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Atmosphere, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 100 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The increasing global energy demand and the target of reducing anthropogenic emissions affecting [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommunication
A Collaborative Approach between Japan and China for Implementing Interlaboratory Evaluation of Olfactometry
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020221 - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Odor measurement is a crucial element of odor management and regulation. This paper introduced a collaborative implementation of interlaboratory evaluation of olfactometry between Japan and China. An international comparison of olfactometry using the triangular odor bag method was carried out for the first [...] Read more.
Odor measurement is a crucial element of odor management and regulation. This paper introduced a collaborative implementation of interlaboratory evaluation of olfactometry between Japan and China. An international comparison of olfactometry using the triangular odor bag method was carried out for the first time between Japan and China in 2018. A total of 134 olfactometry laboratories (130 Japanese and 4 Chinese) participated in the test, and the odor index of the test odorant (dimethyl disulfide with a concentration of 10.7 ppm) was measured three times at each laboratory. In the interlaboratory evaluation, a reference value and repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations were determined on the basis of measurement results of 13 ‘excellent qualified laboratories’ designated by the Japan Association on Odor Environment. Evaluation results of trueness and precision of the 133 laboratories that conducted duplicate or triplicate measurements showed that 110 (108 Japanese and 2 Chinese) and 104 (102 Japanese and 2 Chinese) laboratories (82.7% and 78.2%) conformed to the criterion of trueness and precision, respectively, and 87 (86 Japanese and 1 Chinese) laboratories (65.4%) conformed to both. Based on the meaningful experiences in 2018, a continuous international collaboration between Japan and China in the field of olfactometry should be implemented for the improvement of the quality of olfactometry laboratories and the reliability of odor measurement in both countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Global Warming on Extreme Heavy Rainfall in the Present Climate: Case Study of Heavy Rainfall in Kinugawa, Japan (2015)
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020220 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Hazardous heavy rainfall and wide-scale inundation occurred in the Kinugawa River basin, north of Tokyo, in 2015. In this study, ensemble hindcast and non-global warming (NGW) simulations of this heavy rainfall event were implemented. In the NGW simulations, initial and boundary conditions were [...] Read more.
Hazardous heavy rainfall and wide-scale inundation occurred in the Kinugawa River basin, north of Tokyo, in 2015. In this study, ensemble hindcast and non-global warming (NGW) simulations of this heavy rainfall event were implemented. In the NGW simulations, initial and boundary conditions were generated by using the outputs of natural forcing historical experiments by twelve different global climate models. The results of the hindcast and NGW simulations indicated the high likelihood of the generation of linear heavy rainfall bands and the intensification of Kinugawa heavy rainfall due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, in some NGW simulations, the total rainfall was greater than in the hindcast. In addition, the maximum total rainfall was greater in many NGW simulations. Lower atmospheric temperature, sea surface temperature (SST), and precipitable water content (PWC) under the initial conditions can cause less rainfall in the NGW simulations. However, some discrepancies were found in the initial conditions and simulated rainfall; less rainfall with higher atmospheric temperature, SST and PWC, and vice versa. A detailed investigation of simulated atmospheric conditions explained the simulated rainfall. These results indicate that it is not sufficient to examine climatological anomalies to understand individual extreme weather events, but that detailed simulations are useful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
Open AccessArticle
The Global Distribution of Cirrus Clouds Reflectance Based on MODIS Level-3 Data
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020219 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 172
Abstract
Cirrus clouds are crucially important to weather, climate and earth energy balance studies. The distribution of cirrus reflectance with latitude and season is an interesting topic in atmospheric sciences. The monthly mean Level-3 MODIS cirrus reflectance is used to analyze the global distribution [...] Read more.
Cirrus clouds are crucially important to weather, climate and earth energy balance studies. The distribution of cirrus reflectance with latitude and season is an interesting topic in atmospheric sciences. The monthly mean Level-3 MODIS cirrus reflectance is used to analyze the global distribution of cirrus clouds, which covers a period from 1 March 2000 to 28 February 2018. The latitude, from 90° S to 90° N, is divided into 36 latitude zones with 5° interval. Data in each latitude zone are analyzed. The research results show that the slopes of cirrus reflectance variation in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are −1.253 × 10−4/year and –1.297 × 10−4/year, respectively. The yearly-average cirrus reflectance reveals strong negative correlation with time in the Northern Hemisphere, i.e., the correlation coefficient is −0.761. Then the statistical analysis of cirrus reflectance is performed in different seasons, the results show that cirrus reflectance varies obviously with seasonal change. Additionally, for the [30°, 90°] latitude regions, cirrus reflectance reaches the minimum in summer and the maximum in winter in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Internal Structure and Composition on Head’s Local Thermal Sensation and Temperature Distribution
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020218 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
A personalized thermal environment is an effective way to ensure a good thermal sensation for individuals. Since local thermal sensation and temperature distribution are affected by individual physiological differences, it is necessary to study the effects of physiological parameters. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
A personalized thermal environment is an effective way to ensure a good thermal sensation for individuals. Since local thermal sensation and temperature distribution are affected by individual physiological differences, it is necessary to study the effects of physiological parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal structures and tissue composition on head temperature distribution and thermal sensation. A new mathematical model based on fuzzy logic control was established, the internal structure and tissue composition of the head were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the local thermal sensation (LTS) index was used to evaluate the thermal sensation. Based on the mathematical model and the real physiological data, the head temperature and local sensation changes under different parameters were investigated, and the sensitivity of thermal sensation relative to the differences in tissue thickness was analyzed. The results show that skin tissue had the highest influence ( C s k i n = 0.0180 ) on head temperature, followed by muscle tissue ( C m u s c l e = 0.0127 ), and the influence of adipose tissue ( C f a t = 0.0097 ) was the lowest. LTS was most sensitive to skin thickness variation, with an average sensitivity coefficient of 1.58, while the muscle tissue had an average sensitivity coefficient of 0.2, and the sensitivity coefficient of fat was relatively small, at a value of 0.04. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Thermal Comfort)
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Open AccessArticle
Radar-Based Precipitation Climatology in Germany—Developments, Uncertainties and Potentials
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020217 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Precipitation is a crucial driver for many environmental processes and weather radars are capable of providing precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) are also subject to various potential uncertainties. This study explored the development, uncertainties [...] Read more.
Precipitation is a crucial driver for many environmental processes and weather radars are capable of providing precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) are also subject to various potential uncertainties. This study explored the development, uncertainties and potentials of the hourly operational German radar-based and gauge-adjusted QPE called RADOLAN and its reanalyzed radar climatology dataset named RADKLIM in comparison to ground-truth rain gauge data. The precipitation datasets were statistically analyzed across various time scales ranging from annual and seasonal aggregations to hourly rainfall intensities in regard to their capability to map long-term precipitation distribution, to detect low intensity rainfall and to capture heavy rainfall. Moreover, the impacts of season, orography and distance from the radar on long-term precipitation sums were examined in order to evaluate dataset performance and to describe inherent biases. Results revealed that both radar products tend to underestimate total precipitation sums and particularly high intensity rainfall. However, our analyses also showed significant improvements throughout the RADOLAN time series as well as major advances through the climatologic reanalysis regarding the correction of typical radar artefacts, orographic and winter precipitation as well as range-dependent attenuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Hydrology and QPE Uncertainties)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Turbulent Fluxes in the Tropical Andes
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020213 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The correct estimation of Sensible Heat Flux (H) and Latent Heat Flux (LE) (i.e., turbulent fluxes) is vital in the understanding of exchange of energy and mass among hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in an ecosystem. One of the most popular methods to measure [...] Read more.
The correct estimation of Sensible Heat Flux (H) and Latent Heat Flux (LE) (i.e., turbulent fluxes) is vital in the understanding of exchange of energy and mass among hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere in an ecosystem. One of the most popular methods to measure these fluxes is the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique; however, there are a number of setbacks to its application, especially in remote and topographically complex terrain such as the higher altitudes of the Andes. Efforts have been made by the scientific community to parameterise these fluxes based on other more commonly measured variables. One of the most widespread methods is the so-called bulk method, which relates average temperature, humidity, and wind vertical profiles to the turbulent fluxes. Another approach to estimate LE is the Penman-Monteith (PM) equation which uses meteorological measurements at a single level. The objective of this study was to validate these methods for the first time in the Tropical Andes in Southern Ecuador (in the páramo ecosystem at 3780 m a.s.l.) using EC and meteorological measurements. It was determined that the bulk method was the best to estimate H, although some adjustments had to be made to the typical assumptions used to estimate surface meteorological values. On the other hand, the PM equation yielded the best LE estimations. For both fluxes, the error in the estimations was within the uncertainty range of the EC measurements. It can be concluded that it is possible to accurately estimate H and LE using the methods described in this paper in this ecosystem when no direct measurements are available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Uncertainties in the Annual Cycle of Rainfall Characteristics over West Africa in CMIP5 Models
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020216 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
We analyse uncertainties associated with the main features of the annual cycle of West African rainfall (amplitude, timing, duration) in 15 CMIP5 simulations over the Sahelian and Guinean regions with satellite daily precipitation estimates. The annual cycle of indices based on daily rainfall [...] Read more.
We analyse uncertainties associated with the main features of the annual cycle of West African rainfall (amplitude, timing, duration) in 15 CMIP5 simulations over the Sahelian and Guinean regions with satellite daily precipitation estimates. The annual cycle of indices based on daily rainfall such as the frequency and the intensity of wet days, the consecutive dry (CDD) and wet (CWD) days, the 95th percentile of daily rainfall (R95), have been assessed. Over both regions, satellite datasets provide more consistent results on the annual cycle of monthly precipitation than on higher-frequency
rainfall indices, especially over the Guinean region. By contrast, CMIP5 simulations display much higher uncertainties in both the mean precipitation climatology and higher-frequency indices. Over both regions, most of them overestimate the frequency of wet days. Over the Guinean region, the difficulty of models to represent the bimodality of the annual cycle of precipitation involves systematic biases in the frequency of wet days. Likewise, we found strong uncertainties in the simulation of the CWD and the CDD over both areas. Finally, models generally provide too early (late) onset dates over the Sahel (the Guinean region) and overestimate rainfall during the early and late monsoon phases. These errors are strongly coupled with errors in the latitudinal position of the ITCZ and do not compensate at the annual scale or when consideringWest Africa as a whole. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Synergistic Effect of Blockings on a Persistent Strong Cold Surge in East Asia in January 2018
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020215 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
A persistent strong cold surge occurred in East Asia in late January 2018, causing mean near-surface air temperature in China to hit the second lowest since 1984. Moreover, the daily mean air temperature remained persistently negative for more than 20 days. Here, we [...] Read more.
A persistent strong cold surge occurred in East Asia in late January 2018, causing mean near-surface air temperature in China to hit the second lowest since 1984. Moreover, the daily mean air temperature remained persistently negative for more than 20 days. Here, we find that a synergistic effect of double blockings in Western Europe and North America plays an important accelerating role in the rapid phase transition of Arctic Oscillation and an amplifying role in the strength of cold air preceding to the cold surge outbreaks by the use of an isentropic potential vorticity analysis. In mid-January, an Atlantic mid-latitude anticyclone merged with Western Europe blocking, which led to a strengthening of the blocking. Simultaneously, the Pacific-North American blocking was also significantly strengthened. The two blockings synchronously deeply stretched towards the Arctic, which resulted in, on the one hand, warm and moist air of the Pacific and the Atlantic being excessively transported into the Arctic, and on the other hand, the polar vortex being split and cold air being squeezed southwards and accumulating extensively on the West Siberian Plain. After the breakdown of the double blocking pattern, which lasted for about 10 days, the record-breaking cold surge broke out in East Asia. It was discovered that the synergistic effect of double blockings extending into the Arctic, which is conducive to extreme cold events, has been rapidly increasing in recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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Open AccessReview
Ambient Air Quality in the Czech Republic: Past and Present
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020214 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Based on an analysis of related core papers and reports, this review presents a historical perspective on ambient air pollution and ambient air quality development in the modern-day Czech Republic (CR) over the past seven decades, i.e., from the 1950s to the present. [...] Read more.
Based on an analysis of related core papers and reports, this review presents a historical perspective on ambient air pollution and ambient air quality development in the modern-day Czech Republic (CR) over the past seven decades, i.e., from the 1950s to the present. It offers insights into major air pollution problems, reveals the main hot spots and problematic regions and indicates the principal air pollutants in the CR. Air pollution is not presented as a stand-alone problem, but in the wider context of air pollution impacts both on human health and the environment in the CR. The review is arranged into three main parts: (1) the time period until the Velvet Revolution of 1989, (2) the transition period of the 1990s and (3) the modern period after 2000. Obviously, a major improvement in ambient air quality has been achieved since the 1970s and 1980s, when air pollution in the former Czechoslovakia culminated. Nevertheless, new challenges including fine aerosol, benzo[a]pyrene and ground-level ozone, of which the limit values are still vastly exceeded, have emerged. Furthermore, in spite of a significant reduction in overall emissions, the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, in particular, remains high in some regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Quality in the Czech Republic)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Performance of Low-Cost Air Quality Sensors at a High Mountain Station with Complex Meteorological Conditions
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020212 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Low-cost sensors have become an increasingly important supplement to air quality monitoring networks at the ground level, yet their performances have not been evaluated at high-elevation areas, where the weather conditions are complex and characterized by low air pressure, low temperatures, and high [...] Read more.
Low-cost sensors have become an increasingly important supplement to air quality monitoring networks at the ground level, yet their performances have not been evaluated at high-elevation areas, where the weather conditions are complex and characterized by low air pressure, low temperatures, and high wind speed. To address this research gap, a seven-month-long inter-comparison campaign was carried out at Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l.) from 20 April to 30 November 2018, covering a wide range of air temperatures, relative humidities (RHs), and wind speeds. The performance of three commonly used sensors for carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM2.5) was evaluated against the reference instruments. Strong positive linear relationships between sensors and the reference data were found for CO (r = 0.83) and O3 (r = 0.79), while the PM2.5 sensor tended to overestimate PM2.5 under high RH conditions. When the data at RH >95% were removed, a strong non-linear relationship could be well fitted for PM2.5 between the sensor and reference data (r = 0.91). The impacts of temperature, RH, wind speed, and pressure on the sensor measurements were comprehensively assessed. Temperature showed a positive effect on the CO and O3 sensors, RH showed a positive effect on the PM sensor, and the influence of wind speed and air pressure on all three sensors was relatively minor. Two methods, namely a multiple linear regression model and a random forest model, were adopted to minimize the influence of meteorological factors on the sensor data. The multi-linear regression (MLR) model showed a better performance than the random forest (RF) model in correcting the sensors’ data, especially for O3 and PM2.5. Our results demonstrate the capability and potential of the low-cost sensors for the measurement of trace gases and aerosols at high mountain sites with complex weather conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Gaseous and Odour Emissions from the Composting of Conventional Sewage Sludge
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020211 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Many different alternatives exist to manage and treat sewage sludge, all with the common drawback of causing environmental and odour impacts. The main objective of this work is to present a full inventory of the gaseous and odorous emissions generated during the bench-scale [...] Read more.
Many different alternatives exist to manage and treat sewage sludge, all with the common drawback of causing environmental and odour impacts. The main objective of this work is to present a full inventory of the gaseous and odorous emissions generated during the bench-scale composting of conventional sewage sludge, aiming at assessing the process performance and providing global valuable information of the different gaseous emission patterns and emission factors found for greenhouse gases (GHG) and odorant pollutants during the conventional sewage sludge composting process. The main process parameters evaluated were the temperature of the material, specific airflow, average oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and final dynamic respiration index (DRI), resulting in a proper performance of the sewage sludge composting process and obtaining the expected final product. The obtained material was properly stabilized, presenting a final DRI of 1.2 ± 0.2 g O2·h−1·kg−1 Volatile Solids (VS). GHGs emission factor, in terms of kg CO2eq·Mg−1 dry matter of sewage sludge (DM–SS), was found to be 2.30 × 102. On the other hand, the sewage sludge composting odour emission factor (OEF) was 2.68 × 107ou·Mg−1 DM–SS. Finally, the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOC) species found in the composting gaseous emissions were terpenes, sulphur compounds, ketones, and aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas the major odour contributors identified were dimethyldisulphide, eucalyptol, and α-pinene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influences of Tropical Volcanic Eruptions with Different Magnitudes on Persistent Droughts over Eastern China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020210 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 142
Abstract
In this study, the influences on persistent droughts over Eastern China from tropical volcanic eruptions with three categories of magnitudes, i.e., 25 Tg, 50 Tg, and 100 Tg, were investigated through three groups of volcanic sensitivity experiments based on the Community Earth System [...] Read more.
In this study, the influences on persistent droughts over Eastern China from tropical volcanic eruptions with three categories of magnitudes, i.e., 25 Tg, 50 Tg, and 100 Tg, were investigated through three groups of volcanic sensitivity experiments based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that, the 25 Tg tropical volcanic eruptions are too weak to significantly influence the regional precipitation changes over Eastern China, while the 50 Tg tropical volcanic eruptions can strongly intensify droughts and prolong the drought conditions for about five years. Both the extension and intensification of the drought conditions induced by 100 Tg tropical volcanic eruption are the largest among the three sensitivity experiments. These drought conditions are mainly caused by the weakened East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM), and their extension and intensification depend on the strength of the volcanic eruptions. The intensities of weakened EASMs after volcanic eruptions are associated with the distinct ocean–land thermal contrast after eruptions. The ocean–land thermal contrast is the largest after the 100 Tg tropical volcanic eruptions, while it is much weaker after the 25 Tg volcanic eruptions. The durations of drought extensions are determined by the recovery rates of the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), which are associated with the magnitudes of the volcanic eruptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Hazards)
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Satellite-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth PM2.5 Bayesian Concentration Surfaces to Respiratory-Cardiovascular Chronic Disease Hospitalizations in Baltimore, Maryland
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020209 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The fine particulate matter baseline (PMB), which includes PM2.5 monitor readings fused with Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions, using the Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), is less accurate in rural areas without monitors. To address this issue, an upgraded HBM was [...] Read more.
The fine particulate matter baseline (PMB), which includes PM2.5 monitor readings fused with Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions, using the Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), is less accurate in rural areas without monitors. To address this issue, an upgraded HBM was used to form four experimental aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 concentration surfaces. A case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression evaluated the contribution of the AOD-PM2.5 surfaces and PMB to four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in all 99 12 km2 CMAQ grids, and in grids with and without ambient air monitors. For all four health outcomes, only two AOD-PM2.5 surfaces, one not kriged (PMC) and the other kriged (PMCK), had significantly higher Odds Ratios (ORs) on lag days 0, 1, and 01 than PMB in all grids, and in grids without monitors. In grids with monitors, emergency department (ED) asthma PMCK on lag days 0, 1 and 01 and inpatient (IP) heart failure (HF) PMCK ORs on lag days 01 were significantly higher than PMB ORs. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs. Independent confirmation of these results should include AOD-PM2.5 concentration surfaces with greater temporal-spatial resolution, now easily available from geostationary satellites, such as GOES-16 and GOES-17. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Rise of Climate-Driven Sediment Discharge in the Amazonian River Basin
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020208 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The occurrence of hydrological extremes in the Amazon region and the associated sediment loss during rainfall events are key features in the global climate system. Climate extremes alter the sediment and carbon balance but the ecological consequences of such changes are poorly understood [...] Read more.
The occurrence of hydrological extremes in the Amazon region and the associated sediment loss during rainfall events are key features in the global climate system. Climate extremes alter the sediment and carbon balance but the ecological consequences of such changes are poorly understood in this region. With the aim of examining the interactions between precipitation and landscape-scale controls of sediment export from the Amazon basin, we developed a parsimonious hydro-climatological model on a multi-year series (1997–2014) of sediment discharge data taken at the outlet of Óbidos (Brazil) watershed (the narrowest and swiftest part of the Amazon River). The calibrated model (correlation coefficient equal to 0.84) captured the sediment load variability of an independent dataset from a different watershed (the Magdalena River basin), and performed better than three alternative approaches. Our model captured the interdecadal variability and the long-term patterns of sediment export. In our reconstruction of yearly sediment discharge over 1859–2014, we observed that landscape erosion changes are mostly induced by single storm events, and result from coupled effects of droughts and storms over long time scales. By quantifying temporal variations in the sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables a new understanding of the linkage between climate forcing and river response, which drives sediment dynamics in the Amazon basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameterization of Wave-Induced Mixing Using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) (I)
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020207 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Turbulent motions in the thin ocean surface boundary layer control exchanges of momentum, heat and trace gases between the atmosphere and ocean. However, present parametric equations of turbulent motions that are applied to global climate models result in systematic or substantial errors in [...] Read more.
Turbulent motions in the thin ocean surface boundary layer control exchanges of momentum, heat and trace gases between the atmosphere and ocean. However, present parametric equations of turbulent motions that are applied to global climate models result in systematic or substantial errors in the ocean surface boundary layer. Significant mixing caused by surface wave processes is missed in most parametric equations. A Large Eddy Simulation model is applied to investigate the wave-induced mixed layer structure. In the wave-averaged equations, wave effects are calculated as Stokes forces and breaking waves. To examine the effects of wave parameters on mixing, a series of wave conditions with varying wavelengths and heights are used to drive the model, resulting in a variety of Langmuir turbulence and wave breaking outcomes. These experiments suggest that wave-induced mixing is more sensitive to wave heights than to the wavelength. A series of numerical experiments with different wind intensities-induced Stokes drifts are also conducted to investigate wave-induced mixing. As the wind speed increases, the influence depth of Langmuir circulation deepens. Additionally, it is observed that breaking waves could destroy Langmuir cells mainly at the sea surface, rather than at deeper layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Near-Surface Ozone Variations in East Asia during Boreal Summer
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020206 - 15 Feb 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
This study examined the variability of near-surface (850 hPa) ozone during summer in East Asia using simulations from 12 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of non-detrended ozone shows that the first (second) EOF mode [...] Read more.
This study examined the variability of near-surface (850 hPa) ozone during summer in East Asia using simulations from 12 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of non-detrended ozone shows that the first (second) EOF mode is characterized by a monopole (dipole) structure that describe 83.3% (7.1%) of total variance. The corresponding the first principle component (PC1) time series exhibits a gradually increasing trend due to the rising anthropogenic emission, whereas PC2 shows interannual variation. To understand the drivers of this interannual variability, the detrended ozone is also analyzed. The two leading EOF patterns of detrended ozone, EOF1 and EOF2, explain 37.0% and 29.2% of the total variance, respectively. The regression results indicate that the positive ozone anomaly in East Asia associated with EOF1 is caused by the combination of net ozone production and transport from the upper atmosphere. In contrast, EOF2 is associated with the weakened western Pacific subtropical high during the La Niña decaying summer, which tends to decrease monsoon precipitation, thus increasing ozone concentration in China. Our results suggest that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a key role in driving interannual variability in tropospheric ozone in East Asia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Aerosols in the ALADIN-HIRLAM Numerical Weather Prediction System
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020205 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The direct radiative effect of aerosols is taken into account in many limited-area numerical weather prediction models using wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depths of a range of aerosol species. We studied the impact of aerosol distribution and optical properties on radiative transfer, based on [...] Read more.
The direct radiative effect of aerosols is taken into account in many limited-area numerical weather prediction models using wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depths of a range of aerosol species. We studied the impact of aerosol distribution and optical properties on radiative transfer, based on climatological and more realistic near real-time aerosol data. Sensitivity tests were carried out using the single-column version of the ALADIN-HIRLAM numerical weather prediction system, set up to use the HLRADIA simple broadband radiation scheme. The tests were restricted to clear-sky cases to avoid the complication of cloud–radiation–aerosol interactions. The largest differences in radiative fluxes and heating rates were found to be due to different aerosol loads. When the loads are large, the radiative fluxes and heating rates are sensitive to the aerosol inherent optical properties and the vertical distribution of the aerosol species. In such cases, regional weather models should use external real-time aerosol data for radiation parametrizations. Impacts of aerosols on shortwave radiation dominate longwave impacts. Sensitivity experiments indicated the important effects of highly absorbing black carbon aerosols and strongly scattering desert dust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerosol Radiative Effects)
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Open AccessArticle
Regulated and Non-Regulated Emissions from Euro 6 Diesel, Gasoline and CNG Vehicles under Real-World Driving Conditions
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020204 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 226
Abstract
The transport sector is one of the main sources air pollutants. Different exhaust after-treatment systems have been implemented over the years to control the emissions of criteria pollutants. However, while reducing the emissions of the target compounds these systems can lead to the [...] Read more.
The transport sector is one of the main sources air pollutants. Different exhaust after-treatment systems have been implemented over the years to control the emissions of criteria pollutants. However, while reducing the emissions of the target compounds these systems can lead to the emissions of other pollutants and/or greenhouse gases such as NH3 or N2O. Following the implementation of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure in the EU, vehicles have been equipped with more complex after-treatment configurations. The impact that these technologies may have on the emissions of non-regulated pollutants during real-world driving have not been evaluated until now. In the current study we present the on-road emissions of a series of non-regulated pollutants, including NH3, N2O, CH4 and HCHO, measured with a portable FTIR from a series of Euro 6d, Euro 6c and Euro 6d-TEMP, gasoline diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles during real-world testing. The obtained results show that it is possible to measure N2O, NH3, CH4 and HCHO during on-road operation. The results also highlight the importance of the measurement of the emissions of these pollutants during real-world driving, as the emissions of NH3 (a particulate matter precursor) and those of N2O and CH4 (green-house gases) can be high from some vehicle technologies. NH3 emissions were up to 49 mg/km for gasoline passenger cars, up to 69 mg/km for the CNG light-commercial vehicle and up to 17 mg/km a diesel passenger car equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR). On the other hand, N2O and CH4 emissions accounted for up to 9.8 g CO2 eqv/km for a diesel passenger car equipped with a combination of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), lean NOx traps (LNT), SCR and possibly an ammonia slip catalyst ASC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Coupling Large Eddies and Waves in Turbulence: Case Study of Magnetic Helicity at the Ion Inertial Scale
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020203 - 14 Feb 2020
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Abstract
In turbulence, for neutral or conducting fluids, a large ratio of scales is excited because of the possible occurrence of inverse cascades to large, global scales together with direct cascades to small, dissipative scales, as observed in the atmosphere and oceans, or in [...] Read more.
In turbulence, for neutral or conducting fluids, a large ratio of scales is excited because of the possible occurrence of inverse cascades to large, global scales together with direct cascades to small, dissipative scales, as observed in the atmosphere and oceans, or in the solar environment. In this context, using direct numerical simulations with forcing, we analyze scale dynamics in the presence of magnetic fields with a generalized Ohm’s law including a Hall current. The ion inertial length ϵ H serves as the control parameter at fixed Reynolds number. Both the magnetic and generalized helicity—invariants in the ideal case—grow linearly with time, as expected from classical arguments. The cross-correlation between the velocity and magnetic field grows as well, more so in relative terms for a stronger Hall current. We find that the helical growth rates vary exponentially with ϵ H , provided the ion inertial scale resides within the inverse cascade range. These exponential variations are recovered phenomenologically using simple scaling arguments. They are directly linked to the wavenumber power-law dependence of generalized and magnetic helicity, k - 2 , in their inverse ranges. This illustrates and confirms the important role of the interplay between large and small scales in the dynamics of turbulent flows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Black Carbon Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Two Sites of Nanjing and Shanghai, China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020202 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern to human health due to their potential high toxicity. Understanding the characteristics and sources of PAHs, as well as the governing factors, is therefore critical. PAHs and refractory black carbon (rBC) are both from [...] Read more.
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern to human health due to their potential high toxicity. Understanding the characteristics and sources of PAHs, as well as the governing factors, is therefore critical. PAHs and refractory black carbon (rBC) are both from combustion sources. This work, for the first time, investigated exclusively the rBC-bound PAH properties by using a laser-only Aerodyne soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). This technique offers highly time-resolved PAH results that a traditional offline measurement is unable to provide. We analyzed two datasets conducted in urban Shanghai during the fall of 2018 and in suburban Nanjing during the winter of 2017, respectively. Results show that the average concentration of PAHs in Nanjing was much higher than that in Shanghai. Nanjing PAHs contained more low molecular weight components while Shanghai PAHs contained more high molecular weight ones. PAHs in Shanghai presented two peaks in early morning and evening, while Nanjing PAHs had only one significant morning peak, but remained high throughout the nighttime. A multi-linear regression algorithm combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses on sources of PAHs reveals that the industry emissions contributed the majority of PAHs in Nanjing (~80%), while traffic emissions dominated PAHs in Shanghai (~70%). We further investigated the relationships between PAHs with various factors. PAHs in both sites tended to positively correlate with primary pollutants, including primary organic aerosol (OA) factors, and gaseous pollutants of CO, NO2 and SO2, but negatively correlated with secondary OA factors and O3. This result highlights the enhancement of rBC-bound PAHs level due to primary emissions and their oxidation loss upon atmospheric aging reactions. High concentration of PAHs seemed to frequently appear under low temperature and high relative humidity conditions, especially in Shanghai. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Composition of Ambient Particulate Matter)
Open AccessArticle
Study of Realistic Urban Boundary Layer Turbulence with High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulation
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020201 - 13 Feb 2020
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Abstract
This study examines the statistical predictability of local wind conditions in a real urban environment under realistic atmospheric boundary layer conditions by means of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The computational domain features a highly detailed description of a densely built coastal downtown area, which [...] Read more.
This study examines the statistical predictability of local wind conditions in a real urban environment under realistic atmospheric boundary layer conditions by means of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The computational domain features a highly detailed description of a densely built coastal downtown area, which includes vegetation. A multi-scale nested LES modelling approach is utilized to achieve a setup where a fully developed boundary layer flow, which is also allowed to form and evolve very large-scale turbulent motions, becomes incident with the urban surface. Under these nonideal conditions, the local scale predictability and result sensitivity to central modelling choices are scrutinized via comparative techniques. Joint time–frequency analysis with wavelets is exploited to aid targeted filtering of the problematic large-scale motions, while concepts of information entropy and divergence are exploited to perform a deep probing comparison of local urban canopy turbulence signals. The study demonstrates the utility of wavelet analysis and information theory in urban turbulence research while emphasizing the importance of grid resolution when local scale predictability, particularly close to the pedestrian level, is sought. In densely built urban environments, the level of detail of vegetation drag modelling description is deemed most significant in the immediate vicinity of the trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Operational Modelling of Umbrella Cloud Growth in a Lagrangian Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion Model
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020200 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Large explosive eruptions can result in the formation of an umbrella cloud which rapidly expands, spreading ash out radially from the volcano. The lateral spread by the intrusive gravity current dominates the transport of the ash cloud. Hence, to accurately forecast the transport [...] Read more.
Large explosive eruptions can result in the formation of an umbrella cloud which rapidly expands, spreading ash out radially from the volcano. The lateral spread by the intrusive gravity current dominates the transport of the ash cloud. Hence, to accurately forecast the transport of ash from large eruptions, lateral spread of umbrella clouds needs to be represented within volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. Here, we describe an umbrella cloud parameterisation which has been implemented into an operational Lagrangian model and consider how it may be used during an eruption when information concerning the eruption is limited and model runtime is key. We examine different relations for the volume flow rate into the umbrella, and the rate of spreading within the cloud. The scheme is validated against historic eruptions of differing scales (Pinatubo 1991, Kelud 2014, Calbuco 2015 and Eyjafjallajökull 2010) by comparing model predictions with satellite observations. Reasonable predictions of umbrella cloud spread are achieved using an estimated volume flow rate from the empirical equation by Bursik et al. and the observed eruption height. We show how model predictions can be refined during an ongoing eruption as further information and observations become available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting the Transport of Volcanic Ash in the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Different Techniques to Calculate Properties of Atmospheric Turbulence from Low-Resolution Data
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020199 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
In this work we study different techniques to estimate basic properties of turbulence, that is its characteristic velocity and length scale from low-resolution data. The methods are based on statistics of the signals like the velocity spectra, second-order structure function, number of signal’s [...] Read more.
In this work we study different techniques to estimate basic properties of turbulence, that is its characteristic velocity and length scale from low-resolution data. The methods are based on statistics of the signals like the velocity spectra, second-order structure function, number of signal’s zero-crossings and the variance of velocity derivative. First, in depth analysis of estimates from artificial velocity time series is performed. Errors due to finite averaging window, finite cut-off frequencies and different fitting ranges are discussed. Next, real atmospheric measurement data are studied. It is demonstrated that differences between results of the methods can indicate deviations from the Kolmogorov’s theory or the presence of external intermittency, that is the existence of alternating laminar/turbulent flow patches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
Open AccessArticle
Inter-Comparison of Ensemble Forecasts for Low Level Wind Shear Against Local Analyses Data over Jeju Area
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020198 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Ensemble verification of low-level wind shear (LLWS) is an important issue in airplane landing operations and management. In this study, we conducted an accuracy and reliability analysis using a rank histogram, Brier score, and reliability diagram to verify LLWS ensemble member forecasts based [...] Read more.
Ensemble verification of low-level wind shear (LLWS) is an important issue in airplane landing operations and management. In this study, we conducted an accuracy and reliability analysis using a rank histogram, Brier score, and reliability diagram to verify LLWS ensemble member forecasts based on grid points over the Jeju area of the Republic of Korea. Thirteen LLWS ensemble member forecasts derived from a limited area ensemble prediction system (LENS) were obtained between 1 July 2016 and 30 May 2018, and 3-h LLWS forecasts for lead times up to 72 h (three days) were issued twice a day at 0000 UTC (9 am local time) and 1200 UTC (9 pm local time). We found that LLWS ensemble forecasts have a weak negative bias in summer and autumn and a positive bias in the spring and winter; the forecasts also have under-dispersion for all seasons, which implies that the ensemble spread of an ensemble is smaller than that of the corresponding observations. Additionally, the reliability curve in the associated reliability diagram indicates an over-forecasting of LLWS events bias. The selection of a forecast probability threshold from the LLWS ensemble forecast was confirmed to be one of the most important factors for issuing a severe LLWS warning. A simple method to select a forecast probability threshold without economic factors was conducted. The results showed that the selection of threshold is more useful for issuing a severe LLWS warning than none being selected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
Open AccessArticle
Dust Dry Deposition over Israel
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020197 - 13 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Similar quasiperiodic year-to-year variations of dust dry deposition (DDD) with a two–three-year period were found over Israel and north-east Africa. This phenomenon of quasiperiodic interannual variations of DDD has not been discussed in previous publications. Moreover, similar seasonal variations of DDD were found [...] Read more.
Similar quasiperiodic year-to-year variations of dust dry deposition (DDD) with a two–three-year period were found over Israel and north-east Africa. This phenomenon of quasiperiodic interannual variations of DDD has not been discussed in previous publications. Moreover, similar seasonal variations of DDD were found over both Israel and north-east Africa, characterized by significant dust deposition in spring and a decrease in DDD from spring to autumn. These findings indicate the existence of the same causal factors for interannual and seasonal variations of DDD over the two regions, such as similar surface winds created by Mediterranean cyclones. Daily runs of the Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) at Tel Aviv University from 2006 to 2019 were used to investigate the main features of the spatio-temporal distribution of dust dry deposition in the eastern Mediterranean, with a focus on Israel. DREAM showed that, on average, during the 14-year study period, in the winter, spring, and summer months, the spatial distribution of monthly-accumulated DDD over Israel was non-uniform with the maximum of DDD over southern Israel. In the autumn months, DREAM showed an increase in DDD over northern Israel, resulting in an almost uniform DDD pattern. The knowledge of DDD spatio-temporal distribution is helpful for understanding the negative effects of DDD on the performance of solar panels and on insulator flashover in the Israel power electric network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Desert-Dust Aerosols in the Earth System)
Open AccessArticle
Measurements of Ozone Vertical Profiles in the Upper Troposphere–Stratosphere over Western Siberia by DIAL, MLS, and IASI
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020196 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to measure the ozone vertical distribution (OVD) in the upper troposphere–stratosphere by differential absorption lidar (DIAL) at 299/341 nm and 308/353 nm and to compare and analyze the results against satellite data. А lidar complex for measuring [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to measure the ozone vertical distribution (OVD) in the upper troposphere–stratosphere by differential absorption lidar (DIAL) at 299/341 nm and 308/353 nm and to compare and analyze the results against satellite data. А lidar complex for measuring the OVD in the altitude range ≈(5–45) km has been created. Here we analyze the results of ozone lidar measurements at wavelengths of 299/341 nm and 308/353 nm in 2018 at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) and compare them with satellite (MLS/Aura and IASI/MetOp) measurements of OVD. The retrieved lidar OVD profiles in the upper troposphere–stratosphere in comparison with MLS/Aura and IASI/MetOp profiles, as well as the stitched OVD profile in comparison with the mid-latitude Krueger model, confirm the prospects of using the pairs of ozone sounding wavelengths 299/341 and 308/353 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric and Ocean Optics: Atmospheric Physics)
Open AccessArticle
Decadal-to-Multidecadal Variability of Seasonal Land Precipitation in Northern Hemisphere in Observation and CMIP6 Historical Simulations
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020195 - 12 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Based on the centennial-scale observations and CMIP6 historical simulations, this paper employs the ensemble empirical mode decomposition to extract the decadal-to-multidecadal variability of land precipitation (DMVLP) in the northern hemisphere. The spatial distributions of the dominant mode from the empirical orthogonal function are [...] Read more.
Based on the centennial-scale observations and CMIP6 historical simulations, this paper employs the ensemble empirical mode decomposition to extract the decadal-to-multidecadal variability of land precipitation (DMVLP) in the northern hemisphere. The spatial distributions of the dominant mode from the empirical orthogonal function are different in four seasons. Regions with the same sign of precipitation anomalies are likely to be teleconnected through oceanic forcing. The temporal evolutions of the leading modes are similar in winter and spring, with an amplitude increasing after the late 1970s, probably related to the overlap of oceanic multidecadal signals. In winter and spring, the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) play a joint role. They were in phase before late 1970s and out of phase after then, weakening/strengthening the impacts of the North Pacific and North Atlantic on the DMVLP before/after late 1970s. In summer and autumn, AMO alone plays a part and the amplitude of time series does not vary as in winter and spring. The ability of the coupled models from CMIP6 historical simulations is also evaluated. The good-models average largely captures the spatial structure in four seasons and the associated oceanic signals. The poor-models average is hardly or weakly correlated with observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
Open AccessArticle
On Aerosol Liquid Water and Sulfate Associations: The Potential for Fine Particulate Matter Biases
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020194 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
In humid locations of the Eastern U.S., sulfate is a surrogate for aerosol liquid water (ALW), a poorly measured particle constituent. Regional and seasonal variation in ALW–sulfate relationships offers a potential explanation to reconcile epidemiology and toxicology studies regarding particulate sulfur and health [...] Read more.
In humid locations of the Eastern U.S., sulfate is a surrogate for aerosol liquid water (ALW), a poorly measured particle constituent. Regional and seasonal variation in ALW–sulfate relationships offers a potential explanation to reconcile epidemiology and toxicology studies regarding particulate sulfur and health endpoints. ALW facilitates transfer of polar species from the gas phase to the particle phase and affects particle pH and metal oxidation state. Though abundant and a potential indicator of adverse health endpoints, ALW is largely removed in most particulate matter measurement techniques, including in routine particulate matter (PM2.5) networks that use federal reference method (FRM) monitors, which are used in epidemiology studies. We find that in 2004, a typical year in the available record, ambient ALW mass is removed during sampling and filter equilibration to standard laboratory conditions at most (94%) sites, up to 85% of the ambient water mass. The removal of ALW can induce the evaporation of other semi-volatile compounds present in PM2.5, such as ammonium nitrate and numerous organics. This produces an artifact in the PM mass measurements that is, importantly, not uniform in space or time. This suggests that PM2.5 epidemiology studies that exclude ALW are biased. This work provides a plausible explanation to resolve multi-decade discrepancies regarding ambient sulfate and health impacts in some epidemiological and toxicological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aqueous-Phase Chemistry)
Open AccessReview
Long-Term Variations of Air Quality Influenced by Surface Ozone in a Coastal Site in India: Association with Synoptic Meteorological Conditions with Model Simulations
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020193 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Atmospheric ozone (O3) in the surface level plays a central role in determining air quality and atmospheric oxidizing capacity. In this paper, we review our comprehensive results of simultaneous measurements of surface ozone (O3) and its precursor gas (NOx) [...] Read more.
Atmospheric ozone (O3) in the surface level plays a central role in determining air quality and atmospheric oxidizing capacity. In this paper, we review our comprehensive results of simultaneous measurements of surface ozone (O3) and its precursor gas (NOx) and weather parameters that were carried out continuously for a span of six years (January 2013–December 2018) at a typical rural coastal site, Kannur (11.9ON, 75.4OE) in South India. Surface O3 concentration reached its maximum during daytime hours and minimum during the night time. The influence of solar radiation and water content on variations of O3 are discussed. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network technique has been used to understand the effect of atmospheric temperature on the increase in O3 over the past six years. This has been found that temperature has been a major contributor to the increase in O3 levels over the years. The National Centre for Atmospheric Research- Master Mechanism (NCAR-MM) Photochemical box model study was conducted to validate the variations of O3 in different seasons and years, and the results were shown to be in good agreement with observed trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Air Quality)
Open AccessArticle
An Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) with Different Health Outcomes Based on the Air Pollution Concentrations in Stockholm during the Period of 2015–2017
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020192 - 12 Feb 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool that has been developed in order to address the health effects caused by simultaneous exposure to several different air pollutants. Short-term health effects in terms of mortality or morbidity are used in order to [...] Read more.
The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool that has been developed in order to address the health effects caused by simultaneous exposure to several different air pollutants. Short-term health effects in terms of mortality or morbidity are used in order to construct an index. In this study, different indexes for different health outcomes, based on the concentrations of NO2, O3, and PM10 at an urban background measuring station in Stockholm during the period of 2015–2017, are calculated by using different risk-coefficients obtained from a meta-analysis. An AQHI based on local risk-coefficients for asthma emergency department visits (AEDV) in Stockholm is also included in the analysis. Correlation coefficients between different pairs of AQHIs, where the additive effects associated with exposure to NO2, O3, and PM10 during 2015–2017 are used, exhibit R-values as in 12 out of 15 cases exceed 0.80. However, the average risk increase for different AQHIs are very different, where indexes based on hospital admissions for asthma are larger than those based on mortality outcomes. An overall conclusion is that different AQHIs for different population groups are not needed, but the index may need to be weighted differently for different population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution)
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