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Water, Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Building Damage Assessment Using Scenario Based Tsunami Numerical Analysis and Fragility Curves
Water 2016, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030109 - 19 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
A combination of a deterministic approach and fragility analysis is applied to assess tsunami damage caused to buildings. The area selected to validate the model is Imwon Port in Korea. The deterministic approach includes numerical modeling of tsunami propagation in the East Sea [...] Read more.
A combination of a deterministic approach and fragility analysis is applied to assess tsunami damage caused to buildings. The area selected to validate the model is Imwon Port in Korea. The deterministic approach includes numerical modeling of tsunami propagation in the East Sea following an earthquake on the western coast of Japan. The model is based on the linear shallow-water equations (LSWE) augmented with Boussinesq approximation to account for dispersion effects in wave propagation, and coastal wave run-up is modeled by non-linear shallow-water equations (NLSWE). The output from the deterministic model comprises inundation depth. The numerical output is used to perform fragility analysis for buildings vulnerable to flooding by tsunamis in the port area. Recently developed fragility curves—based on the ordinal regression method—are used for damage probability estimates. The extent of structural damage in the areas under a tsunami hazard is identified by the numerical modeling of tsunami features. Our numerical model offers high bathymetric resolution, which enables us to capture flow features at the individual structure level and results in improved estimation of damage probability. This approach can serve as a measure of assessing structure vulnerability for areas with little or no records of tsunami damage and provide planners with a better understanding of structure behavior when a tsunami strikes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using GOCI Retrieval Data to Initialize and Validate a Sediment Transport Model for Monitoring Diurnal Variation of SSC in Hangzhou Bay, China
Water 2016, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030108 - 19 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
The diurnal variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in Hangzhou Bay, China has been investigated using remotely-sensed SSC derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) in combination with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS). The SSC maps [...] Read more.
The diurnal variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in Hangzhou Bay, China has been investigated using remotely-sensed SSC derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) in combination with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model for regional and shelf seas (COHERENS). The SSC maps were inferred through a UV-AC atmospheric correction algorithm and an empirical inversion algorithm from the GOCI Level-1B data. The sediment transport model was initialized from maps of the GOCI-derived SSC and the model results were validated through a comparison with remotely-sensed data. The comparison demonstrated that the model results agreed well with the observations. The relationship between SSC distribution and hydrodynamic conditions was analyzed to investigate the sediment transport dynamics. The model’s results indicate that the action of tidal currents dominate the sediment deposition and re-suspension in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. This is especially the case in Hangzhou Bay where the tidal currents are strongest. The satellite-derived sediment data product can not only dramatically improve the specification of the initial conditions for the sediment model, but can also provide valuable information for the model validation, thereby improving the model’s overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Sediment Process)
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Open AccessArticle
Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 2: Matching Family-Level Indices to Geomorphological Response Units (GRUs)
Water 2016, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030107 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1642
Abstract
Many rivers are intensely managed due to anthropogenic influences such as dams, channelization, and water provision for municipalities, agriculture, and industry. With this growing pressure on fluvial systems comes a greater need to evaluate the state of their ecosystems. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Many rivers are intensely managed due to anthropogenic influences such as dams, channelization, and water provision for municipalities, agriculture, and industry. With this growing pressure on fluvial systems comes a greater need to evaluate the state of their ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan to distinguish instream macroinvertebrate habitats at the family level. River geomorphology was assessed through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models; with these tools, the sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width of the river were processed. Subsequently, Principal Component Analysis, a clustering technique, revealed areas with similar sets of geomorphological characteristics. These similar typology sequences were then grouped into geomorphological response units (GRUs), designated a color, and mapped into a geospatial model. Macroinvertebrate data was then incorporated to reveal several relationships to the model. For instance, certain GRUs contained more highly sensitive species and healthier diversity levels than others. Future possibilities for expanding on this project include incorporating stable isotope data to evaluate the food-web structure within the river basin. Although GRUs have been very successful in identifying fish habitats in other studies, the macroinvertebrates may be too sessile and their habitat too localized to be identified by such large river units. Units may need to be much shorter (250 m) to better identify macroinvertebrate habitat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Modeling of River Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Rice Straw Mulching and No-Tillage Practice in Upland Crop Areas on Nonpoint-Source Pollution Loads Based on HSPF
Water 2016, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030106 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
This study evaluates the watershed-scale effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution loads caused by rice straw mulching and no-tillage applications in upland crop areas using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) model. The study area is the Byulmi-cheon watershed (1.21 km²) of South Korea. Hourly [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the watershed-scale effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution loads caused by rice straw mulching and no-tillage applications in upland crop areas using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) model. The study area is the Byulmi-cheon watershed (1.21 km²) of South Korea. Hourly rainfall, discharge and stream water quality data were collected for three years (2011–2013) at the watershed outlet. The HSPF model under conventional (no rice straw mulching or tillage) conditions was calibrated and validated using 20 rainfall events for runoff and 14 rainfall events for stream water quality (sediment, T-N and T-P). The average Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency value for runoff was 0.61, and determination coefficients for runoff, sediment, total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P) were 0.70, 0.56, 0.58 and 0.61, respectively. The results of field experiments with slopes of 3% and 8% for radish and sesame cultivation showed decreases in the runoff ratio, sediment, T-N and T-P of 9.0%, 95.9%, 32.6% and 43.5% for rice straw mulching plots and 22.5%, 82.5%, 67.8 and 70.6% for no-tillage plots. The HSPF model parameters soil infiltration capacity (INFILT), soil bulk density (BD), wilting point (WP) and field capacity (FC) were controlled for the upland crop areas during the evaluation of the rice straw mulching and no-tillage effects. The HSPF evaluation using the application of Best Management Practices (BMPs) showed that the watershed runoff ratio, sediment, T-N and T-P values were reduced by 10.4%, 68.7%, 31.6% and 41.3% using rice straw mulching and 21.5%, 83.4%, 51.9% and 60.2% under no-tillage conditions compared with conventional conditions. The land use change scenarios for the baseline (upland crop areas 5%), Scenario 1 (upland crop areas 10%) and Scenario 2 (upland crop areas 30%) were applied in the model. The results of the evaluation show that the proportion of NPS pollution loads increased by a ratio approximately equal to that of the increasing upland crop area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Climate Change on the Duration and Division of Flood Season in the Fenhe River Basin, China
Water 2016, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030105 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
This study analyzes the duration and division of the flood season in the Fenhe River Basin over the period of 1957–2014 based on daily precipitation data collected from 14 meteorological stations. The Mann–Kendall detection, the multiscale moving t-test, and the Fisher optimal [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the duration and division of the flood season in the Fenhe River Basin over the period of 1957–2014 based on daily precipitation data collected from 14 meteorological stations. The Mann–Kendall detection, the multiscale moving t-test, and the Fisher optimal partition methods are used to evaluate the impact of climate change on flood season duration and division. The results show that the duration of the flood season has extended in 1975–2014 compared to that in 1957–1974. Specifically, the onset date of the flood season has advanced 15 days, whereas the retreat date of the flood season remains almost the same. The flood season of the Fenhe River Basin can be divided into three stages, and the variations in the onset and retreat dates of each stage are also examined. Corresponding measures are also proposed to better utilize the flood resources to adapt to the flood season variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resource Variability and Climate Change) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Demographic Growth on Seawater Intrusion: Case of the Tripoli Aquifer, Lebanon
Water 2016, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030104 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Water resources in Mediterranean coastal aquifers are subject to overexploitation leading to an increase in seawater intrusion. Based on the United Nations Environment Program, “UNEP” 75% of people in the world will live in coastal cities by 2020. This is having a major [...] Read more.
Water resources in Mediterranean coastal aquifers are subject to overexploitation leading to an increase in seawater intrusion. Based on the United Nations Environment Program, “UNEP” 75% of people in the world will live in coastal cities by 2020. This is having a major impact on the salinization process. This paper deals with the impact of demographic evolution on seawater intrusion and considers the case of the lower Tripoli aquifer in Lebanon. A numerical model based on the sharp interface approach is implemented using “Freefem++” to access the seawater intrusion. The model is verified against an analytic and a numerical solution. It is calibrated and validated against hydraulic head observations (RMSD = 0.819 m). Then several scenarios of pumping are applied based on available demographic growth rates to quantify the impact on seawater intrusion. The projection scenarios show that if the current pumping rates are maintained while maintaining the demographic evolution, the pumping wells will be salinized within 2 decades in the highly populated areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Water Abstraction License Regime in Italy: A Case for Reform?
Water 2016, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030103 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
The current Water Abstraction License (WAL) regime in Italy is no longer flexible enough to cope with the challenges posed by human-induced climate and global environmental changes. The cornerstones of the current regime were laid down in the 1930s and have remained essentially [...] Read more.
The current Water Abstraction License (WAL) regime in Italy is no longer flexible enough to cope with the challenges posed by human-induced climate and global environmental changes. The cornerstones of the current regime were laid down in the 1930s and have remained essentially unchanged ever since. The sole noteworthy reform of the Italian WAL regime was the decentralization of the regulatory competences from the state to the regional authorities in the late 1990s. In this paper, we review the WAL regimes across the administrative regions comprising the Po River Basin District (PRBD), the largest and economically most important in Italy. PRBD’s WAL regime includes a rigid and scattered WAL normative that hinders the performance of bottom-up conflict resolution mechanisms at a basin scale; a water pricing scheme that does not reflect the cost of water conveyance and use, and does not encourage efficient water allocation; and the lack of a central WAL register, which delays and in some cases impedes an environmental impact assessment for issuing new licenses or renewing existing ones, and does not allow prioritizing applications according to their full economic value. We argue these deficiencies may compromise both the integrity of riverine and water dependent ecosystems and the economic uses of water. This paper offers insights that can inform reform of water allocations in the PRBD and elsewhere in Italy and in Europe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Impact of Ditch Water Level Management on Stream–Aquifer Interactions
Water 2016, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030102 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Decreasing groundwater levels in many parts of Germany and decreasing low flows in Central Europe have created a need for adaptation measures to stabilize the water balance and to increase low flows. The objective of our study was to estimate the impact of [...] Read more.
Decreasing groundwater levels in many parts of Germany and decreasing low flows in Central Europe have created a need for adaptation measures to stabilize the water balance and to increase low flows. The objective of our study was to estimate the impact of ditch water level management on stream-aquifer interactions in small lowland catchments of the mid-latitudes. The water balance of a ditch-irrigated area and fluxes between the subsurface and the adjacent stream were modeled for three runoff recession periods using the Hydrus-2D software package. The results showed that the subsurface flow to the stream was closely related to the difference between the water level in the ditch system and the stream. Evapotranspiration during the growing season additionally reduced base flow. It was crucial to stop irrigation during a recession period to decrease water withdrawal from the stream and enhance the base flow by draining the irrigated area. Mean fluxes to the stream were between 0.04 and 0.64 ls−1 for the first 20 days of the low-flow periods. This only slightly increased the flow in the stream, whose mean was 57 ls−1 during the period with the lowest flows. Larger areas would be necessary to effectively increase flows in mesoscale catchments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration
Water 2016, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030101 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very [...] Read more.
The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years) and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1) and Blind River (142 m3·s−1). These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1) is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Variability in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Headwater Streams in South Korea
Water 2016, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030099 - 12 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Comprehensive research on the structural and functional variability of benthic macroinvertebrate communities within headwater streams is limited, despite the fact that the majority of streams within a watershed are headwater streams that form the primary link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, we [...] Read more.
Comprehensive research on the structural and functional variability of benthic macroinvertebrate communities within headwater streams is limited, despite the fact that the majority of streams within a watershed are headwater streams that form the primary link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the structure and function of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in four headwater streams at two different spatial scales (i.e., sampling sites (i.e., reaches) >samples (i.e., riffles)) over three seasons (i.e., spring, summer and autumn) of the year. Community indices, functional feeding guilds and habit trait guilds varied significantly depending on the seasons rather than on sites in two-way ANOVA based on spatial (i.e., sampling sites) and seasonal effects in each headwater stream. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses showed the differences between communities according to the considered spatial and temporal scales. At the individual stream scale, the differences between samples followed seasonal variation more than spatial differences. Site differences became more important when performing an ordination within a single season (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn). Continued research and monitoring employing both multidisciplinary and multidimensional approaches are required to maintain macroinvertebrate diversity within headwater streams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Patterns of Baseflow Variability in Mexican Subwatersheds
Water 2016, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030098 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
One of the challenges faced by subwatershed hydrology is the discovery of patterns associated with climate and landscape variability with the available data. This study has three objectives: (1) to evaluate the annual recession curves; (2) to relate the recession parameter (RP) with [...] Read more.
One of the challenges faced by subwatershed hydrology is the discovery of patterns associated with climate and landscape variability with the available data. This study has three objectives: (1) to evaluate the annual recession curves; (2) to relate the recession parameter (RP) with physiographic characteristics of 21 Mexican subwatersheds in different climate regions; and (3) to formulate a Baseflow (BF) model based on a top-down approach. The RP was calibrated utilizing the largest magnitude curves. The RP was related to topographical, climate and soil variables. A non-linear model was employed to separate the baseflow which considers RP as a recharge rate. Our results show that RP increases with longitude and decreases with latitude. RP displayed a sustained non-linear behavior determined by precipitation rate and evapotranspiration replace the P/E parts with \(\frac{P}{E}\) over years and subwatersheds. The model was fit to a parameter concurrent with invariance and space-time symmetry conditions. The dispersion of our model was associated with the product of replace the P/E parts with \(\frac{P}{E}\) by the aquifer’s transmissivity. We put forward a generalized baseflow model, which made the discrimination of baseflow from direct flow in subwatersheds possible. The proposed model involves the recharge-storage-discharge relation and could be implemented in basins where there are no suitable ground-based data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Governance of Water Resources Shared with Indigenous Peoples: The Role of Law
Water 2016, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030097 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2454
Abstract
Adaptive governance is an emergent phenomenon resulting from the interaction of locally driven collaborative efforts with a hierarchy of governmental regulation and management and is thought to be capable of navigating social−ecological change as society responds to the effects of climate change. The [...] Read more.
Adaptive governance is an emergent phenomenon resulting from the interaction of locally driven collaborative efforts with a hierarchy of governmental regulation and management and is thought to be capable of navigating social−ecological change as society responds to the effects of climate change. The assertion of Native American water rights on highly developed water systems in North America has triggered governance innovations that resemble certain aspects of adaptive governance, and have emerged to accommodate the need for Indigenous water development and restoration of cultural and ecological resources. Similar innovations are observed in the assertion of Indigenous voices in Australia. This presents an opportunity to analyze the emergence of adaptive processes within complex legal systems. We explore the role of law in locally driven innovation in this context, concluding that any system of governance that requires greater flexibility will only be viewed as legitimate, and thus succeed, if attention is given not only to adaptive capacity, but also to aspects of good governance. Through examples of the assertion of Indigenous rights, we illustrate critical links between adaptive capacity in water management, good governance, and law. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Mass Balance of Glacier No. 1 at the Headwaters of the Urumqi River in Relation to Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns
Water 2016, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030100 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
Most small glaciers in the world have significantly decreased their volume during the last century, which has caused water shortage problems. Glacier No. 1, at the headwaters of the Urumqi River, Tianshan, China, has been monitored since 1959 and similarly has experienced significant [...] Read more.
Most small glaciers in the world have significantly decreased their volume during the last century, which has caused water shortage problems. Glacier No. 1, at the headwaters of the Urumqi River, Tianshan, China, has been monitored since 1959 and similarly has experienced significant mass and volume losses over the last few decades. Thus, we examined the trend and potential abrupt changes of the mass balance of Glacier No. 1. Principal component analysis and singular value decomposition were used to find significant relations between the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 and Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns using climate indices. It was found that the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 had a significantly decreasing trend corresponding to −14.5 mm/year from 1959 to 2010. A change point was detected in 1997 with 99% confidence level. Two time periods with different mass balances were identified as 1959–1996 and 1997–2010. The mass balance for the first period was −136.4 mm/year and up to −663.9 mm/year for the second period. The mass balance of Glacier No. 1 is positively related to the Scandinavian Pattern (SCA), and negatively related to the East Atlantic Pattern (EA). These relationships are useful in better understanding the interaction between glacier mass balance and climate variability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Soil Infiltration and Horizon Thickness for a Large-Scale Water Balance Model in an Arid Environment
Water 2016, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030096 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1950
Abstract
Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective [...] Read more.
Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective of this study was to predict soil infiltration characteristics and horizon (soil layer) thickness using vegetation data for a large-scale water balance model in an arid region. Double-ring infiltrometer tests (at 23 sites), horizon thickness measurements (58 sites) and vegetation surveys (35 sites) were conducted in a 30 km × 50 km area in Western Australia during 1999 to 2003. The relationships between soil parameters and vegetation data were evaluated quantitatively by simple linear regression. The parameters for initial-term infiltration had strong and positive correlations with biomass and canopy coverage (R2 = 0.64 − 0.81). The horizon thickness also had strong positive correlations with vegetation properties (R2 = 0.53 − 0.67). These results suggest that the soil infiltration parameters and horizon thickness can be spatially predicted by properties of vegetation using their linear regression based equations and vegetation maps. The background and reasons of the strong ecological connectivity between soil and vegetation in this region were also considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance and Acceptance of Novel Silver-Impregnated Ceramic Cubes for Drinking Water Treatment in Two Field Sites: Limpopo Province, South Africa and Dodoma Region, Tanzania
Water 2016, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030095 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
Diarrheal disease and environmental enteropathy are serious public health concerns in low-income countries. In an effort to reduce enteric infection, researchers at the University of Virginia developed a new point-of-use (POU) water treatment technology composed of silver-impregnated porous ceramic media. The ceramic is [...] Read more.
Diarrheal disease and environmental enteropathy are serious public health concerns in low-income countries. In an effort to reduce enteric infection, researchers at the University of Virginia developed a new point-of-use (POU) water treatment technology composed of silver-impregnated porous ceramic media. The ceramic is placed in a 15 L plastic container of water in the evening and the water is ready to drink in the morning. The purpose of this study was to assess field performance and local acceptance of technology in two communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa, and one community in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. Performance was determined by coliform testing of treated water. Acceptance was determined using data from 150 household surveys and a nine-day structured observational study at a local primary school. At the primary school, 100% of treated water samples had no detectable levels of total coliform bacteria (TCB) in buckets filled by researchers. For all treated school buckets, 74% of samples achieved less than or equal to 1 CFU/100 mL and 3.2 average log reduction of TCB. Laboratory experiments with highly contaminated water diluted to lower turbidity achieved 4.2 average log reduction of TCB. Turbid water (approximately 10 NTU) only achieved 1.1 average log reduction of TCB; turbidity and organic material may have interfered with disinfection. The Tanzania primary school (deep groundwater source) had less turbid water and achieved 1.4 average log reduction of TCB; however, it did have high chloride levels that may have interfered with silver disinfection. The surveys revealed that the majority of people retrieve, store, and dispense water in ways that are compatible with the new technology. The willingness-to-pay study revealed potential customers would be willing to pay for the technology without subsidies. The results of this study indicate that this novel silver-impregnated ceramic POU water treatment technology is both effective and appropriate for use in the study communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Andean Páramo Ecosystems’ Hydrological Response to Environmental Change
Water 2016, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030094 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
In the Peruvian Andes, water infiltration from tropical wetlands, called páramo, generates headwaters for downstream rivers. The hydrological processes of these wetlands are not well understood within the larger hydrological system, impeding efforts to mitigate the rapid environmental changes anticipated due to regional [...] Read more.
In the Peruvian Andes, water infiltration from tropical wetlands, called páramo, generates headwaters for downstream rivers. The hydrological processes of these wetlands are not well understood within the larger hydrological system, impeding efforts to mitigate the rapid environmental changes anticipated due to regional population growth and climate change. This study constructed and calibrated a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system model for ecosystems with sparse data in the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed in the Piura region of Peru. The model simulates the impacts of possible changes within the hydrological system to assist decision-makers in strategizing about sustainable development for the region, especially the páramo. Using scenarios designed with stakeholder participation, the WEAP model for the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed examines river headflow production, reservoir water levels, and demand coverage for downstream users when the upstream páramo and its environs are subjected to changes of temperature, precipitation, and land use. The model reveals that while temperature and precipitation changes can be expected to impact páramo water production, the anticipated land use changes will be a primary driver of hydrological responses in the páramo and subsequent changes downstream. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential Growth of Sugarcane in Constructed Wetlands Designed for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater
Water 2016, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030093 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the bioenergy crop Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) as vegetation and mineral wastes for filling in constructed wetlands (CWs) designed for the removal of nutrients from wastewater. Four horizontal subsurface flow pilot-scale CWs were monitored [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the bioenergy crop Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) as vegetation and mineral wastes for filling in constructed wetlands (CWs) designed for the removal of nutrients from wastewater. Four horizontal subsurface flow pilot-scale CWs were monitored during one year: two filled with fragmented limestone and two with clay brick fragments, two planted and two unplanted controls. Sugarcane stalk height, diameter and foliar area were evaluated during the plant-cane cycle along with total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies from the wastewater. Sugarcane biomass production was 107 ton/ha for the brick fragments filled CW and 67 ton/ha for the fragmented limestone filled CW. Planted CWs show better nutrient removal efficiencies than the unplanted. Planted CW filled with brick fragments show average efficiencies of 77% ± 4% for TP and 60% ± 12% for TN, and planted CW filled with fragmented limestone 68% ± 3% for TP and 58% ± 7% for TN. Results showed that the use of sugarcane as CW vegetation is a viable alternative to produce a bioethanol raw-material without the use of arable land and irrigation water, while it maintains the wastewater treatment capabilities of CWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands Systems and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs
Water 2016, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030092 - 10 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
Forestry best management practices (BMPs) are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+) were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford). BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard [...] Read more.
Forestry best management practices (BMPs) are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+) were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford). BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high) were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L) were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s) was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Impacts of Global Climate Change and Regional Water Projects on Streamflow Characteristics in the Geum River Basin in Korea
Water 2016, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030091 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
The impacts of two factors on future regional-scale runoff were assessed: the external factor of climate change and the internal factor of a recently completed large-scale water resources project. A rainfall-runoff model was built (using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) for [...] Read more.
The impacts of two factors on future regional-scale runoff were assessed: the external factor of climate change and the internal factor of a recently completed large-scale water resources project. A rainfall-runoff model was built (using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) for the Geum River, where three weirs were recently constructed along the main stream. RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) climate change scenarios from the HadGEM3-RA RCM model were used to generate future climate scenarios, and daily runoff series were constructed based on the SWAT model. The indicators of the hydrologic alteration (IHA) program was used to carry out a quantitative assessment on the variability of runoff during two future periods (2011–2050, 2051–2100) compared to a reference period (1981–2006). Analyses of changes in the runoff characteristics of the lower Geum River showed that climate change is likely to lead to an increase of the future runoff ratio and that weirs contributed to an increase in the minimum discharge and a decrease in the maximum discharge. The influence of the weirs on the runoff characteristics of the Geum River basin was projected to be greater than that of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Precipitation Intensity Effects on Groundwater Recharge in the Southwestern United States
Water 2016, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030090 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Episodic recharge as a result of infrequent, high intensity precipitation events comprises the bulk of groundwater recharge in arid environments. Climate change and shifts in precipitation intensity will affect groundwater continuity, thus altering groundwater recharge. This study aims to identify changes in the [...] Read more.
Episodic recharge as a result of infrequent, high intensity precipitation events comprises the bulk of groundwater recharge in arid environments. Climate change and shifts in precipitation intensity will affect groundwater continuity, thus altering groundwater recharge. This study aims to identify changes in the ratio of groundwater recharge and precipitation, the R:P ratio, in the arid southwestern United States to characterize observed changes in groundwater recharge attributed to variations in precipitation intensity. Our precipitation metric, precipitation intensity magnification, was used to investigate the relationship between the R:P ratio and precipitation intensity. Our analysis identified significant changes in the R:P ratio concurrent with decreases in precipitation intensity. The results illustrate the importance of precipitation intensity in relation to groundwater recharge in arid regions and provide further insights for groundwater management in nonrenewable groundwater systems and in a changing climate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Forestry Best Management Practices on Biomass and Conventional Harvesting Operations in Virginia
Water 2016, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030089 - 07 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Logging residues are often utilized as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for stabilizing bare soil on forest harvesting operations. As utilization of woody biomass increases, concern has developed regarding availability of residues for implementing BMPs. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF) inspects all [...] Read more.
Logging residues are often utilized as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for stabilizing bare soil on forest harvesting operations. As utilization of woody biomass increases, concern has developed regarding availability of residues for implementing BMPs. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF) inspects all logging operations in Virginia and randomly selects a portion of harvests for more intensive audits. The VDOF BMP audit process intensively evaluates implementation of BMPs in seven categories (84 specific BMPs) on 240 sites per year. This research analyzed three years of audit data (2010–2012) to quantify differences in BMP implementation between biomass and conventional harvesting operations. Among 720 audited tracts, 97 were biomass harvests, with 88 occurring in the Piedmont region. Only the streamside management zone (SMZ) category had significant implementation percentage differences between biomass (83.1%) and conventional harvests (91.4%) (p = 0.0007) in the Piedmont. Specific areas where biomass harvesting operations had lower implementation were generally not related to a lack of residues available for implementing BMPs, but rather were from a lack of appropriate SMZs, overharvesting within SMZs, or inadequate construction of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings. Existing BMP recommendations already address these areas and better implementation would have negated these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Zhuang, Q.; Wu, B. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery. Water, 2015, 7(12), 6673–6688
Water 2016, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030088 - 07 Mar 2016
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The authors neglected to cite several necessary references according to the data use requirements of HiWATER.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Objective Classification of Rainfall in Northern Europe for Online Operation of Urban Water Systems Based on Clustering Techniques
Water 2016, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030087 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2400
Abstract
This study evaluated methods for automated classification of rain events into groups of “high” and “low” spatial and temporal variability in offline and online situations. The applied classification techniques are fast and based on rainfall data only, and can thus be applied by, [...] Read more.
This study evaluated methods for automated classification of rain events into groups of “high” and “low” spatial and temporal variability in offline and online situations. The applied classification techniques are fast and based on rainfall data only, and can thus be applied by, e.g., water system operators to change modes of control of their facilities. A k-means clustering technique was applied to group events retrospectively and was able to distinguish events with clearly different temporal and spatial correlation properties. For online applications, techniques based on k-means clustering and quadratic discriminant analysis both provided a fast and reliable identification of rain events of “high” variability, while the k-means provided the smallest number of rain events falsely identified as being of “high” variability (false hits). A simple classification method based on a threshold for the observed rainfall intensity yielded a large number of false hits and was thus outperformed by the other two methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Analysis and Modeling in Hydrological Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China)
Water 2016, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030086 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations), to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential [...] Read more.
Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations), to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April) and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B) based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)) to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus) to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related), domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage
Water 2016, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030085 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving [...] Read more.
Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Temperature Dynamics in Small and Shallow Reservoirs, Case Study: Lake Binaba, Upper East Region of Ghana
Water 2016, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030084 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
An unsteady fully three-dimensional model of Lake Binaba (a shallow small reservoir) in semi-arid Upper East Region of Ghana has been developed to simulate its temperature dynamics. The model developed is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, utilizing the Boussinesq approach. [...] Read more.
An unsteady fully three-dimensional model of Lake Binaba (a shallow small reservoir) in semi-arid Upper East Region of Ghana has been developed to simulate its temperature dynamics. The model developed is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations, utilizing the Boussinesq approach. As the results of the model are significantly affected by the physical conditions on the boundaries, allocating appropriate boundary conditions, particularly over a water surface, is essential in simulating the lake’s thermal structure. The thermal effects of incoming short-wave radiation implemented as a heat source term in the temperature equation, while the heat fluxes at the free water surface, which depend on wind speed, air temperature, and atmospheric stability conditions are considered as temperature boundary condition. The model equations were solved using OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. As the flow is completely turbulent, which is affected by the complex boundary conditions, a new heat transfer solver and turbulence model were developed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature in small and shallow inland water bodies using improved time-dependent boundary conditions. The computed temperature values were compared with four days of observed field data. Simulated and observed temperature profiles show reasonable agreement where the root mean square error (RMSE) over the simulation period ranges from 0.11 to 0.44 °C in temporal temperature profiles with an average value of 0.33 °C. Results indicate that the model is able to simulate the flow variables and the temperature distribution in small inland water bodies with complex bathymetry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Can Continental Shelf River Plumes in the Northern and Southern Gulf of Mexico Promote Ecological Resilience in a Time of Climate Change?
Water 2016, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030083 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Deltas and estuaries built by the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR) in the United States and the Usumacinta/Grijalva River (UGR) in Mexico account for 80 percent of all Gulf of Mexico (GoM) coastal wetlands outside of Cuba. They rank first and second in freshwater discharge [...] Read more.
Deltas and estuaries built by the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River (MAR) in the United States and the Usumacinta/Grijalva River (UGR) in Mexico account for 80 percent of all Gulf of Mexico (GoM) coastal wetlands outside of Cuba. They rank first and second in freshwater discharge to the GoM and owe their natural resilience to a modular geomorphology that spreads risk across the coast-scape while providing ecosystem connectivity through shelf plumes that connect estuaries. Both river systems generate large plumes that strongly influence fisheries production over large areas of the northern and southern GoM continental shelves. Recent watershed process simulations (DLEM, MAPSS) driven by CMIP3 General Circulation Model (GCM) output indicate that the two systems face diverging futures, with the mean annual discharge of the MAR predicted to increase 11 to 63 percent, and that of the UGR to decline as much as 80 percent in the 21st century. MAR delta subsidence rates are the highest in North America, making it particularly susceptible to channel training interventions that have curtailed a natural propensity to shift course and deliver sediment to new areas, or to refurbish zones of high wetland loss. Undoing these restrictions in a controlled way has become the focus of a multi-billion-dollar effort to restore the MAR delta internally, while releasing fine-grained sediments trapped behind dams in the Great Plains has become an external goal. The UGR is, from an internal vulnerability standpoint, most threatened by land use changes that interfere with a deltaic architecture that is naturally resilient to sea level rise. This recognition has led to successful efforts in Mexico to protect still intact coastal systems against further anthropogenic impacts, as evidenced by establishment of the Centla Wetland Biosphere Preserve and the Terminos Lagoon Protected Area. The greatest threat to the UGR system, however, is an external one that will be imposed by the severe drying predicted for the entire Mesoamerican “climate change hot-spot”, a change that will necessitate much greater international involvement to protect threatened communities and lifeways as well as rare habitats and species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computing Economies of Scope Using Robust Partial Frontier Nonparametric Methods
Water 2016, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030082 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
This paper proposes a methodology to examine economies of scope using the recent order-α nonparametric method. It allows us to investigate economies of scope by comparing the efficient order-α frontiers of firms that produce two or more goods with the efficient order-α frontiers [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a methodology to examine economies of scope using the recent order-α nonparametric method. It allows us to investigate economies of scope by comparing the efficient order-α frontiers of firms that produce two or more goods with the efficient order-α frontiers of firms that produce only one good. To accomplish this, and because the order-α frontiers are irregular, we suggest to linearize them by the DEA estimator. The proposed methodology uses partial frontier nonparametric methods that are more robust than the traditional full frontier methods. By using a sample of 67 Portuguese water utilities for the period 2002–2008 and, also, a simulated sample, we prove the usefulness of the approach adopted and show that if only the full frontier methods were used, they would lead to different results. We found evidence of economies of scope in the provision of water supply and wastewater services simultaneously by water utilities in Portugal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Risk of River Flow under Climate Change in the Tsengwen River Basin
Water 2016, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030081 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
This study evaluated the overflow risk of the Tsengwen River under a climate change scenario by using bias-corrected dynamic downscaled data as inputs for a SOBEK model (Deltares, the Netherlands). The results showed that the simulated river flow rate at Yufeng Bridge (upstream), [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the overflow risk of the Tsengwen River under a climate change scenario by using bias-corrected dynamic downscaled data as inputs for a SOBEK model (Deltares, the Netherlands). The results showed that the simulated river flow rate at Yufeng Bridge (upstream), Erxi Bridge (midstream), and XinZong (1) (downstream) stations are at risk of exceeding the management plan’s flow rate for three projection periods (1979–2003, 2015–2039, 2075–2099). After validation with the geomorphic and hydrological data collected in this study, the frequency at which the flow rate exceeded the design flood was 2 in 88 events in the base period (1979–2003), 6 in 82 events in the near future (2015–2039), and 10 in 81 events at the end of the century (2075–2099). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resource Variability and Climate Change) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies
Water 2016, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8030080 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy [...] Read more.
Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter), and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher), revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies. Full article
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