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Article

Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Response in COVID-19 Patients Using Three Fully Automated Immunoassays and a Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test

1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Department of Biomedicine & Health Sciences, Graduate School, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
3
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimiliano Fabbiani
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081496
Received: 20 July 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 18 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays against the spike (S) protein are useful for monitoring immune response after infection or vaccination. We compared the results of three chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) (Abbott, Roche, Siemens) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript) using 191 sequential samples from 32 COVID-19 patients. All assays detected >90% of samples collected 14 days after symptom onset (Abbott 97.4%, Roche 96.2%, Siemens 92.3%, and GenScript 96.2%), and overall agreement among the four assays was 91.1% to 96.3%. When we assessed time-course antibody levels, the Abbott and Siemens assays showed higher levels in patients with severe disease (p < 0.05). Antibody levels from the three CLIAs were correlated (r = 0.763–0.885). However, Passing–Bablok regression analysis showed significant proportional differences between assays and converting results to binding antibody units (BAU)/mL still showed substantial bias. CLIAs had good performance in predicting sVNT positivity (Area Under the Curve (AUC), 0.959–0.987), with Abbott having the highest AUC value (p < 0.05). SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibody levels as assessed by the CLIAs were not interchangeable, but showed reliable performance for predicting sVNT results. Further standardization and harmonization of immunoassays might be helpful in monitoring immune status after COVID-19 infection or vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibody; chemiluminescent immunoassay; neutralizing antibody; quantitation; binding antibody units SARS-CoV-2 antibody; chemiluminescent immunoassay; neutralizing antibody; quantitation; binding antibody units
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.; Lee, J.H.; Ko, G.Y.; Ryu, J.H.; Jang, J.H.; Bae, H.; Yoo, S.-H.; Choi, A.-R.; Jung, J.; Lee, J.; Oh, E.-J. Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Response in COVID-19 Patients Using Three Fully Automated Immunoassays and a Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081496

AMA Style

Kim Y, Lee JH, Ko GY, Ryu JH, Jang JH, Bae H, Yoo S-H, Choi A-R, Jung J, Lee J, Oh E-J. Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Response in COVID-19 Patients Using Three Fully Automated Immunoassays and a Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(8):1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081496

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Yoonjoo, Ji Hyun Lee, Geon Young Ko, Ji Hyeong Ryu, Joo Hee Jang, Hyunjoo Bae, Seung-Hyo Yoo, Ae-Ran Choi, Jin Jung, Jongmin Lee, and Eun-Jee Oh. 2021. "Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Spike Antibody Response in COVID-19 Patients Using Three Fully Automated Immunoassays and a Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test" Diagnostics 11, no. 8: 1496. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081496

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