the MenB vaccination as protection against sexually transmitted infections by N. gonorrhoeae and (b) to briefly comment on the data of ongoing studies of new vaccines. We evaluated existing evidence on the effect of 4CMenB, a multi-component vaccine, on invasive diseases caused by different meningococcal serogroups and on gonorrhea. Non-B meningococcal serogroups showed that the 4CMenB vaccine could potentially offer some level of protection against non-B meningococcal serogroups and N. gonorrhoeae. The assessment of the potential protection conferred by 4CMenB is further challenged by the fact that further studies are still needed to fully understand natural immune responses against gonococcal infections. A further limitation could be the potential differences between the protection mechanisms against N. gonorrhoeae, which causes local infections, and the protection mechanisms against N. meningitidis, which causes systemic infections. Full article
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