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Diagnostics, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 217 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Medical laboratories have evolved massively over the past few decades. However, focusing mainly on intra-laboratory processes, laboratories slowly degenerated into a sole supplier of test results. It is time that laboratory specialists start providing their vast expertise in test selection and interpretation in order to contribute to optimal patient care. As the amount of data which need to be processed exceeds human capacity, the aid of artificial intelligence systems is inevitably needed. However, care needs to be taken with regard to their risks, benefits, requirements, and limitations. View this paper
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Case Report
Focal Myocarditis after Mild COVID-19 Infection in Athletes
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081519 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
COVID-19 infection in athletes usually has a milder course, but in the case of complications, myocarditis and even sudden cardiac death may occur. We examined an athlete who felt symptoms upon returning to training after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Physical, laboratory, and echocardiography findings [...] Read more.
COVID-19 infection in athletes usually has a milder course, but in the case of complications, myocarditis and even sudden cardiac death may occur. We examined an athlete who felt symptoms upon returning to training after asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Physical, laboratory, and echocardiography findings were normal. The cardiopulmonary exercise test was interrupted at submaximal effort due to severe dyspnea in the presence of reduced functional capacity in comparison to previous tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detected the focal myocarditis. After three months of recovery, CMR still revealed the presence of focal myocarditis and the persistence of decreased functional capacity. This case raises the question of screening athletes even after asymptomatic forms of COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Long Term Health Monitoring with Physiological Signals)
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Review
Framing Cause-Effect Relationship of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081518 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The main causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are of cardiovascular nature. The interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and non-traditional risk factors (RF) triggers various complex pathophysiological mechanisms that will lead to accelerated atherosclerosis in the context [...] Read more.
The main causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are of cardiovascular nature. The interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and non-traditional risk factors (RF) triggers various complex pathophysiological mechanisms that will lead to accelerated atherosclerosis in the context of decreased renal function. In terms of mortality, CKD should be considered equivalent to ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) and properly monitored. Vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, anemia, and inflammatory syndrome represents the main uremic RF triggered by accumulation of the uremic toxins in CKD subjects. Proteinuria that appears due to kidney function decline may initiate an inflammatory status and alteration of the coagulation—fibrinolysis systems, favorizing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) occurrence. All these factors represent potential targets for future therapy that may improve CKD patient’s survival and prevention of CV events. Once installed, the CAD in CKD population is associated with negative outcome and increased mortality rate, that is the reason why discovering the complex pathophysiological connections between the two conditions and a proper control of the uremic RF are crucial and may represent the solutions for influencing the prognostic. Exclusion of CKD subjects from the important trials dealing with ACS and improper use of the therapeutical options because of the declined kidney functioned are issues that need to be surpassed. New ongoing trials with CKD subjects and platelets reactivity studies offers new perspectives for a better clinical approach and the expected results will clarify many aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardio-Renal Metabolic Syndrome: Interdisciplinary Diagnostic Methods)
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Article
Prediction Model for Tumor Budding Status Using the Radiomic Features of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Cervical Cancer
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081517 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Objective: To compare the radiomic features of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and intratumoral heterogeneity according to tumor budding (TB) status and to develop a prediction model for the TB status using the radiomic feature of 18F-FDG [...] Read more.
Objective: To compare the radiomic features of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and intratumoral heterogeneity according to tumor budding (TB) status and to develop a prediction model for the TB status using the radiomic feature of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy and preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT were included. We assessed the status of intratumoral budding (ITP) and peritumoral budding (PTB) in all available hematoxylin and eosin-stained specimens. Three conventional metabolic parameters and fifty-nine features were extracted and analyzed. Univariate analysis was used to identify significant metabolic parameters and radiomic findings for TB status. The prediction model for TB status was built using 3 machine learning classifiers (random forest, support vector machine, and neural network). Results: Univariate analysis led to the identification of 2 significant metabolic parameters and 12 significant radiomic features according to intratumoral budding (ITB) status. Among these parameters, following multivariate analysis for the ITB status, only compacity remained significant (odds ratio, 5.0047; 95% confidence interval, 1.1636–21.5253; p = 0.0305). Two conventional metabolic parameters and 25 radiomic features were selected by the Lasso regularization, and the prediction model for the ITB status had a mean area under the curve of 0.762 in the test dataset. Conclusion: Radiomic features of 18F-FDG PET/CT were associated with the ITB status. The prediction model using radiomic features successfully predicted the TB status in patients with cervical cancer. The prediction models for the ITB status may contribute to personalized medicine in the management of patients with cervical cancer. Full article
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Article
Stability of OCT and OCTA in the Intensive Therapy Unit Setting
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081516 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
To assess the stability of retinal structure and blood flow measures over time and in different clinical settings using portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) as a potential biomarker of central perfusion in critical illness, 18 oesophagectomy patients completed retinal structure and blood [...] Read more.
To assess the stability of retinal structure and blood flow measures over time and in different clinical settings using portable optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) as a potential biomarker of central perfusion in critical illness, 18 oesophagectomy patients completed retinal structure and blood flow measurements by portable OCT and OCTA in the eye clinic and intensive therapy unit (ITU) across three timepoints: (1) pre-operation in a clinic setting; (2) 24–48 h post-operation during ITU admission; and (3) seven days post-operation, if the patient was still admitted. Blood flow and macular structural measures were stable between the examination settings, with no consistent variation between pre- and post-operation scans, while retinal nerve fibre layer thickness increased in the post-operative scans (+2.31 µm, p = 0.001). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) measurements were the most stable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of up to 0.92 for right eye FAZ area. Blood flow and structural measures were lower in left eyes than right eyes. Retinal blood flow assessed in patients before and during an ITU stay using portable OCTA showed no systematic differences between the clinical settings. The stability of retinal blood flow measures suggests the potential for portable OCTA to provide clinically useful measures in ITU patients. Full article
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Article
Observation of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Mouse Model Cornea with In Vivo Confocal Microscopy
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081515 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and ocular GVHD can cause severe dry eye disease that can lead to visual impairment. Epithelial damage, vascular invasion, corneal fibrosis, and corneal perforation may occur in severe cases. It [...] Read more.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and ocular GVHD can cause severe dry eye disease that can lead to visual impairment. Epithelial damage, vascular invasion, corneal fibrosis, and corneal perforation may occur in severe cases. It is generally accepted that inflammatory cells such as dendritic cells and T cells contribute to this pathological condition. However, it is still unknown what pathological condition occurs on the ocular surface after HSCT, and when. We therefore observed the dynamics of inflammatory cells in the cornea of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) model mice from 1 to 4 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and considered the relationship with the pathophysiology of ocular GVHD (tear volume, corneal epithelial damage). In the allogeneic group, neovascularization occurred in all eyes at 1 week after BMT, although almost all vessels disappeared at 2 weeks after BMT. In addition, we revealed that infiltration of globular cells, and tortuosity and branching of nerves in the cornea occurred in both cGVHD mice and human cGVHD patients. Thus, we consider that cGVHD mouse model study by IVCM reproduces the state of ocular GVHD and may contribute to elucidating the pathological mechanism for ocular GVHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnostics Tool)
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Article
Shortening the Time of the Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing on Positive Blood Cultures with MALDI-TOF MS
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081514 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories take ~24 h for incubation to identify the bacteria after the blood culture has been confirmed as positive and fa further ~24 h to report the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs). Patients with suspected [...] Read more.
The current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories take ~24 h for incubation to identify the bacteria after the blood culture has been confirmed as positive and fa further ~24 h to report the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs). Patients with suspected bloodstream infection are treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics but delayed targeted antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed to develop a method with a significantly shortened turnaround time for clinical application by identifying the optimal incubation period of a subculture. A total of 188 positive blood culture samples obtained from Nov. 2019 to Aug. 2020 were included. Compared to the conventional 24-h incubation for bacterial identification, our approach achieved 96.1% and 97.4% identification accuracy after shortening the incubation time to 4.5 and 3.5 h for gram-positive (GP) and gram-negative (GN) bacterial samples, respectively. Samples from short-term incubation without any intermediate step or process were directly subjected to analysis with the Phoenix M50 AST. Compared to the conventional disk diffusion AST, the category agreements for GP (excluding Streptococcus spp.), Streptococcus spp., and GN bacterial samples were 91.8%, 97.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. Our approach significantly reduced the average turnaround time from 48 h to 28 h for reporting bacterial identity and decreased average AST from 72 h to 50.3 h compared to the conventional methods. Accordingly, this approach allows a physician to prescribe the appropriate antibiotic(s) ~21.7 h earlier, thereby improving patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
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Article
IVUS Longitudinal and Axial Registration for Atherosclerosis Progression Evaluation
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081513 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging offers accurate cross-sectional vessel information. To this end, registering temporal IVUS pullbacks acquired at two time points can assist the clinicians to accurately assess pathophysiological changes in the vessels, disease progression and the effect of the treatment intervention. In [...] Read more.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging offers accurate cross-sectional vessel information. To this end, registering temporal IVUS pullbacks acquired at two time points can assist the clinicians to accurately assess pathophysiological changes in the vessels, disease progression and the effect of the treatment intervention. In this paper, we present a novel two-stage registration framework for aligning pairs of longitudinal and axial IVUS pullbacks. Initially, we use a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW)-based algorithm to align the pullbacks in a temporal fashion. Subsequently, an intensity-based registration method, that utilizes a variant of the Harmony Search optimizer to register each matched pair of the pullbacks by maximizing their Mutual Information, is applied. The presented method is fully automated and only required two single global image-based measurements, unlike other methods that require extraction of morphology-based features. The data used includes 42 synthetically generated pullback pairs, achieving an alignment error of 0.1853 frames per pullback, a rotation error 0.93° and a translation error of 0.0161 mm. In addition, it was also tested on 11 baseline and follow-up, and 10 baseline and post-stent deployment real IVUS pullback pairs from two clinical centres, achieving an alignment error of 4.3±3.9 for the longitudinal registration, and a distance and a rotational error of 0.56±0.323 mm and 12.4°±10.5°, respectively, for the axial registration. Although the performance of the proposed method does not match that of the state-of-the-art, our method relies on computationally lighter steps for its computations, which is crucial in real-time applications. On the other hand, the proposed method performs even or better that the state-of-the-art when considering the axial registration. The results indicate that the proposed method can support clinical decision making and diagnosis based on sequential imaging examinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Novelties in Cardiovascular Imaging)
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Article
Visualization of Forward Light Scatter in Opacified Intraocular Lenses and Straylight Assessment
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081512 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
Background: Qualitative visualization of forward light scatter and quantitative straylight measurement of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods: We analyzed two calcified IOL-explants, the Euromaxx ALI313Y (Argonoptics GmbH) and the LS-312 MF30 (Oculentis BV), one IOL with artificially induced glistenings (PC-60AD, Hoya), and one control [...] Read more.
Background: Qualitative visualization of forward light scatter and quantitative straylight measurement of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods: We analyzed two calcified IOL-explants, the Euromaxx ALI313Y (Argonoptics GmbH) and the LS-312 MF30 (Oculentis BV), one IOL with artificially induced glistenings (PC-60AD, Hoya), and one control (CT Asphina 409MP, Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) free of any opacification. Analysis included light microscopy, qualitative light scatter visualization using ray propagation imaging technique, and quantitative straylight measurement using C-Quant (Oculus). Results: More light scattering effect—visible as increased light intensity outside the IOL’s main focus—was evident in all opacified IOLs than the control. The highest straylight levels were observed in the Euromaxx (289.71 deg2/sr), which showed extensive granular deposits throughout its optic, followed by the MF30 (78.58 deg2/sr), which only showed opacification in its center. The glistenings-IOL demonstrated numerous microvacuoles within the optic and had straylight levels of 22.6 deg2/sr, while the control showed the lowest straylight levels (1.7 deg2/sr). Conclusions: Ray propagation imaging technique allowed qualitative assessment of off-axis veils of light that result from increased forward light scattering. Straylight was increased in all opacified lenses compared to the clear control lens. The IOL opacifications are significant sources of glare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Diseases: Diagnosis and Management)
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Article
Mouth Washing Impaired SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Saliva
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081509 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Background: A previous study demonstrated the performance of the Salivette® (SARSTEDT, Numbrecht, Germany) as a homogeneous saliva collection system to diagnose COVID-19 by RT-qPCR, notably for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, for convalescent patients, the corroboration of molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in [...] Read more.
Background: A previous study demonstrated the performance of the Salivette® (SARSTEDT, Numbrecht, Germany) as a homogeneous saliva collection system to diagnose COVID-19 by RT-qPCR, notably for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, for convalescent patients, the corroboration of molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in paired nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva samples was unsatisfactory. Objectives: The aim of the present work was to assess the concordance level of SARS-CoV-2 detection between paired sampling of NPSs and saliva collected with Salivette® at two time points, with ten days of interval. Results: A total of 319 paired samples from 145 outpatients (OP) and 51 healthcare workers (HW) were collected. Unfortunately, at day ten, 73 individuals were lost to follow-up, explaining some kinetic missing data. Due to significant waiting rates at hospitals, most of the patients ate and/or drank while waiting for their turn. Consequently, mouth washing was systematically proposed prior to saliva collection. None of the HW were diagnosed as SARS-CoV-2 positive using NPS or saliva specimens at both time points (n = 95) by RT-qPCR. The virus was detected in 56.3% (n = 126/224) of the NPS samples from OP, but solely 26.8% (n = 60/224) of the paired saliva specimens. The detection of the internal cellular control, the human RNase P, in more than 98% of the saliva samples, underlined that the low sensitivity of saliva specimens (45.2%) for SARS-CoV-2 detection was not attributed to an improper saliva sample storing or RNA extraction. Conclusions: This work revealed that mouth washing decreased viral load of buccal cavity conducting to impairment of SARS-CoV-2 detection. Viral loads in saliva neo-produced appeared insufficient for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2. At the time when saliva tests could be a rapid, simple and non-invasive strategy to assess large scale schoolchildren in France, the determination of the performance of saliva collection becomes imperative to standardize procedures. Full article
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Review
A 10-Year Retrospective Review of Prenatal Applications, Current Challenges and Future Prospects of Three-Dimensional Sonoangiography
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081511 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Realistic reconstruction of angioarchitecture within the morphological landmark with three-dimensional sonoangiography (three-dimensional power Doppler; 3D PD) may augment standard prenatal ultrasound and Doppler assessments. This study aimed to (a) present a technical overview, (b) determine additional advantages, (c) identify current challenges, and (d) [...] Read more.
Realistic reconstruction of angioarchitecture within the morphological landmark with three-dimensional sonoangiography (three-dimensional power Doppler; 3D PD) may augment standard prenatal ultrasound and Doppler assessments. This study aimed to (a) present a technical overview, (b) determine additional advantages, (c) identify current challenges, and (d) predict trajectories of 3D PD for prenatal assessments. PubMed and Scopus databases for the last decade were searched. Although 307 publications addressed our objectives, their heterogeneity was too broad for statistical analyses. Important findings are therefore presented in descriptive format and supplemented with the authors’ 3D PD images. Acquisition, analysis, and display techniques need to be personalized to improve the quality of flow-volume data. While 3D PD indices of the first-trimester placenta may improve the prediction of preeclampsia, research is needed to standardize the measurement protocol. In highly experienced hands, the unique 3D PD findings improve the diagnostic accuracy of placenta accreta spectrum. A lack of quality assurance is the central challenge to incorporating 3D PD in prenatal care. Machine learning may broaden clinical translations of prenatal 3D PD. Due to its operator dependency, 3D PD has low reproducibility. Until standardization and quality assurance protocols are established, its use as a stand-alone clinical or research tool cannot be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of 3D-Imaging in Diagnosis)
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Article
Morphological and Morphometric Characteristics of Anterior Maxilla Accessory Canals and Relationship with Nasopalatine Canal Type—A CBCT Study
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081510 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate principal morphological and morphometric characteristics of accessory canals (ACs) of the anterior maxilla, as well as to analyze the relationship with nasopalatine canal (NPC) type. The results of our study showed that ACs were observed in almost 50% [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate principal morphological and morphometric characteristics of accessory canals (ACs) of the anterior maxilla, as well as to analyze the relationship with nasopalatine canal (NPC) type. The results of our study showed that ACs were observed in almost 50% of participants. They were mostly presented bilaterally and in a curved shape, with a palatal foramen position. The morphometric characteristics of ACs were significantly influenced by NPC type. NPC type had the strongest impact on the distance between the NPC and AC, as well as on the distance between the AC and the facial aspect of buccal bone wall, in inferior parts of the alveolar ridge. On the other hand, the distance between the AC and central incisors was not significantly influenced by NPC shape in the lower region of the anterior maxilla. However, the participants with the banana-type of the NPC expressed the reduction in distance from the AC to the central incisor at the upper part in comparison with the subjects with the cylindrical-type of the NPC. On the basis of the results of this study, the simultaneous estimation of ACs and the NPC seems reasonable, as this approach may be useful in the prevention of complications which could occur during implant surgery interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anatomy)
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Article
Deep Learning Analysis of In Vivo Hyperspectral Images for Automated Intraoperative Nerve Detection
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081508 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Nerves are critical structures that may be difficult to recognize during surgery. Inadvertent nerve injuries can have catastrophic consequences for the patient and lead to life-long pain and a reduced quality of life. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-invasive technique combining photography with [...] Read more.
Nerves are critical structures that may be difficult to recognize during surgery. Inadvertent nerve injuries can have catastrophic consequences for the patient and lead to life-long pain and a reduced quality of life. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-invasive technique combining photography with spectroscopy, allowing non-invasive intraoperative biological tissue property quantification. We show, for the first time, that HSI combined with deep learning allows nerves and other tissue types to be automatically recognized in in vivo hyperspectral images. An animal model was used, and eight anesthetized pigs underwent neck midline incisions, exposing several structures (nerve, artery, vein, muscle, fat, skin). State-of-the-art machine learning models were trained to recognize these tissue types in HSI data. The best model was a convolutional neural network (CNN), achieving an overall average sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 1.0, validated with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. For the nerve, the CNN achieved an average sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.99. In conclusion, HSI combined with a CNN model is suitable for in vivo nerve recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgical Applications of Hyperspectral Optical Imaging)
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Article
Watch and Wait Approach for Rectal Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Treatment: The Experience of a High Volume Cancer Center
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081507 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Multimodal treatments for rectal cancer, along with significant research on predictors to response to therapy, have led to more conservative surgical strategies. We describe our experience of the rectal sparing approach in rectal cancer patients with clinical complete response (cCR) after neoadjuvant treatment. [...] Read more.
Multimodal treatments for rectal cancer, along with significant research on predictors to response to therapy, have led to more conservative surgical strategies. We describe our experience of the rectal sparing approach in rectal cancer patients with clinical complete response (cCR) after neoadjuvant treatment. We also specifically highlight our clinical and imaging criteria to select patients for the watch and wait strategy (w&w). Data came from 39 out of 670 patients treated for locally advanced rectal cancer between January 2016 until February 2020. The selection criteria were a clinical complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy managed with a watch and wait (w&w) strategy. A strict follow-up period was adopted in these selected patients and follow-ups were performed every three months during the first two years and every six months after that. The median follow-up time was 28 months. Six patients had a local recurrence (15.3%); all were salvageable by total mesorectal excision (TME). Five patients had a distant metastasis (12.8%). There was no local unsalvageable disease after w&w strategy. The rectal sparing approach in patients with clinical complete response after neoadjuvant treatment is the best possible treatment and is appropriate to analyze from this perspective. The watch and wait approach after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer can be successfully explored after inflexible and strict patient selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Rectal Cancer)
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Article
Development and Evaluation of a Set of Spike and Receptor Binding Domain-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for SARS-CoV-2 Serological Testing
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081506 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
The implementation and validation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serological assays are reported in this paper. S1 and RBD proteins were used to coat ELISA plates, and several secondary antibodies served as reporters. The assays were initially validated with 50 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 sera, which [...] Read more.
The implementation and validation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serological assays are reported in this paper. S1 and RBD proteins were used to coat ELISA plates, and several secondary antibodies served as reporters. The assays were initially validated with 50 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 sera, which showed high IgG titers of mainly IgG1 isotype, followed by IgG3. Low or no IgG2 and IgG4 titers were detected. Then, the RBD/IgG assay was further validated with 887 serum samples from RT-PCR positive COVID-19 individuals collected at different times, including 7, 14, 21, and 40 days after the onset of symptoms. Most of the sera were IgG positive at day 40, with seroconversion happening after 14–21 days. A third party conducted an additional performance test of the RBD/IgG assay with 406 sera, including 149 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 samples, 229 RT-PCR negative COVID-19 individuals, and 28 sera from individuals with other viral infections not related to SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity of the assay was 99.33%, with a specificity of 97.82%. All the sera collected from individuals with infectious diseases other than COVID-19 were negative. Given the robustness of this RBD/IgG assay, it received approval from the sanitary authority in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for production and commercialization under the name UDISTEST-V2G®. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
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Article
Magnetic Resonance Detects Structural Heart Disease in Patients with Frequent Ventricular Ectopy and Normal Echocardiographic Findings
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081505 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
The prognosis of patients with ventricular ectopy and a normal heart, as evaluated by echocardiography, is virtually unknown. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can detect focal ventricular anomalies that could act as a possible site of origin for premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). The aim [...] Read more.
The prognosis of patients with ventricular ectopy and a normal heart, as evaluated by echocardiography, is virtually unknown. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can detect focal ventricular anomalies that could act as a possible site of origin for premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cardiac anomalies in patients with normal findings at echocardiogram. Methods: Fifty-one consecutive patients (23 women, 28 men, mean age 59 years) with very high PVC burden (>10,000 PVC/day) and normal findings at standard echocardiography and exercise test were examined with CMR. The outcome was pathologic findings, defined as impaired ejection fraction, regional wall motion abnormalities, abnormal ventricular volume, myocardial edema and fibrosis. Results: Sixteen out of 51 patients (32%) had structural ventricular abnormalities at CMR. In five patients CMR showed impairment of the left ventricular and/or right ventricular systolic function, and six patients had a dilated left and/or right ventricle. Regional wall motion abnormalities were seen in six patients and fibrosis in four. No patient had CMR signs of edema or met CMR criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Five patients had extra-ventricular findings (enlarged atria in three cases, enlarged thoracic aorta in one case and pericardial effusion in one case). Conclusions: In this study 16 out of 51 patients with a high PVC burden and normal findings at echocardiography showed signs of pathology in the ventricles with CMR. These findings indicate that CMR should be considered in evaluating patients with a high PVC burden and a normal standard investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging and Theranostics)
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Article
The Diagnostic Usefulness of 131I-SPECT/CT at Both Radioiodine Ablation and during Long-Term Follow-Up in Patients Thyroidectomized for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Analysis of Tissue Risk Factors Ascertained at Surgery and Correlated with Metastasis Appearance
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081504 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
131I Single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) in the management of patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) was further investigated. Retrospectively, 106 consecutive DTC patients were enrolled at the first radioiodine ablation, 24 at high risk (H), 61 at low risk [...] Read more.
131I Single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) in the management of patients thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) was further investigated. Retrospectively, 106 consecutive DTC patients were enrolled at the first radioiodine ablation, 24 at high risk (H), 61 at low risk (L) and 21 at very low risk (VL). 131I whole-body scan (WBS) and SPECT/CT were performed after therapeutic doses using a hybrid dual-head gamma camera. At ablation, SPECT/CT correctly classified 49 metastases in 17/106 patients with a significantly (p < 0.001) more elevated number than WBS which evidenced 32/49 foci in 13/17 cases. In this case, 86/106 patients could be monitored in the follow-up including 13/17 cases with metastases already at post-therapeutic scans. SPECT/CT after radioiodine diagnostic doses more correctly than WBS ascertained disease progression in 4/13 patients, stable disease in other 4/13 cases and disease improvement in the remaining 5/13 cases. Further 13/86 patients with only residues at post-therapeutic scans showed at SPECT/CT 16 neck lymph node (LN) metastases, three unclear and 13 occult at WBS. Significant involvement of some tissue risk factors with metastasis appearance was observed, such as minimal extrathyroid tumor extension and neck LN metastases. These risk factors should be carefully considered in DTC patient follow-up where 131I-SPECT/CT routinely use is suggested as a support tool of WBS. Full article
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Communication
Active MMP-8 Quantitative Test as an Adjunctive Tool for Early Diagnosis of Periodontitis
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081503 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Periodontitis is a host-mediated bacterial disease that affects the tooth attachment apparatus. Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), a validated biomarker, could aid in clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of active (a) MMP-8 immunotest versus total (t) MMP-8 ELISA for quantitative real-time [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a host-mediated bacterial disease that affects the tooth attachment apparatus. Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), a validated biomarker, could aid in clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of active (a) MMP-8 immunotest versus total (t) MMP-8 ELISA for quantitative real-time diagnosis and assessment of periodontitis severity at the site level. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled from 30 healthy, 42 mild, and 59 severe periodontitis sites from thirty-one volunteers. MMP-8 concentrations were determined by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA package. Both active and total MMP-8-based methods discriminated among sites according to periodontal diagnosis and severity, with a positive correlation between the two tests (p < 0.001). (a) MMP-8 models showed the best performance in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate between healthy and periodontitis sites (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.89), while (t) MMP-8 demonstrated a high diagnostic precision in the detection of mild from severe periodontitis sites (AUC ≥ 0.80). The use of (a) MMP-8 and (t) MMP-8 could represent a useful adjunctive tool for periodontitis diagnosis and severity. These results support the applicability of new point-of-care methods in the monitoring of high-risk periodontal patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Peri-Implant Point-of-Care Tests)
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Article
A Novel System for Semiautomatic Sample Processing in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: Increasing Throughput without Impacting on Molecular Monitoring at Time of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081502 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Molecular testing of the BCR-ABL1 transcript via real-time quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction is the most sensitive approach for monitoring the response to tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. Each stage of the molecular procedure has been standardized and optimized, including the total white blood [...] Read more.
Molecular testing of the BCR-ABL1 transcript via real-time quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction is the most sensitive approach for monitoring the response to tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. Each stage of the molecular procedure has been standardized and optimized, including the total white blood cells (WBCs) and RNA isolation methods. Here, we compare the performance of our current manual protocol to a newly semiautomatic method based on the Biomek i-5 Automated Workstations integrated with the CytoFLEX Flow Cytometer, followed by the automatic QIAsymphony system to facilitate high-throughput processing samples and reduce the hands-on time and the risk associated with SARS-CoV-2. The recovery efficiency was investigated in blood samples from 100 adults with CML. We observe a 100% of concordance between the two methods, with similar total WBCs isolated (median 1.137 × 106 for manual method vs. 1.076 × 106 for semiautomatic system) and a comparable quality and quantity of RNA extracted (median 103 ng/μL with manual isolation kit vs. 99.95 ng/μL with the QIAsymphony system). Moreover, by stratifying patients according to their BCR-ABL1 transcript levels, we obtained similar BCR-ABL1/ABL1IS values and ABL1 copies, and matched samples were assigned to the same group of molecular response. We conclude that this newly semiautomatic workflow has a performance comparable to our more laborious standard manual, which can be replaced, particularly when specimens from patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection need to be processed. Full article
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Article
A Genome-Wide Association Study on Liver Stiffness Changes during Hepatitis C Virus Infection Cure
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081501 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Liver stiffness (LS) at sustained virological response (SVR) after direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based therapy is a predictor of liver events in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The study aim was to identify genetic factors associated with LS changes from the moment of starting anti-HCV [...] Read more.
Liver stiffness (LS) at sustained virological response (SVR) after direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based therapy is a predictor of liver events in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The study aim was to identify genetic factors associated with LS changes from the moment of starting anti-HCV therapy to SVR. This prospective study included HCV-infected patients from the GEHEP-011 cohort who achieved SVR with DAA-based therapy, with LS pre-treatment ≥ 9.5 kPa and LS measurement available at SVR. Plink and Magma software were used to carry out genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based and gene-based association analyses, respectively. The ShinyGO application was used for exploring enrichment in Gene Ontology (GO) categories for biological processes. Overall, 242 patients were included. Median (quartile 1, quartile 3) LS values at pre-treatment and at SVR were 16.8 (12, 28) kPa and 12.0 (8.5, 19.3) kPa, respectively. Thirty-five SNPs and three genes reached suggestive association with LS changes from the moment of starting anti-HCV therapy to SVR. GO categories related to DNA packaging complex, DNA conformation change, chromosome organization and chromatin organization were significantly enriched. Our study reports possible genetic factors associated with LS changes during HCV-infection cure. In addition, our results suggest that processes related to DNA conformation are also involved in these changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Omic Markers for Diseases Diagnosis)
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Article
Mitofusin-2 Down-Regulation Predicts Progression of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081500 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Identification of markers predicting disease outcome is a major clinical issue for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The present study aimed to determine the role of the mitochondrial proteins Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) in predicting the outcome of NMIBC. The [...] Read more.
Identification of markers predicting disease outcome is a major clinical issue for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). The present study aimed to determine the role of the mitochondrial proteins Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) and caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) in predicting the outcome of NMIBC. The study population consisted of patients scheduled for transurethral resection of bladder tumor upon the clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Samples of the main bladder tumor and healthy-looking bladder wall from patients classified as NMIBC were tested for Mfn2 and ClpP. The expression levels of these proteins were correlated to disease recurrence, progression. Mfn2 and ClpP expression levels were significantly higher in lesional than in non-lesional tissue. Low-risk NMIBC had significantly higher Mfn2 expression levels and significantly lower ClpP expression levels than high-risk NMIBC; there were no differences in non-lesional levels of the two proteins. Lesional Mfn2 expression levels were significantly lower in patients who progressed whereas ClpP levels had no impact on any survival outcome. Multivariable analysis adjusting for the EORTC scores showed that Mfn2 downregulation was significantly associated with disease progression. In conclusion, Mfn2 and ClpP proteins were found to be overexpressed in BC as compared to non-lesional bladder tissue and Mfn2 expression predicted disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers and Therapeutic Advances in Bladder Cancer)
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Article
Urinary mRNA Expression of Glomerular Podocyte Markers in Glomerular Disease and Renal Transplant
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081499 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The research of novel markers in urinary samples, for the description of renal damage, is of high interest, and several works demonstrated the value of urinary mRNA quantification for the search of events related to renal disease or affecting the outcome of transplant [...] Read more.
The research of novel markers in urinary samples, for the description of renal damage, is of high interest, and several works demonstrated the value of urinary mRNA quantification for the search of events related to renal disease or affecting the outcome of transplant kidneys. In the present pilot study, a comparison of the urine mRNA expression of specific podocyte markers among patients who had undergone clinical indication to renal transplanted (RTx, n = 20) and native (N, n = 18) renal biopsy was performed. The aim of this work was to identify genes involved in podocytes signaling and cytoskeletal regulation (NPHS1, NPHS2, SYNPO, WT1, TRPC6, GRM1, and NEUROD) in respect to glomerular pathology. We considered some genes relevant for podocytes signaling and for the function of the glomerular filter applying an alternative normalization approach. Our results demonstrate the WT1 urinary mRNA increases in both groups and it is helpful for podocyte normalization. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of TRPC6 after all kinds of normalizations was observed. According to our data, WT1 normalization might be considered an alternative approach to correct the expression of urinary mRNA. In addition, our study underlines the importance of slit diaphragm proteins involved in calcium disequilibrium, such as TRPC6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
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Article
Computer-Aided Detection (CADe) System with Optical Coherent Tomography for Melanin Morphology Quantification in Melasma Patients
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081498 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Dark skin-type individuals have a greater tendency to have pigmentary disorders, among which melasma is especially refractory to treat and often recurs. Objective measurement of melanin amount helps evaluate the treatment response of pigmentary disorders. However, naked-eye evaluation is subjective to weariness and [...] Read more.
Dark skin-type individuals have a greater tendency to have pigmentary disorders, among which melasma is especially refractory to treat and often recurs. Objective measurement of melanin amount helps evaluate the treatment response of pigmentary disorders. However, naked-eye evaluation is subjective to weariness and bias. We used a cellular resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) to assess melanin features of melasma lesions and perilesional skin on the cheeks of eight Asian patients. A computer-aided detection (CADe) system is proposed to mark and quantify melanin. This system combines spatial compounding-based denoising convolutional neural networks (SC-DnCNN), and through image processing techniques, various types of melanin features, including area, distribution, intensity, and shape, can be extracted. Through evaluations of the image differences between the lesion and perilesional skin, a distribution-based feature of confetti melanin without layering, two distribution-based features of confetti melanin in stratum spinosum, and a distribution-based feature of grain melanin at the dermal–epidermal junction, statistically significant findings were achieved (p-values = 0.0402, 0.0032, 0.0312, and 0.0426, respectively). FF-OCT enables the real-time observation of melanin features, and the CADe system with SC-DnCNN was a precise and objective tool with which to interpret the area, distribution, intensity, and shape of melanin on FF-OCT images. Full article
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Article
Residual-Shuffle Network with Spatial Pyramid Pooling Module for COVID-19 Screening
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081497 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019, more than 170 million patients have been infected with the virus that has resulted in more than 3.8 million deaths all over the world. This disease is easily spreadable from one [...] Read more.
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019, more than 170 million patients have been infected with the virus that has resulted in more than 3.8 million deaths all over the world. This disease is easily spreadable from one person to another even with minimal contact, even more for the latest mutations that are more deadly than its predecessor. Hence, COVID-19 needs to be diagnosed as early as possible to minimize the risk of spreading among the community. However, the laboratory results on the approved diagnosis method by the World Health Organization, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test, takes around a day to be processed, where a longer period is observed in the developing countries. Therefore, a fast screening method that is based on existing facilities should be developed to complement this diagnosis test, so that a suspected patient can be isolated in a quarantine center. In line with this motivation, deep learning techniques were explored to provide an automated COVID-19 screening system based on X-ray imaging. This imaging modality is chosen because of its low-cost procedures that are widely available even in many small clinics. A new convolutional neural network (CNN) model is proposed instead of utilizing pre-trained networks of the existing models. The proposed network, Residual-Shuffle-Net, comprises four stacks of the residual-shuffle unit followed by a spatial pyramid pooling (SPP) unit. The architecture of the residual-shuffle unit follows an hourglass design with reduced convolution filter size in the middle layer, where a shuffle operation is performed right after the split branches have been concatenated back. Shuffle operation forces the network to learn multiple sets of features relationship across various channels instead of a set of global features. The SPP unit, which is placed at the end of the network, allows the model to learn multi-scale features that are crucial to distinguish between the COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia cases. The proposed network is benchmarked with 12 other state-of-the-art CNN models that have been designed and tuned specially for COVID-19 detection. The experimental results show that the Residual-Shuffle-Net produced the best performance in terms of accuracy and specificity metrics with 0.97390 and 0.98695, respectively. The model is also considered as a lightweight model with slightly more than 2 million parameters, which makes it suitable for mobile-based applications. For future work, an attention mechanism can be integrated to target certain regions of interest in the X-ray images that are deemed to be more informative for COVID-19 diagnosis. Full article
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Article
Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Response in COVID-19 Patients Using Three Fully Automated Immunoassays and a Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081496 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays against the spike (S) protein are useful for monitoring immune response after infection or vaccination. We compared the results of three chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) (Abbott, Roche, Siemens) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript) using 191 sequential samples [...] Read more.
Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays against the spike (S) protein are useful for monitoring immune response after infection or vaccination. We compared the results of three chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) (Abbott, Roche, Siemens) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript) using 191 sequential samples from 32 COVID-19 patients. All assays detected >90% of samples collected 14 days after symptom onset (Abbott 97.4%, Roche 96.2%, Siemens 92.3%, and GenScript 96.2%), and overall agreement among the four assays was 91.1% to 96.3%. When we assessed time-course antibody levels, the Abbott and Siemens assays showed higher levels in patients with severe disease (p < 0.05). Antibody levels from the three CLIAs were correlated (r = 0.763–0.885). However, Passing–Bablok regression analysis showed significant proportional differences between assays and converting results to binding antibody units (BAU)/mL still showed substantial bias. CLIAs had good performance in predicting sVNT positivity (Area Under the Curve (AUC), 0.959–0.987), with Abbott having the highest AUC value (p < 0.05). SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibody levels as assessed by the CLIAs were not interchangeable, but showed reliable performance for predicting sVNT results. Further standardization and harmonization of immunoassays might be helpful in monitoring immune status after COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
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Systematic Review
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Attenuation on Computed Tomography beyond the Coronary Arteries. A Systematic Review
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081495 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
(1) Background: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation, measured with computed tomography imaging, is a marker of mean local vascular inflammation since it reflects the morphological changes of the fat tissue in direct contact with the vessel. This method is thoroughly validated in coronary arteries, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation, measured with computed tomography imaging, is a marker of mean local vascular inflammation since it reflects the morphological changes of the fat tissue in direct contact with the vessel. This method is thoroughly validated in coronary arteries, but few studies have been performed in other vascular beds. The aim of the present study is to provide insight into the potential application of perivascular adipose tissue attenuation through computed tomography imaging in extra-coronary arteries. (2) Methods: A comprehensive search of the scientific literature published in the last 30 years (1990–2020) has been performed on Medline. (3) Results: A Medline databases search for titles, abstracts, and keywords returned 3251 records. After the exclusion of repetitions and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and abstract screening, 37 studies were selected for full-text evaluation. Three papers were finally included in the systematic review. Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation assessment was studied in the internal carotid artery, ascending thoracic aorta, and abdominal aorta. (4) Conclusions: Perivascular adipose tissue attenuation seems to be an applicable parameter in all investigated vascular beds, generally with good inter-observer reproducibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cardiopulmonary Imaging)
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Article
Metabolic Changes in Maternal and Cord Blood in One Case of Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer Seen by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081494 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is a rare disease, which is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage due to limitations in current diagnostic methods. In this study, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to study the metabolic changes by measuring maternal blood and [...] Read more.
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is a rare disease, which is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage due to limitations in current diagnostic methods. In this study, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to study the metabolic changes by measuring maternal blood and umbilical cord blood via the autofluorescence of coenzymes, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). The NAD(P)H data showed that a PABC case had significant differences compared with normal cases, which may indicate increased glycolysis. The FAD data showed that both maternal and cord blood of PABC had shorter mean lifetimes and higher bound-FAD ratios. The significant differences suggested that FLIM testing of blood samples may be a potential method to assist in PABC non-radiative screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Gynecological Cancers)
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Case Report
Traumatic Intralenticular Neovascularization in a HLA B27+ Pediatric Patient
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081493 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 822
Abstract
(1) Background: Intralenticular tumors are an entity akin to Schrodinger’s cat since, although the human crystalline cells themselves are not known to malignly proliferate, various entities can take the appearance and clinical presentation of a tumor originating in the lens. We present the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Intralenticular tumors are an entity akin to Schrodinger’s cat since, although the human crystalline cells themselves are not known to malignly proliferate, various entities can take the appearance and clinical presentation of a tumor originating in the lens. We present the peculiar case of an 11-year-old male patient of African descent, HLA B27+, with a previous history of minor ocular trauma and unilateral anterior uveitis a year before which was admitted to our department with total opacification of the crystalline lens in the right eye and lens neovascularization. During surgery, a vascular, white fibrotic mass measuring 0.1–0.2 cm was discovered inside the lens bag and was excised. (2) Methods: Retrospective case review. (3) Results: The histopathological exam of the excised mass revealed an abundant infiltrate consisting of CD68+ foamy macrophages and lymphoplasmacytic elements. CD68 is a pan-macrophage marker associated with an active inflammatory mechanism soliciting macrophages, and tissue activated macrophages are correlated to increased stromal and serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, providing an explanation for lens angiogenesis. (4) Conclusions: The diagnosis is of a “masquerade tumor” resulted from an abnormal inflammatory process in connection with previous ocular trauma and possibly the patient’s HLA B27+ status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Diagnostics for Cataract Surgery)
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Article
An Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Pipeline for Medical Domain: Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort as a Case Study
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081492 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Automated artificial intelligence (AI) systems enable the integration of different types of data from various sources for clinical decision-making. The aim of this study is to propose a pipeline to develop a fully automated clinician-friendly AI-enabled database platform for breast cancer survival prediction. [...] Read more.
Automated artificial intelligence (AI) systems enable the integration of different types of data from various sources for clinical decision-making. The aim of this study is to propose a pipeline to develop a fully automated clinician-friendly AI-enabled database platform for breast cancer survival prediction. A case study of breast cancer survival cohort from the University Malaya Medical Centre was used to develop and evaluate the pipeline. A relational database and a fully automated system were developed by integrating the database with analytical modules (machine learning, automated scoring for quality of life, and interactive visualization). The developed pipeline, iSurvive has helped in enhancing data management as well as to visualize important prognostic variables and survival rates. The embedded automated scoring module demonstrated quality of life of patients whereas the interactive visualizations could be used by clinicians to facilitate communication with patients. The pipeline proposed in this study is a one-stop center to manage data, to automate analytics using machine learning, to automate scoring and to produce explainable interactive visuals to enhance clinician-patient communication along the survivorship period to modify behaviours that relate to prognosis. The pipeline proposed can be modelled on any disease not limited to breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Breast Disease Diagnosis)
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Article
Radiomics Nomogram Based on Radiomics Score from Multiregional Diffusion-Weighted MRI and Clinical Factors for Evaluating HER-2 2+ Status of Breast Cancer
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081491 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
This study aimed to establish and validate a radiomics nomogram using the radiomics score (rad-score) based on multiregional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features combined with clinical factors for evaluating HER-2 2+ status of breast cancer. A total of 223 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to establish and validate a radiomics nomogram using the radiomics score (rad-score) based on multiregional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features combined with clinical factors for evaluating HER-2 2+ status of breast cancer. A total of 223 patients were retrospectively included. Radiomic features were extracted from multiregional DWI and ADC images. Based on the intratumoral, peritumoral, and combined regions, three rad-scores were calculated using the logistic regression model. Independent parameters were selected among clinical factors and combined rad-score (com-rad-score) using multivariate logistic analysis and used to construct a radiomics nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated using calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUCs) of intratumoral and peritumoral rad-scores were 0.824/0.763 and 0.794/0.731 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Com-rad-score achieved the highest AUC (0.860/0.790) among three rad-scores. ER status and com-rad-score were selected to establish the nomogram, which yielded good discrimination (AUC: 0.883/0.848) and calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated the clinical value of the nomogram in the validation cohort. In conclusion, radiomics nomogram, including clinical factors and com-rad-score, showed favorable performance for evaluating HER-2 2+ status in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancement in Breast Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology)
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Interesting Images
An Incidental Pancreatic Finding at 18F-Choline PET/CT: Chronic Mass-Forming Pancreatitis
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081490 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
We present a case of a chronic mass-forming pancreatitis (CMFP) detected by 18F-choline (FCH) PET/CT in a male affected by prostate cancer. FCH PET/CT scan showed a focal uptake in the uncinate process of the pancreas, later diagnosed as a CMFP at biopsy. [...] Read more.
We present a case of a chronic mass-forming pancreatitis (CMFP) detected by 18F-choline (FCH) PET/CT in a male affected by prostate cancer. FCH PET/CT scan showed a focal uptake in the uncinate process of the pancreas, later diagnosed as a CMFP at biopsy. Although the physiological distribution of FCH in the pancreas, a careful interpretation of the images in this area is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Interesting Images)
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