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Open AccessArticle

Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage

Department of Environmental Science, International College of Arts and Science, Fukuoka Women’s University, 1-1-1, Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City 813-8529, Japan
ESG Promotion Department, TOTO Ltd., 2-1-1, Nakashima, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu City 802-8601, Japan
Water and Lifestyle Research Laboratory, 31-3, Munakata, Fukuoka 811-4141, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enedir Ghisi
Water 2016, 8(3), 85;
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-saving equipment; water usage; vietnamese hotel water-saving equipment; water usage; vietnamese hotel
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Toyosada, K.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, Y. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage. Water 2016, 8, 85.

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